5,196 research outputs found

    Abraham Lincoln

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    This commemorative medal is circular with a flowered edging. The obverse features a profile portrait of Abraham Lincoln. On the reverse, there is 1809-1865/ Souvenir/ 17th/ Lincoln Banquet... There is an American flag attached to this commemorative medalhttps://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/fvw-coins-and-medals/1402/thumbnail.jp

    Auf den Spuren eines Begriffs

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    Der Begriff Politische Religion sowie Entsprechungen in anderen SprachrĂ€umen erfreuen sich seit ĂŒber einem Vierteljahrhundert einer wachsenden internationalen PopularitĂ€t in der wissen-schaftlichen und populĂ€rwissenschaftlichen, aber auch tagespolitischen Medienlandschaft. Dies ist mitunter der 1986 veröffentlichten englischen Übersetzung und der 1993 herausgegebenen Neuauflage der Schrift Die politischen Religionen (1938) des österreichischen Politologen und Philosophen Eric Voegelin (1901-1985) und der breiten Rezeption seiner gleichnamigen Theo-rie zu verschulden, die er zur Wesensbeschreibung und Interpretation totalitĂ€rer Herrschafts-formen des 20. Jahrhunderts, wie etwa des Kommunismus und Nationalsozialismus, heranzog. Seit dieser Neubelebung in den 1990er Jahren wurde der Begriff als politisch-religiöses Inter-pretationsmodell interdisziplinĂ€r in der Forschungslandschaft in zahlreichen wissenschaftlichen Studien wieder aufgegriffen, die im Gros auf Voegelin als Galionsfigur des Theorems Politi-sche Religion und dessen Publikation als Grundlagen- und Referenzschrift rekurrieren, obwohl er weder BegrĂŒnder noch einziger zeitgenössischer Vertreter dieses Ansatzes war und sich spĂ€-terhin von dieser kontroversen Terminologie distanzierte. Es ist vermutlich dieser seit den 1990er Jahren anhaltenden Voegelin-Fixierung geschuldet, dass bisher nur wenige Forschende den Blick auf frĂŒhe Verwendungen des Begriffs Politische Religion gerichtet haben, dessen Wurzeln bis ins 16. Jahrhundert zurĂŒckverfolgt werden kön-nen. Diesem Mangel wendet sich die vorliegende Studie mit dem Ziel einer begriffsgeschichtli-chen AnnĂ€herung an die frĂŒhen Verwendungen des Begriffs Politische Religion im Zeitraum vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert zu. Da sich allein im deutschsprachigen Raum zahlreiche Verwendungsbelege finden, wird der Fokus auf deutschsprachige Publikationen gelegt. Punk-tuell soll an ausgewĂ€hlten Stellen auch auf Quellen aus anderen SprachrĂ€umen (zum Beispiel Latein, Französisch und Englisch) verwiesen und ein translingualer Ausblick gewagt werden. Zur Erschließung des Quellenmaterials bedient sich die Studie einer Verflechtung methodischer AnsĂ€tze aus den Bereichen der Historischen Semantik. Dabei sollen u. a. folgende Untersu-chungsfragen in den Vordergrund gestellt werden: In welchen historischen, politischen oder religiösen Kontexten tauchen die ersten belegbaren Verwendungen im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert auf und welchem sozialen wie religiösen Umfeld ist die frĂŒhe Autorschaft zuzuordnen? Wel-chen Wandel durchlief der Begriff im Untersuchungszeitraum? Welche Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede bestehen zwischen dem frĂŒhneuzeitlichen BegriffsverstĂ€ndnis und einer Verwen-dung als Analyseinstrument zur Deutung moderner Herrschaftsformen im 20. und 21. Jahrhundert? Die Historisierung des Begriffs und seine Einbettung in den diskursgeschicht-lichen Kontext des Religionsbegriffs sollen einen Überblick zur Geschichte des Begriffs Politi-sche Religion auf der Grundlage eines bisher unerschlossenen Quellenmaterials bieten und die unterschiedlichen Begriffsbedeutungen sowie die mit ihnen transportierten Intentionen im Laufe der Jahrhunderte und im Wandel eines bis heute kaum greifbaren Religionsbegriffs aufzeigen.The term Politische Religion and its equivalents in other languages – such as political religion in English – have grown ever more popular in academia, popular science, and media over the last quarter of a century. This is partly due to the English translation of Eric Voegelin’s The Political Religions published in 1986 and followed by a new edition of the German original text Die politischen Religionen in 1993. Voegelin (1901-1985), an Austrian political scientist and phi-losopher, originally published his widely perceived theory in 1938, in which he analyzed and interpreted the essence of totalitarian forms of rule of the 20th century, such as communism and National Socialism. Being revived by the translation of Voegelin in the late 1980s, the term Politische Religion has been taken up interdisciplinary as a concept in numerous scientific stud-ies, frequently referring to Voegelin as the founder of the term itself and his publication as the theoretical reference even though he neither coined the term nor had he been the only contempo-rary representative of the approach and eventually distanced himself from the terminology alto-gether. It is probably due to this Voegelin fixation, which has persisted to this day, that so far only a few scholars have turned their attention to early uses of the term political religion, whose roots can be traced back to the 16th century. This study addresses that deficiency with the aim of providing a conceptual historical approach to the early uses of the term stretching from the 16th to the 19th century. The study focuses on German texts as the term enjoyed huge popularity in the German-speaking world of that timeframe. At selected points references will be made from a translingual perspective to sources from other language areas (e.g. Latin, French and English) to demonstrate its broad appeal beyond the limitations of said world. Analyzing the source material, this study interweaves various methodological approaches from the fields of historical semantics. The following research questions provide a guiding thread to tie together this longue durĂ©e approach to the semantics of Politische Religion: In which historical, political and/or religious contexts did the first verifiable uses of the term appear in the 16th and early 17th century? To which social and religious environment can the early authors be assigned? How did the term transform during the centuries? What similarities and differences exist between the early modern understanding of the term and its use as an analytical instrument to interpret modern forms of rule in the 20th and 21st century? Historicizing the term religion and embedding it in its historical discourse will provide an overview of the history of the term political religion on the basis of hitherto unexplored source material. Thus the project not only analyzes the different meanings of the term, but reconstructs the permutations through their historical intentions and changes in the concept of religion which is still barely tangible today

    Postcard Featuring a Seated Portrait of Abraham Lincoln

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    from the the postcard: “Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865 Sixteenth President of the United States, 1861-1865 George Peter Alexander Healy, 1813-1894 Oil on Canvas, 1887 Transfer from the National Gallery of Art; Gift of Andrew W. Mellon, 1942 NPG.65.50”https://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/fvw-postcards/1201/thumbnail.jp

    Postcard Featuring a Seated Portrait of Abraham Lincoln

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    from the postcard: “Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865 Sixteenth President of the United States, 1861-1865 George Peter Alexander Heal, 1813-1894 Oil on Canvas, 1887 Transfer from the National Gallery of Art; Gift of Andrew W. Mellon, 1942 NPG.65.50”https://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/fvw-postcards/1197/thumbnail.jp

    Abraham Lincoln: 1809-1865

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    This postcard features an oval shaped portrait of Abraham Lincoln.https://scholarsjunction.msstate.edu/fvw-postcards/1484/thumbnail.jp

    Case study of a Tulsa, Oklahoma school name change from Confederate to Indigenous roots: Supporters' meaning-making

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    This qualitative case study focuses on renaming an elementary school in Tulsa, Oklahoma from a Confederate namesake (Robert E. Lee Elementary) to a name reflecting Indigenous roots of the Muskogee Creek Nation (Council Oak). The renaming took place during a national movement of removing Confederate symbols and names from public places. The school’s original naming occurred in 1918, and the renaming occurred after a multi-year school board and community process in 2018. Using a constructionist and interpretivist approach and a conceptual orientation to memory work, I focused on the meaning-making of community members who supported the name change about the original and new names. I interviewed 16 people individually and through focus groups, collected documents, and observed community events to examine how supportive members constructed meanings through a continual, dynamic, social, and relational local process. For supporters, the process involved phases of awareness and action over multiple years. The renaming also caused community tensions and disagreements. The case is one of few studies focused on school renaming processes. It reflects both national meanings of Confederate names as “remembering” problematic histories as well as local meanings unique to “remembering” and “forgetting” aspects of Tulsa and Oklahoma’s racialized histor

    Lying-in Transition: The Modernization and Professionalization of Childbirth in Rural Alabama 1870-1910

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    This dissertation will analyze the underlying reasons childbirth became professionalized, which was due to the growing demands by women for safer birthing conditions. The demand evolved out of the complex relationship among social status, race and ethnicity, and regional locations, all made possible by the modernization and professionalization of tocology that became available during the latter part of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth-century. The history of childbirth is a critical topic because, as previously mentioned, the maternal mortality rate in the United States in the twenty-first-century is still incredibly high for a developed nation. Women deserve safer birthing conditions. Those who assist in ushering new life into the world are responsible for protecting both mother and infant. This work will primarily focus on the transformational period of the professionalization and modernization of childbirth; however, it is critical in some instances to extend the time frame to gain a better understanding of the matter at hand. Text Summary Chapter 1 briefly introduces the art of childbirth, discussing the evolving relationship between socioeconomic groups. Additionally, the reader is introduced to the examination region, rural Alabama: specifically, Hale, Greene, Dallas, Sumter, and Marengo Counties. The region was selected for its unique socioeconomic climate. In the nineteenth-century, the field of academic obstetrics was in its infancy. Midwives and physicians had a turbulent relationship as both thought the other was intrusive and careless. However, it is necessary for a woman to be accompanied by a birth attendant during delivery to help preserve the life of both mother and child—a point that both physician and midwife agree upon. The question becomes who is better at providing healthcare to both mother and infant while preserving the cultural climate that these women so desperately want. Who knows what is best for the parturient and why becomes a focal point for this dissertation with the ultimate goal of analyzing the overall thesis. This dissertation will argue that the reason for the professionalization of childbirth was due to the growing demand by women for safer birthing conditions that developed around the evolving relationship among social status, race and ethnicity, and regional location distinctions; reform was made possible by the modernization of medicine and the professionalization of tocology available during the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries in America. Chapter 2 will examine the socioeconomic climate of rural Alabama, specifically in Hale, Greene, Dallas, Sumter, and Marengo Counties. These counties are five of the wealthier counties in Alabama during a period of extreme poverty. From 1870-1910, Alabama had a shifting diversity of ethnicity as it experienced a period of White Flight. This period was when more Whites left Alabama than entered or resided in it, providing open opportunities to the newly freed Black population. This chapter analyzes the trends in population shift as well as the financial stance of the region. Through census data, historians can better understand the class struggles in Alabama; however, the data is imperfect, presenting obstacles at every turn. Additionally, this chapter will analyze the vital statistics presented for Alabama from 1870 to 1910 to illustrate the maternal and infant mortality rates in the state, nation, and world. Chapter 3 analyzes the question “Why Are You the Way You Are?” to understand the growing tension among society, midwives, and physicians. To attempt to answer that question, the geo-occupational configuration of the population will illustrate the high rural population and the agricultural occupations of the state’s inhabitants. Alabama’s population was mostly rural farm workers of both genders. This chapter will further analyze the causes for women working in agriculture and why that was important to childbirth. Moreover, racial ideology will be examined in relation to quality birth attendants, education, and the societal pressure to ignore the Black population through the lens of the Disappearance Hypothesis. Lastly, as statisticians examine the vital statistics of the region reformers recognize the need for intervention because of the presented statistical analysis drawing parallels between race and death rates. The question becomes how? Chapter 4 discusses The Problematic Midwife. In a rural, poor, primarily Black population, women still needed quality birth attendants. Physicians were too expensive for the majority of parturients, so they leaned on the support of Granny midwives. The women did more than catch babies as they entered the world; thus, socially, they were accepted and respected, at least until physicians began to attack their lack of education. But who was to blame- the overworked, undereducated midwife who was doing the best that she could or the overpriced classically trained physician? The midwives were victims of societal making, damned if she did and damned if she didn\u27t. Chapter 5, Along Came a Doctor, examines the medical revolution the United States underwent during the latter part of the nineteenth-century through the twentieth-century. Medical schools were evolving, and with them, a new specialized physician was looking for a better society and an increase in social and financial status. The quest for the “almighty dollar,” as Washington Irving called it, may have altered many physicians\u27 regional path and moral compass. As medical advancements stimulated change for patients within hospitals, Blacks were excluded from such services due to Jim Crow Laws. The modernization of tocology was developed to provide physicians with the skills necessary to assist in delivery; however, ethical dilemmas arose from learning techniques. Men like Dr. J. Marion Sims and Josiah Nott utilized Black women in developing medical procedures, often with little pain management, which they justified through the assertion that Blacks experience less pain than Whites. Moreover, academia struggled with the ethical dilemma of practicing their skill on pregnant women. It takes creativity to overcome this challenge to educate blossoming physicians. In conclusion, the transitional period between home and medically sanctioned childbirth deserves additional research. While scholars claim that modernizing obstetrics made childbirth safer, I argue that the more accurate assertion is that it changed childbirth. Midwives who had limited resources provided for a community unselfishly in an attempt to fulfill a need. That selfless commitment was demonized and degraded because of their race or social status. Had the Granny midwife been a White wealthy male, he would have been hailed a hero for his efforts; however, the political, social, and economic makeup of rural Alabama generated the perfect conditions to allow hatred to grow

    Transatlantic Perceptions of Reform: The Impact of America on the Second Reform Act

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    This PhD thesis explores the influence of America on British debates about franchise reform leading up to the passage of the Second Reform Act in 1867. It explores British public discourse surrounding reform between 1832 and 1867 through analysis of travel literature, newspapers, periodicals, quarterlies, political texts by public intellectuals, election speeches, speeches from working-class reform demonstrations, and records of parliamentary debates. The thesis sets out to understand the ways in which British perceptions of America after 1832 shaped British debates over political reform that culminated in 1867 with the Second Reform Act. Throughout, it considers how British political commentators adapted the ways in which they utilised the example of the United States to suit different target audiences, with different elements of American democracy featuring in their analysis depending on where these debates took place. Examining how the United States featured in these different facets of British reform discourse, the thesis offers insights into British political ideas and political culture in the 1860s generally, and into the Reform Act of 1867 more specifically, including how Conservative fears about Americanisation in the 1860s represented an early opportunity for the Conservative Party to wrest control of the language of patriotism from the Liberal party, as well as how Liberal divisions over the political relevance of America foreshadowed debates about the caucusization of liberal politics that came to prominence in the late 1870s. Unlike other modern European democracies and the ancient democratic republics of Greece and Rome, America was understood by many to share the same Anglo-Saxon heritage as Britain. British political commentators believed that the earliest interpreters of the U.S. Constitution had been guided by British precedents and political traditions. American politics were seen to have inherited broadly similar understandings as those in Britain. However, the reform debates of the 1860s took place in the light of a brutal Civil War, a Presidential assassination, the suspension of civil liberties and a shift towards economic protectionism. In taking account of these significant developments, this thesis concludes that America played an important role in shaping the public debate over political reform during the 1860s and that references to the United States formed a key – and hitherto underappreciated – element of the language of public discourse about reform in this period

    Heaths, Commons, and Wastes:An investigation into the character, management, and perceptions of heathland landscapes in the medieval and post-medieval periods, with particular reference to the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, and Hertfordshire

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    Lowland heathland is a priority habitat for conservation in the United Kingdom but is also valued as a historical cultural landscape.1 Many rare or endangered species of both flora and fauna, unable to thrive in modern agricultural or urban landscapes, inhabit heathland environments. These have long been recognised as the products of past management systems which have been in decline since at least the 18th century, and have now been largely discontinued. For the purposes of conservation, the practices which created and sustained them, based on historical examples, must be maintained or reintroduced in order to perpetuate conditions favourable to those species. This research details both the landscape character of historic heathland within the study area, and the various management practices which influenced and changed that character. As well as making an original contribution to a subject of historical importance, and modern interest, this research will inform the future management of heathland landscapes by showing, clearly and with evidence, how they were managed in the past. Where management practices were referred to directly in historical documents, or recorded in full, this work presents them in detail and each technique is analysed in terms of its probable environmental impacts. Where heaths appear in the documentary record, but direct references to management were not found, landscape character was reconstructed using place-name and other linguistic evidence, and by examining what flora and fauna were mentioned in association with them – many of which lived only in certain kinds of habitats. The results of this work detail a highly variable landscape. Heaths were sometimes open and characterised by low shrubs, but also sometimes wooded – either sparsely or densely – or even largely devoid of flora in some parts. The fauna present on heaths also varied widely between regions and periods; including sheep, pigs, cattle, horses, deer, goats, rabbits, geese, and the Brown Bear. Heaths historically were found on a broad range of soil types, not all of them sandy in nature, and contained a variety of both wet and dry habitats. As the term ‘heath’ was applied to all of these landscapes historically, cultural perceptions of what constituted heathland were also highly variable
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