7,308 research outputs found

    Prion-like α-synuclein pathology in the brain of infants with Krabbe disease

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    Krabbe disease is an infantile neurodegenerative disorder resulting from pathogenic variants in the GALC gene that causes accumulation of the toxic sphingolipid psychosine. GALC variants are also associated with Lewy body diseases, an umbrella term for age-associated neurodegenerative diseases in which the protein α-synuclein aggregates into Lewy bodies. To explore whether α-synuclein in Krabbe disease has pathological similarities to that in Lewy body disease, we performed an observational post-mortem study of Krabbe disease brain tissue (n = 4) compared to infant controls (n = 4) and identified widespread accumulations of α-synuclein. To determine whether α-synuclein in Krabbe disease brain displayed disease-associated pathogenic properties we evaluated its seeding capacity using the real-time quaking-induced conversion assay in two cases for which frozen tissue was available and strikingly identified aggregation into fibrils similar to those observed in Lewy body disease, confirming the prion-like capacity of Krabbe disease-derived α-synuclein. These observations constitute the first report of prion-like α-synuclein in the brain tissue of infants and challenge the putative view that α-synuclein pathology is merely an age-associated phenomenon, instead suggesting it results from alterations to biological pathways, such as sphingolipid metabolism. Our findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying Lewy body formation in Lewy body disease

    Prion-like alpha-synuclein pathology in the brain of infants with Krabbe disease

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    Pentti Tienari konsortion jäsenenäKrabbe disease is an infantile neurodegenerative disorder resulting from pathogenic variants in the GALC gene that causes accumulation of the toxic sphingolipid psychosine. GALC variants are also associated with Lewy body diseases, an umbrella term for age-associated neurodegenerative diseases in which the protein a-synuclein aggregates into Lewy bodies. To explore whether alpha-synuclein in Krabbe disease has pathological similarities to that in Lewy body disease, we performed an observational post-mortem study of Krabbe disease brain tissue (n = 4) compared to infant controls (n = 4) and identified widespread accumulations of alpha-synuclein. To determine whether alpha-synuclein in Krabbe disease brain displayed disease-associated pathogenic properties we evaluated its seeding capacity using the real-time quaking-induced conversion assay in two cases for which frozen tissue was available and strikingly identified aggregation into fibrils similar to those observed in Lewy body disease, confirming the prion-like capacity of Krabbe disease-derived alpha-synuclein. These observations constitute the first report of prion-like alpha-synuclein in the brain tissue of infants and challenge the putative view that alpha-synuclein pathology is merely an age-associated phenomenon, instead suggesting it results from alterations to biological pathways, such as sphingolipid metabolism. Our findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying Lewy body formation in Lewy body disease.Peer reviewe

    A Specific Activity-Based Probe to Monitor Family GH59 Galactosylceramidase, the Enzyme Deficient in Krabbe Disease

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    Galactosylceramidase (GALC) is the lysosomal β-galactosidase responsible for the hydrolysis of galactosylceramide. Inherited deficiency in GALC causes Krabbe disease, a devastating neurological disorder characterized by accumulation of galactosylceramide and its deacylated counterpart, the toxic sphingoid base galactosylsphingosine (psychosine). We report the design and application of a fluorescently tagged activity-based probe (ABP) for the sensitive and specific labeling of active GALC molecules from various species. The probe consists of a β-galactopyranose-configured cyclophellitol-epoxide core, conferring specificity for GALC, equipped with a BODIPY fluorophore at C6 that allows visualization of active enzyme in cells and tissues. Detection of residual GALC in patient fibroblasts holds great promise for laboratory diagnosis of Krabbe disease. We further describe a procedure for in situ imaging of active GALC in murine brain by intra-cerebroventricular infusion of the ABP. In conclusion, this GALC-specific ABP should find broad applications in diagnosis, drug development, and evaluation of therapy for Krabbe disease

    Early Infantil Krabbe Disease with Unusual Survival

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    Introduction: Globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal galactocerebrosidase that results in progressive demyelination. The sole treatment is hematopoietic cell transplantation, which is only effective if performed before the onset of signs. In the absence of treatment, most children with early infantile Krabbe disease die within 2 years. Case Report: Female patient, first child of non-consanguineous parents, apparently normal till the fifth month of age when she presented with irritability, stiffness with clenched fists, developmental delay and feeding difficulties that progressed rapidly to failure to thrive, apathy, psychomotor regression, few spontaneous movements and spastic tetraparesis. Cerebral MRI showed extensive cerebral white matter abnormalities, relatively sparing the U-fibers, with a pattern of radiating stripes. Galactocerebrosidase activity in leukocytes and fibroblasts and molecular studies confirmed the diagnosis of Krabbe disease. After the rapid and regressive initial phase, she showed no further clinical progression of the disorder and although she did not grow she even showed regression of irritability and had a stable evolution and good visual contact until death over the age of 5 years. Comments: Our case shows that patients may have a stabilized form of disease and that a longer survival than described in the literature without transplant is possible in some patients

    Enlargement of the brachial plexus on magnetic resonance imaging: a novel finding in adult-onset Krabbe disease

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    Adult-onset Krabbe disease is an autosomal recessive degenerative leukodystrophy that presents with bilateral corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. Although peripheral nerve involvement is a known manifestation of Krabbe disease, MRI findings of peripheral nerve abnormalities are limited to the cranial nerves and spinal nerve roots. In this case report, we discuss two cases of adult-onset Krabbe disease with brachial plexus enlargement on MRI. Adult-onset Krabbe disease should be included in the differential diagnoses when brachial plexus enlargement and white matter lesions involving corticospinal tracts present simultaneously

    Krabbe Disease in the Australian Working Kelpie

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    Krabbe disease is a lysosomal storage disorder that affects several species including humans, mice and dogs. It is caused by mutations in the GALC gene that encodes galactosylceramidase. These mutations result in lowered activity of this lysosomal enzyme which has an important role in myelin turnover. As a consequence of this, individuals with Krabbe disease show signs of neurological disease and pathological features occur in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These pathological features are globoid cells, demyelination and inflammation. Mechanisms behind the development of these features remain unclear despite genetic, biochemical, cellular and clinical studies. Genetic studies in Krabbe disease have allowed the development of PCR-based tests which have been proven to be a useful tool in identifying carriers of the disease. The recent diagnosis of Krabbe disease in the Australian Working Kelpie provides a new opportunity for genetic and pathological studies to further characterise Krabbe disease

    Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy (Krabbe Disease)

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    How to Cite This Article: TAvasoli A. Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy (Krabbe Disease). Iran J Child Neurol. Autumn 2014;8;4(Suppl.1):14-15.pls see pdf

    Enzyme replacement therapies: What is the best option?

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    Despite many beneficial outcomes of the conventional enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), several limitations such as the high-cost of the treatment and various inadvertent side effects including the occurrence of an immunological response against the infused enzyme and development of resistance to enzymes persist. These issues may limit the desired therapeutic outcomes of a majority of the lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Furthermore, the biodistribution of the recombinant enzymes into the target cells within the central nervous system (CNS), bone, cartilage, cornea, and heart still remain unresolved. All these shortcomings necessitate the development of more effective diagnosis and treatment modalities against LSDs. Taken all, maximizing the therapeutic response with minimal undesired side effects might be attainable by the development of targeted enzyme delivery systems (EDSs) as a promising alternative to the LSDs treatments, including different types of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs ) as well as Fabry, Krabbe, Gaucher and Pompe diseases
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