83,482 research outputs found

    An examination of atmospheric lids during COPS

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    Copyright @ 2009 E.Schweizerbart Science PublishersThe understanding of the nature, origin and prevalence of atmospheric lids is low. There is, therefore, an opportunity to contribute significantly to this area of meteorology - this is the goal of this work. The context for this paper is the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). The COPS observational campaign, which was undertaken in 2007, was based around the Black Forest region with the aim of improving precipitation forecasts in low mountainous regions. However, the project also represents a great data archive with which to analyse isolated features, such as atmospheric lids. In short, lids play a vital role in the development of convective storms. For example, evidence from the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP), which was run in the UK in 2005, has shown that lids are important not only in determining whether a storm occurs but also when and where they develop and how intense they are – sometimes, counterintuitively, they appear to increase the intensity. This extended abstract is intended as a brief overview of the previous literature on lids in order to place the work presented at ICAM-2009 in the wider scientific context.This work is funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

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    Clinical observations associated with proven and unproven cases in the ESCRS study of prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery

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    Aims to describe cases of postoperative endophthalmitis in the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) study of the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis, compare characteristics of unproven cases and cases proven by culture or polymerase chain reaction, and compare the characteristics with those in other reported series. Twenty-four ophthalmology units in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze data forstatistical association of signs and symptoms in cases with proven or unproven endophthalmitis. Specific data describing characteristics of the cases were compared between the 2 types of cases. Data from 29 endophthalmitis cases were analyzed. Swollen lids and pain were statistically associated with proven cases of endophthalmitis on univariable regression analysis. Multivariable analysis indicated that swollen lids and an opaque vitreous were associated with proven cases. Five cases of endophthalmitis occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. No case of streptococcal infection occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. However, cases of infection due to streptococci showed striking differences in visual acuity and were associated with earlier onset. Characteristics in the 29 cases parallel results in previous studies, such as the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study, although the addition of a control group in the ESCRS study elicited additional findings. Swollen lids, pain, and an opaque vitreous were statistically associated with proven endophthalmitis cases in the ESCRS study

    Supporting collaboration and engagement using a whiteboard-like display

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    Large interactive display surfaces have the potential to combine the simplicity, spontaneity and presence of a conventional whiteboard with the convenience, clarity, and archiving and retrieval capabilities of a computer display. Recent developments in display projection and large surface digitising have brought the cost of such displays to a level where they can be utilised to support a range of everyday activities. This paper describes the LIDS (Large Interactive Display Surfaces) project, recently commenced at the University of Waikato. LIDS focuses on the use of low-cost whiteboard-like shared interactive displays, and is exploring whiteboard metaphors and lightweight interaction techniques to support group collaboration and engagement. Three closely related application areas are being studied: (i) support for single and multiple site meetings and informal discussions, (ii) the use of such displays in teaching, and (iii) their use in personal information management

    The LIDS Research Project: usability study report (1/2002)

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    This report represents the University of Waikato Usability Laboratory’s (Usability Laboratory) analysis of the Large Interactive Display Screen (LIDS) technologies as developed by the LIDS Research Group. The Usability Laboratory conducted three exploratory-type studies of the LIDS technology over January and February 2002. The studies each focused on individual elements of the LIDS technology, while at the same time contributing to the general understanding and knowledge of the technology

    The role of serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms and their interaction in Levodopa-induced dyskinesias

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    Long–term levodopa treatment in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is commonly associated with troublesome levodopa–induced dyskinesias (LIDs). Striatal serotonergic terminals amid the degenerating dopaminergic ones are proposed to play an important role in LIDs by taking up exogenous levodopa and releasing dopamine in an unregulated fashion. However, to date, the underlying mechanisms of LIDs are not fully understood. By using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123I–Ioflupane and positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C–DASB and 11C–PE2I, the clinical studies conducted for this thesis aimed (a) to estimate the role of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in early PD as a prognostic marker for LIDs, (b) to explore whether striatal DAT availability changes over time are related to the appearance of LIDs, (c) to estimate the role of striatal serotonin-to-dopamine transporter (SERT–to–DAT) binding ratios to LIDs, and (d) to look for a relation between the changes in striatal SERT, DAT and SERT–to–DAT binding ratios over time and the appearance of LIDs. The main findings are as follows: (a) in early PD, striatal DAT availability alone does not predict the appearance of future LIDs, (b) at later stages, the occurrence of LIDs may be dependent on the magnitude of DAT decline in the putamen, (c) the SERT–to–DAT binding ratio in the putamen is increased in PD patients as compared to controls, and within PD, it is higher in patients with LIDs as compared to nondyskinetic patients, (d) as PD continues to progress, putaminal serotonergic terminals remain relatively unchanged in comparison to the dopaminergic ones and the aforementioned imbalance (as reflected by the binding ratio) increases over time. These findings provide fundamental insight in the pathophysiology of LIDs and have direct implications for further research towards novel therapeutics in PD dyskinesia.Open Acces

    Flood mitigation performance of low impact development technologies under different storms for retrofitting an urbanized area

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    Low impact development technologies (LIDs) have been reported as alternatives to mitigate urban waterrelated hazards, particularly for urban flooding. However, the effectiveness of LIDs on flood mitigation is still not well understood. This study assessed the mitigation extent of urban flooding by LIDs for retrofitting an urbanized area at a feasible level using a hydrological model. A range of storms with different rainfall durations and amounts from intensity-duration-frequency curves were used to evaluate the hydrological performances of LIDs. The results indicated that LIDs were effective alternatives to mitigate urban flooding in the urbanized area. Surface runoff and peak flow decreased by 18.6e59.2% and 8.0 e71.4%, respectively. However, the flood mitigation performance decreased markedly with the increase of rainfall amount. Although LIDs were less effective in flood mitigation during shorter and heavier storms, the performance was better with the increase of rainfall duration. This research provides an insight into flood reduction capabilities of LIDs under different rainfall characteristics for retrofitting built up areas, which is useful for urban storm management

    Targeting the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in a mouse model of l-dopa induced dyskinesia.

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    L-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID) is a debilitating side-effect of the primary treatment used in Parkinson's disease (PD), l-dopa. Here we investigate the effect of HU-308, a cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist, on LIDs. Utilizing a mouse model of PD and LIDs, induced by 6-OHDA and subsequent l-dopa treatment, we show that HU-308 reduced LIDs as effectively as amantadine, the current frontline treatment. Furthermore, treatment with HU-308 plus amantadine resulted in a greater anti-dyskinetic effect than maximally achieved with HU-308 alone, potentially suggesting a synergistic effect of these two treatments. Lastly, we demonstrated that treatment with HU-308 and amantadine either alone, or in combination, decreased striatal neuroinflammation, a mechanism which has been suggested to contribute to LIDs. Taken together, our results suggest pharmacological treatments with CB2 agonists merit further investigation as therapies for LIDs in PD patients. Furthermore, since CB2 receptors are thought to be primarily expressed on, and signal through, glia, our data provide weight to suggestion that neuroinflammation, or more specifically, altered glial function, plays a role in development of LIDs

    Use of video shadow for small group interaction awareness on a large interactive display surface

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    This paper reports work done as part of the Large Interactive Display Surface (LIDS) project at the University of Waikato. One application of the LIDS equipment is distributed meeting support. In this context large display surfaces are used as shared workspaces by people at collaborating sites. A meeting with start with a shared presentation document, typically and agenda document with summary and detail on agenda items as required. During the meeting, annotations with be made on the shared document, and new pages will be added with notes and drawings. To prevent access collisions and generally mediate use of the shared space, mechanisms to provide awareness of actions of people at other sites are required. In our system a web camera is used to capture a low-resolution image of the person/people near the board on each side. Rather than transmit the image directly we computed a shadow/silhouette. The shadow is displayed behind other screen content. This provides awareness of position and impending write actions and allows intentional pointing to locations of the screen. It also has the advantage of being transmitted with low bandwidth, being relatively insensitive to low frame rates, and minimizing visual interference with substantive data being displayed on the screen
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