654 research outputs found

    Multifaceted functions of histone deacetylases in stress response

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    International audienceChromatin remodeling is the dynamic modification of chromatin architecture by ATPdependent chromatin remodeling proteins complexes. These complexes recognize chromatin modifications such histone acetylation, control chromatin states between relaxation and condensation, and thus regulate gene activity. Histone lysine acylations mirror acetylation, but entail histone acylation of histone lysine residues with either short-chain fatty acids, such as malonylation (Kmal), propionylation (Kpr), butyrylation (Kbu), crotonylation (Kcr), β-hydroxybutyrylation (Kbhb), 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (Khib), or dicarboxylic acids such as succinylation (Ksu). HAT and HDAC are involved in lysine acylation and deacylation. Post-translational modification (PTM) is the covalent modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis by ribosomes. As an example, phosphorylation is adding a phosphate to a hydroxyl group of an amino acid residue. Among other types of PTMs are ubiquitination, acetylation or Snitrosylation. PTMs usually respond to cell signaling and regulate the modified protein function. Stress granules are dense aggregations composed of proteins and RNAs that can appear in different cell compartments when the cell is under stress

    The role of the gut microbiome and microbial metabolism in mediating opioid-induced changes in the epigenome

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    The current opioid pandemic is a major public health crisis in the United States, affecting millions of people and imposing significant health and socioeconomic burdens. Preclinical and clinical research over the past few decades has delineated certain molecular mechanisms and identified various genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors responsible for the pathophysiology and comorbidities associated with opioid use. Opioid use-induced epigenetic modifications have been identified as one of the important factors that mediate genetic changes in brain regions that control reward and drug-seeking behavior and are also implicated in the development of tolerance. Recently, it has been shown that opioid use results in microbial dysbiosis, leading to gut barrier disruption, which drives systemic inflammation, impacting the perception of pain, the development of analgesic tolerance, and behavioral outcomes. In this review, we highlight the potential role of microbiota and microbial metabolites in mediating the epigenetic modifications induced by opioid use

    Post-translational modifications and their implications in cancer

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    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are crucial regulatory mechanisms that alter the properties of a protein by covalently attaching a modified chemical group to some of its amino acid residues. PTMs modulate essential physiological processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, protein localization, and turnover and have clinical relevance in cancer and age-related pathologies. Majority of proteins undergo post-translational modifications, irrespective of their occurrence in or after protein biosynthesis. Post-translational modifications link to amino acid termini or side chains, causing the protein backbone to get cleaved, spliced, or cyclized, to name a few. These chemical modifications expand the diversity of the proteome and regulate protein activity, structure, locations, functions, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs). This ability to modify the physical and chemical properties and functions of proteins render PTMs vital. To date, over 200 different protein modifications have been reported, owing to advanced detection technologies. Some of these modifications include phosphorylation, glycosylation, methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination. Here, we discuss about the existing as well as some novel post-translational protein modifications, with their implications in aberrant states, which will help us better understand the modified sites in different proteins and the effect of PTMs on protein functions in core biological processes and progression in cancer

    Arabidopsis thaliana sirtuins control proliferation and glutamate dehydrogenase activity

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    Sirtuins are part of a gene family of NAD-dependent deacylases that act on histone and non-histone proteins and control a variety of activities in all living organisms. Their roles are mainly related to energy metabolism and include lifetime regulation, DNA repair, stress resistance, and proliferation. A large amount of knowledge concerning animal sirtuins is available, but data about their plant counterparts are scarce. Plants possess few sirtuins that have, like in animals, a recognized role in stress defense and metabolism regulation. However, engagement in proliferation control, which has been demonstrated for mammalian sirtuins, has not been reported for plant sirtuins so far. In this work, srt1 and srt2 Arabidopsis mutant seedlings have been used to evaluate in vivo the role of sirtuins in cell proliferation and regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase, an enzyme demonstrated to be involved in the control of cell cycle in SIRT4-defective human cells. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses have been performed to elucidate sequence, structure, and function relationships between Arabidopsis sirtuins and between each of them and the closest mammalian homolog. We found that cell proliferation and GDH activity are higher in mutant seedlings, suggesting that both sirtuins exert a physiological inhibitory role in these processes. In addition, mutant seedlings show plant growth and root system improvement, in line with metabolic data. Our data also indicate that utilization of an easy to manipulate organism, such as Arabidopsis plant, can help to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of genes present in interkingdom species

    A shared ‘vulnerability code’ underpins varying sources of DNA damage throughout paternal germline transmission in mouse

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    During mammalian spermatogenesis, the paternal genome is extensively remodelled via replacement of histones with protamines forming the highly compact mature sperm nucleus. Compaction occurs in post-meiotic spermatids and is accompanied by extensive double strand break (DSB) formation. We investigate the epigenomic and genomic context of mouse spermatid DSBs, identifying primary sequence motifs, secondary DNA structures and chromatin contexts associated with this damage. Consistent with previously published results we find spermatid DSBs positively associated with short tandem repeats and LINE elements. We further show spermatid DSBs preferentially occur in association with (CA)n, (NA)n and (RY)n repeats, in predicted Z-DNA, are not associated with G-quadruplexes, are preferentially found in regions of low histone mark coverage and engage the remodelling/NHEJ factor BRD4. Locations incurring DSBs in spermatids also show distinct epigenetic profiles throughout later developmental stages: regions retaining histones in mature sperm, regions susceptible to oxidative damage in mature sperm, and fragile two-cell like embryonic stem cell regions bound by ZSCAN4 all co-localise with spermatid DSBs and with each other. Our results point to a common ‘vulnerability code’ unifying several types of DNA damage occurring on the paternal genome during reproduction, potentially underpinned by torsional changes during sperm chromatin remodelling

    A-MYB/TCFL5 regulatory architecture ensures the production of pachytene piRNAs in placental mammals

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    In male mice, the transcription factor A-MYB initiates the transcription of pachytene piRNA genes during meiosis. Here, we report that A-MYB activates the transcription factor Tcfl5 produced in pachytene spermatocytes. Subsequently, A-MYB and TCFL5 reciprocally reinforce their own transcription to establish a positive feedback circuit that triggers pachytene piRNA production. TCFL5 regulates the expression of genes required for piRNA maturation and promotes transcription of evolutionarily young pachytene piRNA genes, whereas A-MYB activates the transcription of older pachytene piRNA genes. Intriguingly, pachytene piRNAs from TCFL5-dependent young loci initiate the production of piRNAs from A-MYB-dependent older loci, ensuring the self-propagation of pachytene piRNAs. A-MYB and TCFL5 act via a set of incoherent feedforward loops that drive regulation of gene expression by pachytene piRNAs during spermatogenesis. This regulatory architecture is conserved in rhesus macaque, suggesting that it was present in the last common ancestor of placental mammals
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