110,767 research outputs found

    Right Heart Remodeling in Patients with End-Stage Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis: Speckle Tracking Point of View

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    BACKGROUND: Data regarding cardiac remodeling in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis are scarce. We sought to investigate right atrial (RA) and right ventricular (RV) structure, function, and mechanics in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional investigation included 67 end-stage cirrhotic patients, who were referred for evaluation for liver transplantation and 36 healthy controls. All participants underwent echocardiographic examination including strain analysis, which was performed offline. RESULTS: RV basal diameter and RV thickness were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis. Conventional parameters of the RV systolic function were similar between the observed groups. Global, endocardial, and epicardial RV longitudinal strains were significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis. Active RA function was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls. The RA reservoir and conduit strains were significantly lower in cirrhotic patients, while there was no difference in the RA contractile strain. Early diastolic and systolic RA strain rates were significantly lower in cirrhotic patients than in controls, whereas there was no difference in the RA late diastolic strain rate between the two groups. Transaminases and bilirubin correlated negatively with RV global longitudinal strain and RV-free wall strain in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis. The Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, predictor of 3-month mortality, correlated with parameters of RV structure and systolic function, and RA active function in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: RA and RV remodeling is present in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis even though RV systolic function is preserved. Liver enzymes, bilirubin, and the MELD score correlated with RV and RA remodeling

    The burden of clostridium difficile infection in patients with liver cirrhosis

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    Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI) has registered a dramatically increasing incidence in the general population over the past decades. Nowadays, Clostridium Difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in Europe and North America. Liver cirrhosis is the final stage of any chronic liver disease (CLD). The most common causes are chronic hepatitis C or B and viral co-infections, alcohol misuse, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). CLD and cirrhosis are listed among the ten leading causes of death in the US. Cirrhosis due to any etiology disrupts the homeostatic role of the liver in the body. Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction (CAID) leads to alterations in both inherited and acquired systemic and local liver immunity. CAID is caused by increased systemic inflammation and immunodeficiency and it is responsible for 30% of mortality rates all over the world. Clostridium Difficile infection frequently affects patients suffering from liver cirrhosis because of the high number of prolonged hospitalizations, regular use of antibiotics for the prevention or treatment of SBP, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, and an overall immunocompromised state. Clostridium Difficile is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for the high morbidity and mortality rates in patients with cirrhosis, with an essential increase in a 30-day mortality

    Pathologic analysis of liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis

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    A retrospective histopathologic review of all pathologic specimens from 394 adult liver transplant patients was undertaken with clinical correlation to determine if primary biliary cirrhosis has affected the posttrans‐plant course compared to all other indications for liver transplantation and if recurrent primary biliary cirrhosis has occurred after liver transplantation. We also compared the histopathologic features seen in native livers with primary biliary cirrhosis to failed allografts with chronic rejection. One hundred six of the 394 adult patients transplanted during this time (1981 to July, 1986) fulfilled clinicopathologic criteria for a diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. Neither the incidence nor any qualitative pathologic feature of histologically documented acute cellular rejection differentiated subjects transplanted for primary biliary cirrhosis vs. other diseases. No correlation between the titers of antimitochon‐drial antibody and the presence of posttransplant hepatic dysfunction based on liver enzyme profiles or the development of chronic rejection was seen in patients transplanted for primary biliary cirrhosis. Minor differences noted in the posttransplant course of primary biliary cirrhosis patients as compared to other conditions (higher incidence of chronic rejection as a cause of graft failure) was seen, but this did not significantly affect graft or patient survival. Recurrent primary biliary cirrhosis could not be diagnosed with certainty in any patient. A comparison of failed chronically rejected allografts vs. native hepatectomies obtained from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis revealed the presence of chronic obliterative vasculopathy, centrilobular cholestasis, and lack of granulomas, cirrhosis, cholan‐giolar proliferation, copper‐associated protein deposition and Mallory's hyalin in specimens with chronic rejection. In contrast, livers removed from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis demonstrated a mild vasculopathy, cirrhosis, granulomas, copper‐associated protein deposition, Mallory's hyalin and periportal cholestasis. Both conditions demonstrated a nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis with bile duct paucity. Copyright © 1988 American Association for the Study of Liver Disease

    Serum microRNA-122 predicts survival in patients with liver cirrhosis

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    Background: Liver cirrhosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRs) circulating in the blood are an emerging new class of biomarkers. In particular, the serum level of the liver-specific miR-122 might be a clinically useful new parameter in patients with acute or chronic liver disease. Aim: Here we investigated if the serum level of miR-122 might be a prognostic parameter in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: 107 patients with liver cirrhosis in the test cohort and 143 patients in the validation cohort were prospectively enrolled into the present study. RNA was extracted from the sera obtained at the time of study enrollment and the level of miR-122 was assessed. Serum miR-122 levels were assessed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and were compared to overall survival time and to different complications of liver cirrhosis. Results: Serum miR-122 levels were reduced in patients with hepatic decompensation in comparison to patients with compensated liver disease. Patients with ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome had significantly lower miR-122 levels than patients without these complications. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the miR-122 serum levels were associated with survival independently from the MELD score, sex and age. Conclusions: Serum miR-122 is a new independent marker for prediction of survival of patients with liver cirrhosis

    Alcoholic liver cirrhosis, more than a simple hepatic disease – A brief review of the risk factors associated with alcohol abuse

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    Liver cirrhosis is a significant public health problem, being an important cause of mortality and morbidity, responsible for approximately 1.8% of the total number of deaths in Europe. Chronic alcohol consumption is the most common cause of liver cirrhosis in developed countries. Europe has the highest level of alcohol consumption among all the global World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. In this paper, we briefly review major factors leading to excessive alcohol consumption in order to draw attention to the fact that alcoholic liver cirrhosis is more than a simple liver disease, and if those risk/causal factors can be prevented, the incidence of this disease could be reduced greatly. Although excessive alcohol consumption is regarded as the cause of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, the etiology is complex, involving multiple factors that act in synchrony, and which, if prevented, could greatly reduce the incidence of this disease. Children of addicts are likely to develop an alcohol-related mental disorder; however, there is no “gene for alcoholism”

    Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality: New evidence from a panel data analysis for sixteen European countries

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    Empirical evidence gives strong support to a close association between liver cirrhosis mortality and the intake of alcohol and most often a log-linear relationship is assumed in the econometric modeling. The present analysis investigates for unit roots in a panel data set for sixteen European countries – covering the period 1970-2006 - where both alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis seem best described as trend-stationary variables. Therefore a fixed effects model including individual trends is applied in the analysis but also a more flexible non-linear functional form with fewer restrictions on the relationship between liver cirrhosis mortality and alcohol consumption is included. The conclusion is that the total level of alcohol consumption as well as the specific beverages – beer, wine and spirits – contributes to liver cirrhosis mortality, but the present study also reveals that directly addressing the question of panel unit roots and in this case subsequently applying a trend-stationary modeling methodology reduces the estimates of the impacts from alcohol consumption to liver cirrhosis. Finally, more restrictive alcohol policies seem to have positively influenced the country-specific development in cirrhosis mortality.Alcohol consumption; Liver cirrhosis mortality; Trend-stationary panel data; Non-linear modelling

    Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension: current perspectives

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    The term idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) has been recently proposed to replace terms, such as hepatoportal sclerosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, incomplete septal cirrhosis, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia, used to describe patients with a hepatic presinusoidal cause of portal hypertension of unknown etiology, characterized by features of portal hypertension (esophageal varices, nonmalignant ascites, porto-venous collaterals), splenomegaly, patent portal, and hepatic veins and no clinical and histological signs of cirrhosis. Physicians should learn to look for this condition in a number of clinical settings, including cryptogenic cirrhosis, a disease known to be associated with INCPH, drug administration, and even chronic alterations in liver function tests. Once INCPH is clinically suspected, liver histology becomes mandatory for the correct diagnosis. However, pathologists should be familiar with the histological features of INCPH, especially in cases in which histology is not only requested to exclude liver cirrhosis

    Interleukin-22 predicts severity and death in advanced liver cirrhosis: a prospective cohort study

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    Background: Interleukin-22 (IL-22), recently identified as a crucial parameter of pathology in experimental liver damage, may determine survival in clinical end-stage liver disease. Systematic analysis of serum IL-22 in relation to morbidity and mortality of patients with advanced liver cirrhosis has not been performed so far. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study including 120 liver cirrhosis patients and 40 healthy donors to analyze systemic levels of IL-22 in relation to survival and hepatic complications. Results: A total of 71% of patients displayed liver cirrhosis-related complications at study inclusion. A total of 23% of the patients died during a mean follow-up of 196 +/- 165 days. Systemic IL-22 was detectable in 74% of patients but only in 10% of healthy donors (P 18 pg/ml, n = 57) showed significantly reduced survival compared to patients with regular ([less than or equal to]18 pg/ml) levels of IL-22 (321 days versus 526 days, P = 0.003). Other factors associated with overall survival were high CRP ([greater than or equal to]2.9 mg/dl, P = 0.005, hazard ratio (HR) 0.314, confidence interval (CI) (0.141 to 0.702)), elevated serum creatinine (P = 0.05, HR 0.453, CI (0.203 to 1.012)), presence of liver-related complications (P = 0.028, HR 0.258 CI (0.077 to 0.862)), model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score [greater than or equal to]20 (P = 0.017, HR 0.364, CI (0.159 to 0.835)) and age (P = 0.011, HR 1.047, CI (1.011 to 1.085)). Adjusted multivariate Cox proportional-hazards analysis identified elevated systemic IL-22 levels as independent predictors of reduced survival (P = 0.007, HR 0.218, CI (0.072 to 0.662)). Conclusions: In patients with liver cirrhosis, elevated systemic IL-22 levels are predictive for reduced survival independently from age, liver-related complications, CRP, creatinine and the MELD score. Thus, processes that lead to a rise in systemic interleukin-22 may be relevant for prognosis of advanced liver cirrhosis

    Pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease ranging from hepatocellular steatosis through steatohepatitis to fibrosis and irreversible cirrhosis. The prevalence of NAFLD has risen rapidly in parallel with the dramatic rise in obesity and diabetes, and is rapidly becoming the most common cause of liver disease in Western countries. Indeed, NAFLD is now recognized to be the aetiology in many cases previously labelled as cryptogenic cirrhosis

    Implantable prosthetic pump boosts blood pressure: A concept

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    Prosthetic pump is proposed which can improve liver blood supply by boosting blood pressure locally to the organ. Device has potential use in treatment of cirrhosis of the liver
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