56,590 research outputs found

    The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Three Years

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    The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (P.L. 108-78) went into effect on January 1, 2004. This report provides an overview of the major trade and economic effects of the FTA over the three years ending in 2006. It also includes detailed information on key provisions of the agreement and legislative action. The U.S.-Singapore FTA has provided greater access for U.S. companies, has been instrumental in increasing bilateral trade, and has provided reassurance to Singaporeans of U.S. interest in the country. As a city-state, Singapore operates as an entrepot with essentially free trade. Under the FTA, concessions dealt mainly with providing greater access for American service providers and with strengthening the business environment in areas such as the protection of intellectual property rights and access to government procurement. In 2006, the United States ran a 6.9billionsurplusinitsmerchandisetradewithSingapore,upfrom6.9 billion surplus in its merchandise trade with Singapore, up from 1.4 billion in 2003. U.S. exports of goods to Singapore surged by 49% from 16.6billionin2003to16.6 billion in 2003 to 24.7 billion in 2006. However, even with this rapid increase in U.S. exports, the U.S. share of Singapore’s imports declined from 16% in 2003 to 13% in 2006. This suggests that factors other than the FTA, particularly the overall growth in Singapore’s imports, contributed greatly to the increase. Major U.S. exports to Singapore include machinery, electrical machinery, aircraft, optical and medical instruments, plastic, and mineral fuel oil. On the U.S. import side, a noteworthy development is that imports of pharmaceuticals from Singapore have risen dramatically from 0.09billionin2003to0.09 billion in 2003 to 2.4 billion in 2006. The FTA did not lower the U.S. tariff rate for pharmaceuticals, since they already enter the United States duty free. What appears to have occurred has been the development of Singapore as a regional center for multinational pharmaceutical companies that are stepping up exports. Negotiations for the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement were launched under the Clinton Administration in December 2000. The FTA became the fifth such agreement the United States has signed and the first with an Asian country. According to the U.S. Trade Representative, the FTA broke new ground in electronic commerce, competition policy, and government procurement. It also included what the U.S. Trade Representative considers to be major advances in intellectual property protection, environment, labor, transparency, and customs cooperation. The U.S.-Singapore FTA required congressional implementation under expedited Trade Promotion Authority legislative procedures. The debate over implementation of the FTA fell between business and free trade interests who would benefit from more liberalized trade, particularly in services, and labor or antiglobalization interests who opposed more FTAs because of the overall impact of imports on jobs and the general effects of globalization on income distribution, certain jobs, and the environment. Specific provisions of the agreement also generated debate. This report will be updated as circumstances warrant

    Travel-writing the design industry in modern Japan, 1905-25

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    Since 2000, historians have recognised the important role of transnational travel and information flow in the formation of particular designers’ practices (e.g. Christopher Dresser, Le Corbusier, David Adjaye). Nonetheless, many design histories continue not only to operate within national boundaries but also to emphasise them, despite the acknowledged importance of travel in the development of national design cultures. This chapter presents Teasley’s research into the impact of foreign travel and study on designers in the early twentieth century, another period marked by concerns about national identity, the impact of globalisation on local culture and developing exporters’ presence in global markets. After 1900, the Japanese government sponsored graduate designers’ travels in Europe, America and Asia. This was part of a state strategy for increasing light industry profits in domestic and export markets by strengthening indigenous design for manufacturing. Teasley’s chapter in this peer-reviewed book analyses the diaries, personal photographs, sketches, memos and published travel reports of Kogure Joichi (1881–1943) and Moriya Nobuo (1893–1927), two seminal figures in modern Japanese furniture and interior design education and industry. The section on Kogure’s travels in Manchuria led to new information on furniture manufacturing as state strategy in Japanese-occupied Asia. The first published research on these sources in any language, Teasley’s chapter offers a close reading in conjunction with theoretical work on travel, identity and narration to illuminate the impact of travel on designers’ self-formation as members of a transnational and cosmopolitan profession in the 20th century. Teasley was invited to present versions of this chapter to several universities, including the Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York (2008)

    Projected Images of Major Chinese Outbound Destinations

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    This study aimed to explore the projected images of major outbound destinations based on popular travel magazines in China. Travel articles on Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam and Taiwan from 2006 to 2008 were content analyzed. Japan was reported on most, and the projected images of the six destinations are dominated by leisure and recreation, and culture, history and art. Correspondence analysis was used to examine relationships between destinations and popular image attributes. The results showed that South Korea and Macau had distinct projected images, whereas Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Vietnam shared many similar image attributes. Practical implications for destination marketing organizations are provided

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: current situation and travel-associated concerns

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    This article is made available for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 brought back memories of the occurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002. More than 1500 MERS-CoV cases were recorded in 42 months with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 40%. Meanwhile, 8000 cases of SARS-CoV were confirmed in six months with a CFR of 10%. The clinical presentation of MERS-CoV ranges from mild and non-specific presentation to progressive and severe pneumonia. No predictive signs or symptoms exist to differentiate MERS-CoV from community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients. An apparent heterogeneity was observed in transmission. Most MERS-CoV cases were secondary to large outbreaks in healthcare settings. These cases were secondary to community-acquired cases, which may also cause family outbreaks. Travel-associated MERS infection remains low. However, the virus exhibited a clear tendency to cause large outbreaks outside the Arabian Peninsula as exemplified by the outbreak in the Republic of Korea. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about MERS-CoV and highlight travel-related issues

    MS – 211: Earman Family Letters from WWII

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    The collection contains 389 letters, 15 V-mail , and 166 additional items addressed to members of the Earman family home. The majority of the correspondence is sent from Ernest and Randolph to their mother, Mrs. Earman. Because the Earman brothers did not see much direct combat, the bulk of their letters are updates on health and daily activities, or candid observations on the war, the Army, the weather, and women. The rest of the collection includes letters addressed to the Earman family from distant or extended family, close friends, and Ernest’s foreign and domestic girlfriends. Many of the letters are (legibly) handwritten, though some were typed. While the majority of the items are well–preserved inside their original envelopes, eleven letters are without envelopes and seven envelopes are without accompanying letters; these items are marked as “envelope only” or “letter only.” Many envelopes contain a variety of printed ephemera or artifacts like clippings, programs, advertisements, and photographs. There were 31 photographs/ephemera which were not enclosed in any specific letter or envelope; these loose items have been grouped together in Series VIII (see description). There are brief gaps in correspondence which can be attributed to Army furloughs or overseas travel. Because some of the correspondence from Ernest, Randolph, and Granville (particularly the V–mail) was written under censorship, details about military location or movements have been omitted or physically removed from the letters. Historians researching WWII communication and censorship may be interested in the Vmail, telegrams, or letters from the soldiers immediately after they arrived overseas. The collection’s female writers offer a helpful gendered perspective of the war, both on the home–front and abroad. Jo Bush’s letters detail the life and training of a Cadet Nurse. Mrs. (Dorothy) Randolph Earman’s letters express the concerns of a wife and mother trying to manage a household while worrying about the absence of her husband. The letters from Ernest’s foreign (often romantic) acquaintances reveal how French and German women saw America, Americans, and WWII. Arguably the collection’s greatest strength is its view into the personal lives and relationships of U.S. soldiers while overseas. While he entertained multiple romantic interests during his time as a soldier, Ernest struck up a serious relationship in France with Catherine Seux, whom he hoped to marry one day after returning home. As time passed and marriage proved increasingly unlikely, Catherine’s progressively dejected letters—which end quite abruptly in Aug. 1946—give voice to foreign women who, charmed by American soldiers, hoped to marry and come to the United States but were met instead with cultural and economic setbacks. Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and biographical information about each collection in addition to inventories of their content. More information about our collections can be found on our website http://www.gettysburg.edu/special_collections/collections/.https://cupola.gettysburg.edu/findingaidsall/1184/thumbnail.jp