211 research outputs found

    The Salem Limestone in the Indiana Building-Stone District

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    Indiana Geological Survey Occasional Paper 38The limestone building material that has dominated the national market for more than a century is produced in the Bloomington-Bedford district of southern Indiana. Through the years the economy of this two-county area has grown and diversified, so that the stone industry no longer holds the prominent position it once held, but its influence on the economy of earlier years and on the established traditions is inescapable. More than 100 buildings on the Bloomington campus of Indiana University are of limestone from the district, as are nearly all government buildings and countless homes and commercial structures in both Bloomington and Bedford. Oolitic, a small town near the center of the building-stone district, traces its name back to the settlement of the area by immigrant stone workers from England who noticed the similarity of the Salem Limestone to the Portland Oolite, a popular building stone in England. The names of buildings, fraternal organizations, and school mascots testify to the influence of the stone industry on the people. The area has had a rich history because of uncommon properties of a common rock, limestone. The building-stone district has attracted geologists, architects, and laymen from all states and many foreign countries, and through the years we have guided hundreds of people through the quarries and mills. Always we have been warmly received by the owners and the workers. Partly on the basis of these tours and on questions that were asked during the tours, we prepared a guidebook that was first used at the meeting of the North-Central Section of the Geological Society of America in Bloomington on April 12, 1980. This paper has been modified from that coverage (Patton and Carr, 1980).Indiana Department of Natural Resource

    Crushed Stone Aggregate Resources of Indiana

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    Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 42-HMineral aggregate is an aggregation of mineral material, such as crushed rock, expanded shale, perlite, sand and gravel, shells, or slag. It is sometimes bound with such material as cement or asphalt or is sometimes not bound for use as filter stone, flux stone, railroad ballast, riprap, or road metal. Crushed limestone and dolomite, sand and gravel, slag, perlite, and expanded shale are the main natural and fabricated aggregates currently used in Indiana. Some aggregate, such as sand and gravel, requires little or no processing and can be used almost as it is mined, but rock must be crushed and sorted into various desired sizes before it can be used. Many types of rocks can be used for crushed stone aggregate, but limestone and dolomite are used exclusively in Indiana (pl. 1). In this report crushed stone is synonymous with crushed limestone and dolomite. Each type of aggregate has a distinct advantage with respect to cost and availability or to a specific use for which one type is more suited than another. The advantages of crushed limestone and dolomite are that they can be crushed and sized to meet most specifications, the materials are clean and angular and bind well with cementing mixtures, a uniform lithologic composition can be maintained with little or no selective quarrying in many areas, and they are available at low cost in most counties in Indiana. Crushed stone is one of Indiana’s most important mineral commodities, ranking third in annual value behind coal and cement. During 1969 crushed stone production in Indiana totaled 25, 516,000 tons and was valued at $34,418,000.Indiana Department of Natural Resource

    Cement Raw Materials in Indiana

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    Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 15Limestone that is chemically suitable and easily accessible for cement manufacture can be found at many places in Indiana in the Mississippian limestones and to a more limited extent in the Devonian limestones. Clay, shale, and gypsum, also used in manufacturing cement, are readily available close to limestone reserves. Five areas in Indiana are most favorable for establishing cement plants: Bloomington-Spencer-Gosport, Paoli-Mitchell-Bedford, Greencastle, central Clark County, and southern Harrison County; a sixth area, east of Logansport, also may have limestone suitable for cement manufacture. Five of these areas are close to railroad lines and fuel supplies; the southern Harrison County area is favorably situated for barge transportation on the Ohio River. Reserves of mineral raw materials in 5 of the areas probably are sufficient to supply a cement plant for 50 years. Surface study does not permit an accurate appraisal of the Logansport area, but it probably also has sufficient reserves.Indiana Department of Conservatio

    The Bedford Oolitic Limestone of Indiana.

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    Oolite and Oolitic Stone for Portland Cement Manufacture

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    High-Calcium Limestone and Dolomite in Indiana

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    Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 27High-Calcium limestone and dolomite suitable for industrial use exist in Indiana. Selected measured stratigraphic sections and chemical and spectrographic analyses are used to evaluate high-Calcium limestone and dolomite. Regions favorable for quarrying high-Calcium limestone and dolomite are the region of outcrop of Mississippian rocks and to a lesser extent the region of outcrop of Devonian rocks. Dolomite can also be found in the region of outcrop of Silurian rocks, particularly in northern Indiana.Indiana Department of Conservatio

    Crushed Stone in Indiana

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    Indiana Geological Survey Report of Progress 3During the field seasons of 1947 and 1948, two field parties of the Division of Geology, Indiana Department of Conservation, examined, sampled, and mapped the quarries that are producing crushed stone in Indiana. In 1947 the parties were led by George E. Ericksen and the writer and in 1948 by Carroll N. Roberts and the writer. Field assistants for the first year were Robert Stewart and Dallas Fiandt. For 1948 field assistants were W. E. Taylor and Richard Erd. Although the purpose of the survey was to study only active quarries, some inactive ones which seemed likely to resume operations were studied. Of the 92 quarries shown on the map, 89 were in operation during the time of the field examination, and 3 have since become active. These 3 quarries have not been sampled or mapped, but they have been located, and the geological formations from which they produce have been ascertained. The samples are being analyzed by the chemical and spectrographic laboratories of the Division of Geology. A report containing comprehensive information on the limestone and dolomite resources of Indiana will be published when sufficient analyses are available to show regional chemical characteristics and variations of the formations. The report will include analyses of several other formations which have commercial potentialities but are not being exploited at this time. Active quarries are not properly distributed for a determination of the regional characteristics of some of the formations. In such cases, field parties will sample and examine the limestones in areas selected to fill out a well-spaced grid of control. These supplementary samples will be taken from natural outcrops, cuts, and .abandoned quarries during the field season of 1950. In the driftless area of south central Indiana and in most of the portions of southeastern and southwestern Indiana which are covered by Illinoian glacial drift, bedrock is close enough to the surface to permit economical stripping and quarrying. Between the outer border of the Wisconsin drift sheet and the lower portion of the area covered by the Champaign morainic system, major streams and some tributaries out through the glacial drift to bedrock and permit quarrying without excessive stripping. The quarries in Wayne, Rush, Shelby, Bartholomew, Putnam, Montgomery, and northwestern Decatur Counties (Plate 1) are within and near the margin of Wisconsin drift. In northern Indiana overburden is thin only in the valleys of major streams and at a few places in the till plains. The operator therefore quarries limestone and dolomite where they are available and has little opportunity to select his quarry site from a wide range of possible locations. In the limestone areas of southern Indiana, however, potential quarry sites are numerous, and the quarry operator may select a location upon the basis of convenience, geographic advantage, stripping conditions, and character of the limestone. The Silurian and Devonian formations in northern Indiana have not been precisely correlated with those in southern Indiana. The two areas have been treated separately in most geologic reports and are so treated here.Indiana Department of Conservatio

    Applied Geology of Industrial Limestone and Dolomite

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    Indiana Geological Survey Bulletin 46The title of this report as first proposed was "What a Consulting Geologist Should Know About Industrial Limestone" because this effort was born of a request from the Indiana-Kentucky Geological Society, Inc., for a refresher course in the economic geology of limestone. The present title was adopted, however, because the completed report is understandable to anyone with some formal or informal geologic training and an interest in the applied geology of industrial limestones. Many of Indiana's mineral producers have developed a keen understanding of the geology associated with the particular deposit that they work, but because of a lack of training, they do not know how geology can be used in a broader sense to explore and exploit limestone deposits. We believe that this report will help answer some of the questions frequently asked by both the consulting geologist and the mineral producer. Consulting geologists and mineral producers certainly need to know something about industrial limestone. The total tonnage of carbonate rocks mined or consumed in the United States in 1968 was about 603 million tons and the total value about 857 million dollars (U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, 1968). To meet the need for this basic building block of our society, the deposits now being sought must be larger, purer, and more strategically situated than ever before. Once a new quarry meant the investment of a few tens of thousands of dollars. Now it is likely to mean a million or more. The producer cannot afford to make this investment in an inadequate deposit. He needs the help of a geologist, and he needs to be able to evaluate geologic information properly. To reach as broad an audience as possible, we have used a minimum of technical terms. According to custom, industrial limestone of limestone is here synonymous with limestone and dolomite unless the contest indicates otherwise. The chemical composition of limestone is important in many uses, and limestone and dolomite are often described in terms of their carbonate context. These terms are arbitrary and depend partly on the context, both in terms of use and availability of high-grade limestone. As used in this report, high-calcium limestone is limestone composed of 95 percent CaCO3. Ultra-high calcium limestone is more than 97 percent CaCO3, high-purity carbonate rock is more than 95 percent combined CaCO3 and MgCO3, and high-purity dolomite is more than 42 percent MgCO3. (Theoretically, pure dolomite would contain 45.7 percent MgCO3.)Indiana Department of Natural Resource

    The Lime Industry in Indiana

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    Excursions in Indiana Geology

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    Indiana Geological Survey Guidebook 12Indiana lies wholly within the Central Lowland Province and thus calls to mind widespread, thin, nearly flat-lying Paleozoic rocks, major unconformities, and extensive plains. These features express epeirogenic submergences of the central part of the continent, long periods of general stability, and, nevertheless, repeatedly interrupted episodes of sedimentation and landform sculpture. Outstanding among these episodes was continental glaciation that carried to the Ohio River. Receiving ice from two principal directions the State's surface nearly everywhere attests to its latest experience, most obviously in the form of a great till plain that is interrupted in its gross appearance by end moraines, valley trains, and ice-contact deposits. Structurally, the State lies athwart a broad crestal area, the Cincinnati Arch, which separates the Michigan Basin on the north from the Illinois Basin on the southwest. Some structural instability, manifest as long ago as Precambrian time, is evident in such sedimentational or second-rank structural features as lithofacies, Silurian-Devonian and Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformities that change both locally and regionally in magnitude, and faulting. The more recent erosional record reflects structural history as well, and Paleozoic rocks from middle Ordovician to middle Pennsylvanian in age crop out at the bedrock surface according to their order of superposition. The Paleozoic units west and south of the Cincinnati Arch have special interest on these excursions. Their truncated edges, having differing resistances, are expressed alternately by open vales of gentle relief and uplands consisting of partly dissected westward-facing dip slopes and rugged forested scarps. Within easy range of Bloomington we can demonstrate much of the variety of geologic form characteristic of the State. Crossing the regional strike and the boundary between driftless and glaciated areas, the first day's excursion (inside front cover) is generally eastward to traverse bedrock of Mississippian to Silurian age and drifts assigned to the Kansan, Illinoian, and Wisconsin Stages. It emphasizes the State's most widely known natural product, the Indiana Limestone, and relationships of physiography to bedrock and drift. The second day's excursion (inside back cover) is northwestward from Bloomington and crosses younger bedrock (to middle Pennsylvanian in age). It emphasizes the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity, stratigraphic relationships of drifts, and some of the newest methods of coal mining and land reclamation.Indiana Geological Survey Indiana Department of Natural Resources American Association of State Geologist
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