277 research outputs found

    Dormancy in cereals (not too much, not so little): about the mechanisms behind this trait

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    As in other cultivated species, dormancy can be seen as a problem in cereal production, either due to its short duration or to its long persistence. Indeed, cereal crops lacking enough dormancy at harvest can be exposed to pre-harvest sprouting damage, while a long-lasting dormancy can interfere with processes that rely on rapid germination, such as malting or the emergence of a uniform crop. Because the ancestors of cereal species evolved under very diverse environments worldwide, different mechanisms have arisen as a way of sensing an appropriate germination environment (a crucial factor for winter or summer annuals such as cereals). In addition, different species (and even different varieties within the same species) display diverse grain morphology, allowing some structures to impose dormancy in some cereals but not in others. As in seeds from many other species, the antagonism between the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellins is instrumental in cereal grains for the inception, expression, release and re-induction of dormancy. However, the way in which this antagonism operates is different for the various species and involves different molecular steps as regulatory sites. Environmental signals (i.e. temperature, light quality and quantity, oxygen levels) can modulate this hormonal control of dormancy differently, depending on the species. The practical implications of knowledge accumulated in this field are discussed.Fil: Rodr铆guez, Mar铆a Ver贸nica. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Oficina de Coordinaci贸n Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiol贸gicas y Ecol贸gicas Vinculadas A la Agricultura; ArgentinaFil: Barrero, J. M.. CSIRO Agriculture Flagship; AustraliaFil: Corbineau, Francoise. Universite Pierre et Marie Curie; FranciaFil: Gubler, Frank. CSIRO Agriculture Flagship; AustraliaFil: Benech-arnold, Roberto Luis. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Oficina de Coordinaci贸n Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiol贸gicas y Ecol贸gicas Vinculadas A la Agricultura; Argentin

    Salmonella and tomatoes

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    Outbreak information linking fresh tomato fruit to illnesses is reviewed in this chapter. While tomato fruit appear to support substantial proliferation of certain serovars of Salmonella enterica, detection of this pathogen in tomato plants prior to harvest is rare, and reports of Salmonella existence in tomato fruit still attached to field-grown plants are virtually non-existent. The bacterium is sensitive to UV and can be outcompeted by the native phytomicrobiota, which may explain its absence in field-grown crops. However, the persistence of certain serovars in fields and ponds of certain production areas is noted. Together with evidence of bacteria becoming internalized in tomato fruit during crop development likely through natural apertures, the presence of S. enterica in and around production fields suggests that an unusual weather event could lead to Salmonella contamination of fruit prior to harvest. The bacterium appears physiologically adaptive toward proliferation in tomato fruit. Once inside tomatoes, Salmonella is capable of sensing the availability of nutrients and physiological state of the fruit and differentially regulates specific genes. However, because Salmonella is an efficient nutrient scavenger, removal of multiple metabolic and regulatory genes was required to reduce its fitness within the fruit. Plants do not appear to recognize human enterics as pathogens, and their defenses treat them as endophytes

    Produce handling and processing practices.

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    In the past decade, outbreaks of human illness associated with the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits (or unpasteurized products produced from them) have increased in the United States. Changes in agronomic, harvesting, distribution, processing, and consumption patterns and practices have undoubtedly contributed to this increase. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus cereus are naturally present in some soil, and their presence on fresh produce is not rare. Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae, parasites, and viruses are more likely to contaminate fresh produce through vehicles such as raw or improperly composted manure, irrigation water containing untreated sewage, or contaminated wash water. Contact with mammals, reptiles, fowl, insects, and unpasteurized products of animal origin offers another avenue through which pathogens can access produce. Surfaces, including human hands, which come in contact with whole or cut produce represent potential points of contamination throughout the total system of growing, harvesting, packing, processing, shipping, and preparing produce for consumption. Treatment of produce with chlorinated water reduces populations of pathogenic and other microorganisms on fresh produce but cannot eliminate them. Reduction of risk for human illness associated with raw produce can be better achieved through controlling points of potential contamination in the field; during harvesting; during processing or distribution; or in retail markets, food-service facilities, or the home

    Salmonella and tomatoes

    Get PDF
    Outbreak information linking fresh tomato fruit to illnesses is reviewed in this chapter. While tomato fruit appear to support substantial proliferation of certain serovars of Salmonella enterica, detection of this pathogen in tomato plants prior to harvest is rare, and reports of Salmonella existence in tomato fruit still attached to field-grown plants are virtually non-existent. The bacterium is sensitive to UV and can be outcompeted by the native phytomicrobiota, which may explain its absence in field-grown crops. However, the persistence of certain serovars in fields and ponds of certain production areas is noted. Together with evidence of bacteria becoming internalized in tomato fruit during crop development likely through natural apertures, the presence of S. enterica in and around production fields suggests that an unusual weather event could lead to Salmonella contamination of fruit prior to harvest. The bacterium appears physiologically adaptive toward proliferation in tomato fruit. Once inside tomatoes, Salmonella is capable of sensing the availability of nutrients and physiological state of the fruit and differentially regulates specific genes. However, because Salmonella is an efficient nutrient scavenger, removal of multiple metabolic and regulatory genes was required to reduce its fitness within the fruit. Plants do not appear to recognize human enterics as pathogens, and their defenses treat them as endophytes

    Effect of Preharvest Abiotic Stresses on the Accumulation of Bioactive Compounds in Horticultural Produce

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    The quality of horticultural products is the result of the interaction of different factors, including grower\u2019s crop management ability, genotype, and environment. Sub-optimal environmental conditions during plant growth can induce abiotic stresses and reduce the crop performance with yield reduction and quality losses. However, abiotic stresses can induce several physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses in plants, aiming to cope with the stressful conditions. It is well known that these abiotic stresses are also elicitors of the biosynthesis of many metabolites in plants, including a wide range of bioactive compounds, which firstly serve as functional molecules for crop adaptation, but they have also a great interest for their beneficial effects on human health. Nowadays, the consumer is oriented to low-energy foods with low fat content, but at the same time, growing attention is paid to the presence of bioactive molecules, which are recognized as health-related compounds and concur to the nutraceutical value of plant-derived foods. In this context, fruit and vegetables play an important role as sources of bioactive ingredients in the diet. At the cultivation level, the understanding of crop responses to abiotic stresses and how they act in the biosynthesis/accumulation of these bioactive compounds is crucial. In fact, controlled abiotic stresses can be used as tools for improving the nutraceutical value of fruit and vegetables. This review focuses on the quality of vegetables and fruits as affected by preharvest abiotic stressors, with particular attention to the effect on the nutraceutical aspects

    A review on integrated agro-technology of vegetables

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    The aim of this review was threefold: First, to explore the effect of different preharvest treatments on聽postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. Second, the principles of biological, chemical and biochemical changes in fruits and vegetables during development, maturation, ripening and storage聽were reviewed. Third postharvest handling and factors affecting quality of fruits and vegetables were聽examined. These include disinfecting, packaging and storage temperature. Pre- and postharvest聽treatments were found to have an effect on postharvest quality of fruit and vegetables, suggesting that聽postharvest quality of produce subjected to preharvest treatments should be assessed from a quality聽improvement, maintenance and consumer safety point of view. Literature recommends an integratedagro-technology approach towards improving quality at harvest and maintenance of qualities of fruits聽and vegetables.Keywords: Agro-technology, vegetables, fruits, preharvest treatments, ripening, postharvest handling, storag
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