4,058 research outputs found

    Genome sequence and genetic linkage analysis of Shiitake mushroom _Lentinula edodes_

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    _Lentinula edodes_ (Shiitake/Xianggu) is an important cultivated mushroom. Understanding the genomics and functional genomics of _L. edodes_ allows us to improve its cultivation and quality. Genome sequence is a key to develop molecular genetic markers for breeding and genetic manipulation. We sequenced the genome of _L. edodes_ monokaryon L54A using Roche 454 and ABI SOLiD genome sequencing. Sequencing reads of about 1400Mb were de novo assembled into a 40.2 Mb genome sequence. We compiled the genome sequence into a searchable database with which we have been annotating the genes and analyzing the metabolic pathways. In addition, we have been using many molecular techniques to analyze genes differentially expressed during development. Gene ortholog groups of _L. edodes_ genome sequence compared across genomes of several fungi including mushrooms identified gene families unique to mushroom-forming fungi. We used a mapping population of haploid basidiospores of dikaryon L54 for genetic linkage analysis. High-quality variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, and deletions of the mapping population formed a high-density genetic linkage map. We compared the linkage map to the _L. edodes_ L54A genome sequence and located selected quantitative trait loci. The Shiitake community will benefit from these resources for genetic studies and breeding.
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    The biotechnology of higher fungi - current state and perspectives

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    This review article concisely describes methodology of biotechnological processes with the use of cultures of higher fungi, their application in bioremediation and to obtain biologically active preparations. Advantages and disadvantages of biotechnological methods used to cultivate mushrooms are analyzed. This paper contains overview of higher fungi species most commonly used in biotechnological processes, of cultivation methods applied to produce fungal biomass, of enzymes and bioactive metabolites and of the strategies for submerged cultivation of the mycelial cultures. The problems of optimization of strains and biotechnological processes are briefly discussed.Niemniej pomimo trudno艣ci, producenci substancji leczniczych pochodzenia grzybowego (Lentinan, LEM, Grifon-D, PSK, PSP), suplement贸w diety oraz enzym贸w grzybowych, wprowadzaj膮 metody biotechnologiczne do produkcji. Zgodnie ze stosowanym od dawna w biotechnologii przemys艂owej (np. przez producent贸w antybiotyk贸w) zwyczajem, warunki procesu rzadko s膮 opisywane w publikacjach, a czasami nie s膮 nawet patentowane - co u艂atwia zachowanie ich w tajemnicy. W latach 90-tych XX wieku pojawi艂y si臋 pierwsze informacje o mo偶liwo艣ci stosowania metod rekombinowanego DNA dla grzyb贸w wy偶szych. Wsp贸艂cze艣nie, liczne publikacje donosz膮 o opracowaniu metod transformacji oraz o uzyskaniu modyfikowanych genetycznie grzyb贸w jadalnyc

    Sunflower seed hull: Its value as a broad mushroom substrate

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    Sunflower (Heliantus annus) seed hull (SSH), an abundant and cheap lignocellulosicresidue from edible oil-seed industries, was evaluated as an alternative substrate formushroom cultivation. Different edible and medicinal mushroom species were grownsuccessfully, bringing a positive use of material that could be problematic for disposal.In this review we display different studies that linked the SSH with mushroom productionand other derivations of its use as mushroom substrate.Fil: Figlas, Norma D茅bora. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Gobernaci贸n. Comisi贸n de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cient铆fico Tecnol贸gico Conicet - Bah铆a Blanca. Centro de Recursos Naturales Renovables de la Zona Semi谩rida. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Centro de Recursos Naturales Renovables de la Zona Semi谩rida; ArgentinaFil: Gonzalez Matute, Ramiro. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Gobernaci贸n. Comisi贸n de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cient铆fico Tecnol贸gico Conicet - Bah铆a Blanca. Centro de Recursos Naturales Renovables de la Zona Semi谩rida. Universidad Nacional del Sur. Centro de Recursos Naturales Renovables de la Zona Semi谩rida; ArgentinaFil: Curvetto, Nestor Raul. Universidad Nacional del Sur; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas; Argentin

    A global phylogenomic analysis of the shiitake genus Lentinula

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    Lentinula is a broadly distributed group of fungi that contains the cultivated shiitake mushroom, L. edodes. We sequenced 24 genomes representing eight described species and several unnamed lineages of Lentinula from 15 countries on four continents. Lentinula comprises four major clades that arose in the Oligocene, three in the Americas and one in Asia鈥揂ustralasia. To expand sampling of shiitake mushrooms, we assembled 60 genomes of L. edodes from China that were previously published as raw Illumina reads and added them to our dataset. Lentinula edodes sensu lato (s. lat.) contains three lineages that may warrant recognition as species, one including a single isolate from Nepal that is the sister group to the rest of L. edodes s. lat., a second with 20 cultivars and 12 wild isolates from China, Japan, Korea, and the Russian Far East, and a third with 28 wild isolates from China, Thailand, and Vietnam. Two additional lineages in China have arisen by hybridization among the second and third groups. Genes encoding cysteine sulfoxide lyase (lecsl) and 纬-glutamyl transpeptidase (leggt), which are implicated in biosynthesis of the organosulfur flavor compound lenthionine, have diversified in Lentinula. Paralogs of both genes that are unique to Lentinula (lecsl 3 and leggt 5b) are coordinately up-regulated in fruiting bodies of L. edodes. The pangenome of L. edodes s. lat. contains 20,308 groups of orthologous genes, but only 6,438 orthogroups (32%) are shared among all strains, whereas 3,444 orthogroups (17%) are found only in wild populations, which should be targeted for conservation

    寰敓鐗╃敱鏉ャ儶銉戙兗銈兼椿鎬с伄銈广偗銉兗銉嬨兂銈 : 椋熺敤銈儙銈炽倰涓績銇ㄣ仐銇熸媴瀛愯弻椤炵敱鏉ャ儶銉戙兗銈笺伄鎺㈢储

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    銈儙銈炽伀浠h〃銇曘倢銈嬫媴瀛愯弻椤炪伅锛岄鐢ㄣ倓婕㈡柟銇仼锛屽彜銇忋亱銈夐鍝併倓鍖昏柆鍝併仺銇椼仸鍒╃敤銇曘倢銇︺亶銇熴傘仐銇嬨仐銇亴銈夛紝銇濄伄浠栥伄鍒╃敤锛岀壒銇紝鏈夌敤鐗╄唱鐢熺敚銈掔洰鐨勩仺銇椼仧銆岀敓浣撹Е濯掋嶃仺銇椼仸銇湁鐢ㄦс伀銇ゃ亜銇︺伅锛屻伝銇ㄣ倱銇╃煡銈夈倢銇︺亜銇亱銇c仧銆傘仢銇撱仹锛屾湰鐮旂┒銇с伅锛岄鐢ㄣ偔銉庛偝銈掍腑蹇冦仺銇椼仧鎷呭瓙鑿岄銇紝鐢熶綋瑙﹀獟銇ㄣ仐銇︺伄鍙兘鎬с倰鎺€倠銇熴倎锛屾媴瀛愯弻鐢辨潵銇窗鑳炲鍒嗘硨鍨嬨儶銉戙兗銈笺伄鎺㈢储銈掔洰鐨勩仺銇椼仸鐮旂┒銈掕銇c仧銆侭asidiomycetes containing edible mushrooms have been used for foods and traditional Chinese medicines since ancient times. However, the possibility of its application in other fields of the mushrooms is not well known. Therefore, in this study, in order to explore the possibility of edible mushrooms as biocatalysts, we investigated the screening for extracellular lipases derived from basidiomycetes containing edible mushroom

    EVALUATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN MUSHROOM EXTRACTS PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS AND LENTINULA EDODES

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    Objective: This research was aimed at assessing the concentration of total polyphenols in ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes mushrooms and antioxidant activity. Methods: Polyphenols were determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method, using lyophilized mushroom samples for the preparation of extracts and antioxidant activity by the TBARS method. Results: Extracts prepared from mushrooms showed appreciable values 鈥嬧媜f polyphenols, and for the ethanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes values 鈥嬧媜f 102.78 and 81.83 mg of gallic acid/100 g of the sample respectively, comparable to those obtained in some fruits For methanolic extracts, values 鈥嬧媜f 100.45 and 78.92 mg of gallic acid/100 g of sample were obtained. Polyphenol concentration values 鈥嬧媐or the Pleurotus were higher in the two types of extracts and lower for the Lentinula edodes. Conclusion: When evaluating the antioxidant activity, high antioxidant activity was found for the two types of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, presenting peroxidase inhibition values 鈥嬧媜f 88.04 and 89.49% respectively

    Antioxidant properties and phenolic profile of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: a comparative study between in vivo and in vitro samples.

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    The present study reports a comparison of the antioxidant properties and phenolic profile of the most consumed species as fresh cultivated mushrooms and their mycelia produced in vitro: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster), Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake). The antioxidant activity was evaluated through reducing power (Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assays), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay) and lipid peroxidation inhibition (尾-carotene/linoleate and TBARS assays). The analysis of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC/PAD. The mushroom species with the highest antioxidant potential was Agaricus bispous (brown). However, concerning to the species obtained in vitro, it was Lentinula edodes that demonstrate the highest reducing power. Generally, in vivo samples revealed higher antioxidant properties than their mycelia obtained by in vitro techniques. About the phenolic compounds researched, they were detected both in mushrooms and mycelia without any particular abundance. Results showed that there is no correlation between the studied commercial mushrooms and the corresponding mycelia obtained in vitro. Nevertheless, this study contributes to the rise of data relatively to the species consumed as fresh mushrooms and the possibility of their in vitro production as a source of bioactive compounds

    Evaluaci贸n del crecimiento del hongo Lentinula edodes Pegler en residuos agroindustriales

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    El cultivo de shiitake se ha incrementado en los 煤ltimos a帽os con el uso de bloques artificiales de aserr铆n y/o de residuos agr铆colas suplementados con fuentes de carbono y nitr贸geno. Estos ofrecen ventajas importantes con respecto a la producci贸n en troncos naturales debido a que la producci贸n se incrementa y es continua durante todo el a帽o, y se disminuye el tiempo de cosecha (Royse et al., 1990). Este cultivo ha tomado gran importancia en la econom铆a agr铆cola de pa铆ses templados y subtropicales; puesto que valoriza los residuos agr铆colas de cereales, caf茅, cacao, algod贸n, cacahuete, uva entre otros (Philippoussis et al., 2003).132 p.Contenido parcial: Generalidades del Shiitake -- Producci贸n y cultivo -- Componentes importantes en el sustrato -- Factores de contaminaci贸n -- Obtenci贸n de la semilla -- Producci贸n de cuerpos fruct铆feros

    A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from Lentinula edodes C91鈥3

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    An apoptosis correlated molecule鈥攑rotein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C91鈥3鈥攚as expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C91鈥3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3鈥-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and 5鈥-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (p < 0.05). There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (p < 0.05). At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins

    Efecto antioxidante de Chondrus crispus y Lentinula edodes en diferentes margarinas

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    Lipid oxidation is the reaction responsible for food degradation. To solve this problem the agri-food industry uses antioxidants, preservatives and chemical stabilizers. Currently, there is an increasingly strong demand for healthier eating. Because of this, the industry is increasingly interested in replacing chemical compounds with natural products of equal or greater effective-ness. This project studies the oxidative stability, both qualitative and quantitative, of margarines of different compositions when independently adding dehydrated material from a fungus (Len-tinula edodes) and a seaweed (Chondrus crispus) that are known for their antioxidant activity. To achieve this, Rancimat equipment was used at different temperatures: 110, 120, 130 and 140 卤 1.6 潞C. comparing treated margarine samples to their respective controls. The results varied depending on the temperatures used, the composition of margarines and the natural antioxidants added. The results show that margarines with a lower proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have greater oxidative stability. Oxidative stability was higher when the fungus was added compared to seaweed.La oxidaci贸n lip铆dica es la reacci贸n responsable de la degradaci贸n de los alimentos, para solventar este problema la industria agroalimentaria utiliza antioxidantes, conservantes y estabilizantes qu铆micos. Actualmente hay una demanda cada vez m谩s fuerte de una alimentaci贸n m谩s saluda-ble; debido a esto, la industria est谩 cada vez m谩s interesada en sustituir los compuestos qu铆micos por productos naturales de igual o mayor efectividad. En este proyecto se estudia la estabilidad oxidativa en margarinas de distinta composici贸n, tanto cualitativa como cuantitativa, al adicio-nar de forma independiente material deshidratado procedente de un hongo (Lentinula edodes) y de un alga (Chondrus crispus), que se caracterizan por tener actividad antioxidante. Para ello, se utiliz贸 un equipo Rancimat a diferentes temperaturas: 110 潞C, 120 潞C, 130 潞C y 140 潞C 卤 1.6 潞C, comparando las muestras de margarinas tratadas con sus respectivos controles. Los resultados variaron seg煤n las temperaturas empleadas, la composici贸n de las margarinas y los antioxidantes naturales a帽adidos. Los resultados muestran que la margarina con menor proporci贸n en 谩cidos grasos insaturados, y especialmente de poliinsaturados, presenta mayor estabilidad oxidativa y que esta aumenta en mayor grado cuando se a帽ade el hongo con respecto a la adici贸n del alga.Ciencias Experimentale
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