179,961 research outputs found

    Bayesian mixture labeling and clustering

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    Label switching is one of the fundamental issues for Bayesian mixture modeling. It occurs due to the nonidentifiability of the components under symmetric priors. Without solving the label switching, the ergodic averages of component specific quantities will be identical and thus useless for inference relating to individual components, such as the posterior means, predictive component densities, and marginal classification probabilities. In this article, we establish the equivalence between the labeling and clustering and propose two simple clustering criteria to solve the label switching. The first method can be considered as an extension of K-means clustering. The second method is to find the labels by minimizing the volume of labeled samples and this method is invariant to the scale transformation of the parameters. Using a simulation example and two real data sets application, we demonstrate the success of our new methods in dealing with the label switching problem

    Effects of crosstalk in WDM optical label switching networks due to wavelength switching of a tunable laser

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    rosstalk caused by switching events in fast tunable lasers in an optical label switching (OLS) system is investigated for the first time. A wavelength-division-multiplexed OLS system based on subcarrier multiplexed labels is presented which employs a 40-Gb/s duobinary payload and a 155-Mb/s label on a 40-GHz subcarrier. Degradation in system performance as the transmitters switch between different channels is then characterized in terms of the frequency drift of the tunable laser

    An Overview of Optical Label Switching Technology

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    AbstractOptical label switching is a new technology of optical switching, which can overcome the electronic bottleneck of optical communication effectively, optical label switching (OLS) network as a specific implementation of future optical packet network has been paid more and more attention, its key technology is the generation and extraction of optical label. In this paper, subcarrier multiplexing label, OCDM optical code label and orthogonal modulation label are described and discussed. Their strength and weakness are analyzed

    Multiprotocol Label Switching

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    The up to this time known networks with the IP protocol have worked as connection-less and they have not guaranteed the quality of services. Implementing the MPLS protocol, an overlay connection-oriented network with guaranteed quality of services QoS is being created on existing IP networks


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    ABSTRAKSI: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) merupakan metode dengan unjuk kerja tinggi untuk proses forwarding data (frame) di sebuah jaringan. Konsep dari MPLS ini menggunakan switching node yang biasa disebut Label Switching Router (LSR). MPLS ini bekerja dengan melekatkan suatu label pada setiap paket yang datang dan menggunakan label tersebut untuk menentukan ke arah mana seharusnya paket data tersebut dikirimkan. Teknologi MPLS ini bertujuan membawa teknologi Internet Protocol (IP) yang memiliki sistem connection-less ke dalam sebuah teknologi IP yang memiliki sistem connection-oriented. Karena pada jaringan IP tidak terdapat mekanisme pemeliharaan Quality of Service (QoS). Maka teknologi MPLS diperkenalkan sebagai teknologi rekayasa trafik untuk jaringan IP, yang memberikan perangkat pengelolaan bandwidth dan optimasi performansi.Pada tugas akhir ini akan dibahas bagaimana sebenarnya teknik Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) yang menerapkan teknologi IP untuk mendapatkan QoS yang baik bagi setiap layanan paket yang dikirimkan. Juga akan ditampilkan simulasi penghitungan parameter QoS dalam jaringan MPLS, sehingga perkiraan dan perlakuan terhadap paket yang dikirimkan dapat dianalisa.Kata Kunci : Multiprotocol Label Switching, Label Switching Router, Internet Protocol, Quality of ServiceABSTRACT: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a high-performance method for forwarding packets (frames) through a network.. The concept of MPLS use switching node called Label Switching Router (LSR). MPLS do such operation by labeling every incoming packet and then use that label to decide which way that packet should be delivered. MPLS technology have a purpose to combine Internet Protocol (IP) technology which has connection-less system into IP technology which has connection-oriented system. Since there is no mechanism of keeping the Quality of Service (QoS) in the IP technology. So MPLS technology is introduced as traffic engineering for IP network, that giving a set off bandwidth management and optimizing the performance.This final project will explain how the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) technology is actualy applicate IP technology to get a good QoS for every delivered packet. There is also a simulation to calculate QoS parameter in MPLS networking, so all treatment for every delivered packet can be analyzed.Keyword: Multiprotocol Label Switching, Label Switching Router, Internet Protocol, Quality of Servic


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    This study examines the impact of consumers'Â’ use of food labels on selected nutrient intakes of Americans. Endogenous switching regression techniques are employed to control for heterogeneity in the label use decision. When the nutrient intakes of label users and the expected nutrient intakes of label users in the absence of labels are compared, food label use decreases individuals'Â’ average daily intakes of calories from total fat and saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium by 6.90%, 2.10%, 67.60 milligrams, and 29.58 milligrams, respectively. In addition, consumer nutrition label use increases average daily fiber intake by 7.51 grains.Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,

    Tunable 4-channel ultra-dense WDM demultiplexer with III-V photodiodes integrated in silicon-on-insulator

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    A tunable 4-channel ultra-dense WDM demultiplexer with 0.25nm channel spacing is demonstrated with III-V photodiodes integrated on Silicon-on-Insulator using rib waveguides. A possible application is an in-band label extractor for all-optical packet switching

    Adaptive MCMC with online relabeling

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    When targeting a distribution that is artificially invariant under some permutations, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms face the label-switching problem, rendering marginal inference particularly cumbersome. Such a situation arises, for example, in the Bayesian analysis of finite mixture models. Adaptive MCMC algorithms such as adaptive Metropolis (AM), which self-calibrates its proposal distribution using an online estimate of the covariance matrix of the target, are no exception. To address the label-switching issue, relabeling algorithms associate a permutation to each MCMC sample, trying to obtain reasonable marginals. In the case of adaptive Metropolis (Bernoulli 7 (2001) 223-242), an online relabeling strategy is required. This paper is devoted to the AMOR algorithm, a provably consistent variant of AM that can cope with the label-switching problem. The idea is to nest relabeling steps within the MCMC algorithm based on the estimation of a single covariance matrix that is used both for adapting the covariance of the proposal distribution in the Metropolis algorithm step and for online relabeling. We compare the behavior of AMOR to similar relabeling methods. In the case of compactly supported target distributions, we prove a strong law of large numbers for AMOR and its ergodicity. These are the first results on the consistency of an online relabeling algorithm to our knowledge. The proof underlines latent relations between relabeling and vector quantization.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.3150/13-BEJ578 in the Bernoulli (http://isi.cbs.nl/bernoulli/) by the International Statistical Institute/Bernoulli Society (http://isi.cbs.nl/BS/bshome.htm