23,235 research outputs found
In the paper, the authors analyze the history, application and effects, respectively the achieved level of personal rights and freedoms as a part of human rights. The right to life is an elementary human right, a right that is natural, permanent, unchangeable, inalienable and no one has the right to dispose of another’s life. The European Convention prohibits the death penalty or the states undertake not to carry it out striving to remove the death penalty from the law. Personal rights include the right to respect and inviolability of the physical, moral and spiritual integrity of every person. A large number of multilateral conventions advocate the prohibition of slavery and human trafficking. The right to marry, start a family and have children is included in the family law, as well as the inviolability of the apartment and property relations of the spouses regarding the property acquired in marriage and before marriage. The inviolability of the secret of letters is recognized by the European Convention on the protection of the acquired rights and guarantees for their respect. The electronic communication network represents transmission systems that, for the sake of security, integrity and confidentiality of communications, should apply adequate measures. The right to protection of personal data represents an additional guarantee of inviolability of human integrity. In the paper, there has been used a normative method, supplemented with an analytical and deductive methodological approach, as well as a basic quantitative data analysis and the provisions of the Criminal Code. The achieved level of human and minority rights cannot be reduced. The paper itself represents a contribution to a higher development and application of the equal regulation at both the national and international levels.
Children, as well as minors in general, represent one of the most sensitive social groups, and consequently, criminal acts hit children particularly hard. For this reason, the domestic legislator, like the majority of other legislators, incriminates when the crime is committed against a child as a serious or heaviest form of a specific criminal offense, that is, as a special qualifying circumstance. However, in addition to the fact that, within the framework of criminal material legislation, it prescribes qualified forms of criminal acts when children are the victims, legislator, within the framework of juvenile criminal legislation and other special regulations, also prescribes other measures aimed at improving and protecting the position of the child in criminal proceedings. This is because the protection of children as victims of crime is not only a legal issue, but also a social and moral imperative, which must be taken seriously to ensure that all children receive the protection and support they need to grow and develop. In terms of what has been stated, this paper points to the regulation of the position of the child as a victim of a criminal offense, primarily at a national level, starting from general protection standards, to individual solutions in some of the specific forms of criminality where children often appear as victims – family and sexual violence
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive retinal neurodegenerative disorder characterised, in some forms of the disease, by the loss of photoreceptors and the underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the macula due to the accumulation of extracellular deposits known as “drusen”. A major component of drusen deposits is the Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related amyloid beta (Aβ)-peptide, a 4kDa peptide derived from the larger amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by enzymes known as β- and γ-secretases. Alternatively, in the ‘non-amyloidogenic’ pathway, APP can be processed by a third enzyme, α-secretase, which cleaves within the Aβ region of the protein thereby preventing the production of toxic peptides as well as producing a larger soluble fragment, sAPPα, known for its neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. The current project aims to characterise the role played by APP and its proteolytic fragments in AMD using human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and UV-A light (a known AMD risk factor) as the stressor. In addition, a group of diabetes drugs known as Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues that have previously been purported to reduce neuronal death in AD and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) have been tested for their ability to protect ARPE-19 cells against stress-inducing reagents relative to AMD (UV-A light, hydrogen peroxide and Aβ-peptides). The results of the current study demonstrate that endogenous cell-associated full-length APP expression was depleted in ARPE-19 cells following UV-A irradiation. Furthermore, β-secretase but not α-secretase processing of the protein was reduced. Small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of endogenous APP or γ-secretase (but not α- or β-secretase) inhibition ablated the detrimental effect of UV-A on cell viability. In contrast, α-secretase and, possibly, γ-secretase but not β-secretase activity appeared to promote the longer-term proliferation of ARPE-19 cells in the absence of UV-A irradiation. Furthermore, two of the GLP-1 analogues tested, liraglutide and lixisenatide, were able to restore cell viability after UV-A exposure. Collectively, these data indicate clear links between the expression/proteolysis of APP and the proliferation and resistance of ARPE-19 cells to UV-A irradiation. Whilst these effects are clearly differential, the data warrant further investigation of the role played by APP in AMD. Furthermore, the protective effects against UV-A shown by liraglutide and lixisenatide warrant further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved with a view to identifying new drug targets for the prevention or treatment of retinal neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD
This study evaluated the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, by ozone using virus grown in cell culture media either dried on surfaces (plastic, glass, stainless steel, copper, and coupons of ambulance seat and floor) or suspended in liquid. Treatment in liquid reduced SARS-CoV-2 at a rate of 0.92 ± 0.11 log10-reduction per ozone CT dose(mg min/L); where CT is ozone concentration times exposure time. On surface, the synergistic effect of CT and relative humidity (RH) was key to virus inactivation; the rate varied from 0.01 to 0.27 log10-reduction per ozone CT value(g min/m3) as RH varied from 17% to 70%. Depletion of ozone by competitive reactions with the medium constituents, mass transfer limiting the penetration of ozone to the bulk of the medium, and occlusion of the virus in dried matrix were postulated as potential mechanisms that reduce ozone efficacy. RH70% was found plausible since it provided the highest disinfection rate while being below the critical RH that promotes mould growth in buildings. In conclusion, through careful choice of (CT, RH), gaseous ozone is effective against SARS-CoV-2 and our results are of significance to a growing field where ozone is applied to control the spread of COVID-19
This chapter discusses the physiologic, metabolic, and clinical aspects of collagen, including the role of nutritional factors in a new nosographic entity, called “extended collagen carential disease.” Except water and possibly fats, carbohydrates, and other structural proteins, perhaps there is more collagen in the mammalian body than anything else. Moreover, collagen participates in almost all of the body functions, adjusting its structure constantly in response to changes in environment, development, growth, and external clues. Collagens found in bones and nails are different from collagens found in body fluids and other biological structures, such as basement membrane, skin, tendons, muscles, and hair. The ubiquity of collagen functions accounts for its phylogenetic ubiquity, involving any tissue, organ, and apparatus. This is shown by the so-called “collagen carential disease,” involving nails, hair, osteoarticular and gastrointestinal systems. For instance, the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome describes another group of genetic collagen disorders, affecting the collagen processing and structure. Some of them are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, while others emerge in the absence of essential nutritional factors. It is the case of Vitamin C, which plays a critical role in the maintenance of a normal mature collagen network. Hence, the idea of an “extended collagen carential disease,” applicable to the absence of essential nutritional factors
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an immune-mediated disease characterized by a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome in association with an antibody-mediated decrease of NMDAR. About 85% of patients respond to immunotherapy (and removal of an associated tumor if it applies), but it often takes several months or more than 1 year for patients to recover. There are no complementary treatments, beyond immunotherapy, to accelerate this recovery. Previous studies showed that SGE-301, a synthetic analog of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, which is a potent, and selective positive allosteric modulator of NMDAR, reverted the memory deficit caused by phencyclidine (a non-competitive antagonist of NMDAR), and prevented the NMDAR dysfunction caused by patients' NMDAR antibodies in cultured neurons. An advantage of SGE-301 is that it is optimized for systemic delivery such that plasma and brain exposures are sufficient to modulate NMDAR activity. Here, we used SGE-301 to confirm that in cultured neurons it prevented the antibody-mediated reduction of receptors, and then we applied it to a previously reported mouse model of passive cerebroventricular transfer of patients' CSF antibodies. Four groups were established: mice receiving continuous (14-day) infusion of patients' or controls' CSF, treated with daily subcutaneous administration of SGE-301 or vehicle (no drug). The effects on memory were examined with the novel object location (NOL) test at different time points, and the effects on synaptic levels of NMDAR (assessed with confocal microscopy) and plasticity (long-term potentiation [LTP]) were examined in the hippocampus on day 18, which in this model corresponds to the last day of maximal clinical and synaptic alterations. As expected, mice infused with patients' CSF antibodies, but not those infused with controls' CSF, and treated with vehicle developed severe memory deficit without locomotor alteration, accompanied by a decrease of NMDAR clusters and impairment of LTP. All antibody-mediated pathogenic effects (memory, synaptic NMDAR, LTP) were prevented in the animals that were treated with SGE-301, despite that this compound did not antagonize antibody binding. Additional investigations on the potential mechanisms related to these SGE-301 effects showed that (1) in cultured neurons SGE-301 prolonged the decay time of NMDAR-dependent spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents suggesting a prolonged open time of the channel, and (2) it significantly decreased the internalization of antibody-bound receptors suggesting that additional, yet unclear mechanisms, contribute in keeping unchanged the surface NMDAR density. Overall, these findings suggest that SGE-301, or similar modulators of NMDAR, could potentially serve as complementary treatment for anti-NMDAR encephalitis and deserve future investigations
Objective: This study aimed to perform a comprehensive review of clinical trials using fecal microbiota transplantation in cases of Clostridioides difficile infection. Methods: This manuscript reviews clinical studies published from 2003 to 2020 at the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO Brazil), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and US National Library of Medicine (MedLine/PubMed) databases using the descriptors antibiotic/antimicrobial, Clostridium difficile/Clostridioides difficile, intestinal microbiota/intestinal microbiome and fecal transplantation. Results: Interventions on microbiota include the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation as therapeutic methods. Results show that fecal microbiota transplantation is an excellent alternative for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infections