9 research outputs found

    MedfÞlelsesfokusert terapi. PÄ hvilken mÄte har MedfÞlelsesfokusert terapi (CFT) fÄtt betydning for faglig utvikling hos behandlere innen psykisk helsevern?

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    Jeg har i denne kvalitative studien hatt til hensikt Ă„ finne ut hvilke erfaringer mine informanter har ved Ă„ praktisere medfĂžlelsesfokusert terapi, og hvordan denne metoden har hatt betydning for deres faglige og personlige utvikling i arbeidet som terapeut i psykisk helsevern. Studien er vitenskapsfilosofisk forankret i en fenomenologisk-hermeneutisk tradisjon. Det kvalitative forskningsintervjuet er blitt brukt, og funnene analysert ved hjelp av Kirsti Malteruds systematiske tekstkondensering (STC). Funnene er drĂžftet opp mot teorien bak MedfĂžlelsesfokusert terapi (CFT), utviklet av Paul Gilbert. Supplert med teori om nyere psykodynamisk relasjonsforstĂ„else, Katie Erikssons vĂ„rdvitenskap og Kari Martinsens omsorgsetikk. Funnene avdekker tre hovedtema: Å ta vare pĂ„ seg selv, Å vĂŠre et medmenneske i relasjonen og Likeverd. Behandleres egen erfaring med medfĂžlelsesfokusert terapi har fĂžrt til at de er mer bevisst pĂ„ Ă„ stĂžtte seg selv, de er mindre selvkritiske og modigere i terapirommet. De beskriver at de mĂžter pasienten med mer nĂŠrvĂŠr, Ăžmhet og kjĂŠrlighet. Pasient-behandlerforholdet blir betegnet som Ă„ mĂžtes i felles menneskelighet, noe som bidrar til at avstanden mellom behandler og pasient reduserer. Metoden oppleves av behandleren som en integrert tenke- og handlemĂ„te. Det tas stilling til samfunnet vi lever i, og betydningen av Ă„ utĂžve medfĂžlelse og kjĂŠrlighet bĂ„de i terapirommet og utenfor

    Familieterapeut i barnevernet – en balansekunst. Familieterapeuters opplevelser av sin rolle og familieterapeutisk tenkning i arbeide med ungdom og foreldre i barneverntjenesten

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    Studiens formĂ„l har vĂŠrt Ă„ fĂ„ innblikk i familieterapeutens opplevelser og forstĂ„elser av sitt virke innen barnevernskonteksten. Studiens problemstilling retter fokuset pĂ„ ungdom og foreldres konfliktfulle relasjoner, hvordan familieterapeutene forstĂ„r, og pĂ„ hvilken mĂ„te familieterapeutisk og system –tenkningen, kan ha betydning for arbeidet. Hovedtema for studien kommer frem som et resultat av undersĂžkelsen. Familieterapeut i barnevernet – en balansekunst. Tema som fremkommer i studien, omhandler opplevelser av ulike balanseganger. Å balansere mellom ulike forstĂ„elser, mellom roller og posisjoner. Det handler om balanseganger mellom ungdommen og foreldrene, seg selv, og en systemisk forstĂ„else i en normativ kontekst. Funnene viser at forstĂ„else av ungdom og foreldre – konflikter, omhandler relasjonelle aspekter. Tilknytning, tillit og trygghet vektlegges. Betydningen av foreldrerollen i ungdomstid, og ungdommens behov for Ă„ bli sett og forstĂ„tt, understrekes. Det ses paralleller mellom hvilke forstĂ„elser informantene formidler som viktig i foreldrerollen i ungdomstid, og hva de formidler som viktige terapeutferdigheter. Videre viser funnene til betydningen av terapeutens kompetanse, engasjement og deres sĂŠregne egenskaper. Evner til fleksibilitet pĂ„ ulike nivĂ„, terapeutens verdier og holdning vektlegges

    NÄr stigma og skam stÄr i veien for at barn som har foreldre med rusmiddelavhengighet fÄr beskyttelse og meningsskapende samtaler. En kvalitativ studie

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    De publiserte artiklene har blitt fjernet fra den digitale versjonen, pÄ grunn av manglende tillatelser fra tidsskrift. Se de aktuelle tidsskriftene eller den trykte avhandlingen for Ä lese artiklene. / The published articles have been removed from the digital thesis due to copyright restrictions. They can be read in their journals or in the printed thesis.Foreldres rusmiddelavhengighet rammer barna hardt, uavhengig av type rusmiddel, sosioÞkonomisk bakgrunn og bosted. Det mange av barna har til felles er opplevelsen av redsel, skam og svik, men ogsÄ av kjÊrlighet og nÊrhet til sine foreldre. Hensikten med denne studien var Ä fÄ Þkt forstÄelse for barns opplevelser og behov nÄr foreldre har rusmiddelavhengighet. Overordnet problemstilling er: Hvordan opplever barn og unge sin oppvekst med foreldre med rusmiddelavhengighet, og hvordan fÄr de hjelp til Ä skape mening knyttet til sine barndomserfaringer? Datamaterialet bestÄr av kvalitative intervjuer med 12 ungdommer/unge voksne som har foreldre med rusmiddelavhengighet, og 7 foreldre/pasienter og 18 barneansvarlige i rusbehandling. Avhandlingen bygger pÄ sosialkonstruksjonistiske og systemiske perspektiver. Det er benyttet to analytiske tilnÊrminger: fortolkende fenomenologisk analyse (IPA), og paradigmatisk analyse av narrativer. Analysen av datamaterialet resulterte i tre overordnede funn: 1. Stigma og skam nyttet til foreldres rusmiddelavhengighet oppleves som en ekstra belastning for barna. 2. Relasjonen mellom barn og foreldre er viktig, ogsÄ nÄr de ikke bor sammen. Barn har behov for beskyttelse mot foreldres rusmiddelbruk, men ikke nÞdvendigvis mot foreldrene. 3. Barn og unge har behov for, men mangler muligheter til Ä skape sammenheng og mening gjennom samtaler med voksne. Funnene er diskutert gjennom Ä se til tidligere forskning, samt en systemisk tilnÊrming med teorier og diskurser knyttet til familieliv, foreldreskap, barns oppvekst, rusmiddelavhengighet, stigma og meningsskapende samtaler. Studien konkluderer med at stigma og skam knyttet til foreldreskap og rusmiddelavhengighet kan stÄ i veien for at barna fÄr nÞdvendig beskyttelse, kontinuitet i viktige relasjoner og meningsskapende samtaler med trygge voksne. Utvikling av nye diskurser og handlingsalternativer knyttet til forstÄelsen av foreldreskap og rusmiddelavhengighet, kan bidra til Ä gi barna og familiene bedre tverrfaglig hjelp og stÞtte.Abstract: Parental substance use disorder (SUD) strongly affects children, regardless of the type of substance, socioeconomic background and place of residence. What many of the children of parents with SUD have in common is their experience of fear, shame, and betrayal, but they also love and feel a closeness to their parents. The purpose of this study was to gain broader knowledge and understanding of children's experiences and needs when parents have a SUD. This topic was explored through the main research question: How do children and adolescents perceive their childhood with parents with substance use disorder, and what support is provided to help them to create meaning related to childhood experiences? The data consist of qualitative interviews with 12 adolescents/young adults who have parents with SUD, 7 parents/patients, and 18 therapists responsible for working with children and families in SUD treatment. The thesis is based on social construction and systemic perspectives. Two analytical approaches have been used: interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) and paradigmatic analysis of narratives. The analysis of the data resulted in three main findings: 1. Stigma and shame related to parental SUD are perceived as an extra burden for the children. 2. The relationship between children and parents is essential, even when they are not living together. The child needs protection against substance use but not necessarily against the parents. 3. Children and young people are in need of, but lack opportunities to create coherence and meaning through conversations with adults. These findings are discussed by looking at previous research, as well as a systemic approach with theories and discourses on family life, parenthood, childhood, SUD, stigma, shame, and meaningful conversations. The study suggests that stigma and shame related to parental SUD may interfere with the child being provided the necessary protection, continuity in significant relationships, and meaningful conversations with trusted adults. Development of new discourses and alternative actions in relation to the understanding of parenthood and SUD, may contribute towards providing children and families with sufficient interdisciplinary help and support

    Mamma pÄ avstand, hva nÄ? En studie av mÞdre som har blitt fratatt barna sine. 3 mÞdrers stemme

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    Masteroppgaven bygger pÄ en kvalitativ studie av hvordan 3 mÞdre opplever Ä vÊre mamma etter omsorgsovertakelse. MÞdrene regner seg fortsatt som mÞdre og de Þnsker Ä ha en rolle i barnas oppvekst. Deres nÄvÊrende foreldreskap utÞves hovedsakelig gjennom samvÊr med tilsyn. I sine beskrivelser legger de vekt pÄ deres mÞte med hjelpeapparatet, deres fÞlelse av Ä ikke kjenne seg god nok, hvordan de fortsatt Þnsker Ä vÊre en mor og deres streben etter Ä finne sammenheng og mening. MÞdrenes begrensede posisjon og delaktighet i barnas liv stÄr sentralt. Likeledes mÞdrenes beskrivelser av egen opplevd historie. MÞdrene beskrev hjelpeapparatets manglende ivaretakelse av mÞdrene ved omsorgsovertakelse. Barnevernets rolle som kontrollÞr ble tematisert som utfordrende i sorgprosessen, utvikling av forstÄelse, samt utÞving av foreldreskap

    «Sterkere sammen» En kvalitativ studie av foreldres opplevelse av eventuelle endringer i parforholdet etter deltakelse pÄ foreldrekurset Emosjonsfokusert ferdighetstrening for foreldre

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    «Emosjonsfokusert ferdighetstrening for foreldre (EFST)» er et kurs for foreldre hvor fokus er Ă„ understĂžtte barns emosjonelle utvikling, blant annet gjennom kunnskap om emosjoner og viktigheten av Ă„ validere fĂžlelsene. I denne kvalitative studien undersĂžkes om foreldre erfarer pĂ„virkning pĂ„ parforholdet etter deltakelse pĂ„ foreldrekurset. Studiens problemstilling er: «Hva forteller par om deres parforhold etter deltakelse pĂ„ foreldrekurset Emosjonsfokusert ferdighetstrening for foreldre?» FĂžlgende forskningsspĂžrsmĂ„l vil belyse problemstillingen: o Hva beskriver paret med tanke pĂ„ eventuell pĂ„virkning av deres emosjonelle forhold? o Hvordan beskriver paret deres kommunikasjon etter deltakelse? o Hvilke refleksjoner/erfaringer beskriver paret om eventuelle endringer i seg selv eller ved partner? For Ă„ belyse problemstillingen og forskningsspĂžrsmĂ„lene ble det gjennomfĂžrt analyse inspirert av systematisk tekstkondensering, modifisert av Malterud (Malterud, 2017). I studien er det gjennomfĂžrt semistrukturerte intervju med fire foreldrepar, som alle hadde avsluttet kurset Emosjonsfokusert ferdighetstrening for foreldre (EFST) i lĂžpet av det siste Ă„ret. Funnene beskrives med en systemisk og sosialkonstruksjonistisk tilnĂŠrming til teori og epistemologi, med en vitenskapsteoretisk forankring innen fenomenologi og hermeneutikk. Det ble analysert frem tre resultatkategorier: 1) OppvĂ„kning - en oppvĂ„kning med tanke pĂ„ betydningen av Ă„ utvikle et felles sprĂ„k som har bidratt til Ăžkt forstĂ„else og meningsdannelse, en Ăžkt fĂžlelsesbevissthet og forstĂ„else av egne tilknytningshistorier 2) En utvidelse av parets narrativ 3) Å skape felles mening. Studien diskuterer det empiriske materialet ut fra tidligere aktuell forskning, og utvalgt teori med hovedfokus pĂ„ sosialkonstruksjonisme, kommunikasjonsteori, narrativer og diskurser, tilknytning og emosjonsfokusert terapi. Funnene tyder pĂ„ at parene som deltok pĂ„ kurs opplevde en positiv effekt pĂ„ parforholdet, bĂ„de i forhold til kommunikasjon, emosjonell inntoning og tilgjengelighet. Diskusjonen er ment Ă„ utvide forstĂ„elsen av funnene, og vise hvorvidt et tiltak hvis siktemĂ„l er en dypere forstĂ„else av barnet sitt, ogsĂ„ kan ha en overfĂžringsverdi til parforholdet. Informantenes erfaringer ses i lys av det som ses pĂ„ som sentrale og virksomme elementer fra parterapeutisk praksis i familieterapifeltet

    SamhĂžrighet i terapi. En autoetnografi

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    Denne studien handler om mikroÞyeblikkene i det terapeutiske mÞtet, der terapeuten tar valg i mÞte med de(n) andre. Studien er en autoetnografi og fokuserer pÄ forskerens egen praksis og utvikling av selvrefleksivitet. Intensjonen er Ä undersÞke hva som skjer i det aktuelle Þyeblikket, bÄde i terapeuten og mellom terapeuten og de(n) andre, som kan vÊre bestemmende for det terapeutiske valget. Studiens analyse er inspirert av tematisk analyse. Studiens funn kommer fra forskerens sosiale konstruksjoner og er pÄvirket av kontekst, kultur og sosiale relasjoner. Hovedfunnene er fokus pÄ sensitivitet og intuisjon, timing og rytme samt trygghet og samhÞrighet i det terapeutiske mÞtet. Analysen har gitt en utvidet erkjennelse og bevissthet om konkrete personlige preferanser som utspiller seg i det terapeutiske arbeidet. Analysen har vist hvordan oppveksthistorie, erfaringsbasert tilnÊrming til kroppsorientert psykoterapi og terapeutrollen har bidratt til Ä utvikle disse preferansene. SÊrlig intuisjon, evne til inntoning og oppmerksom tilstedevÊrelse ble utviklet over mange Är og i ulike sammenhenger. Disse egenskapene fungerer som god stÞtte bÄde for terapeutens indre dialog og for terapeutens respons i den ytre dialog. Denne studien oppfordrer leseren til Ä reflektere over sine egne utviklingsopplevelser og utÞvelse av terapeutrollen

    Being the Instrument of Change : Staff Experiences in Developing Trauma-informed Practice in a Norwegian Child Welfare Residential Care Unit

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    The overall aim of this project is to contribute to the development of interventions that benefit children and adolescents in residential care. Research shows that this is a particularly vulnerable population, typically with histories of detrimental care and traumatic experiences, and which is institutionalised as an additional burden. Many of them display severe emotional, interpersonal, and behavioural problems. Meeting their needs in a residential care setting is challenging, and there has been a general call for models of care that can encompass the complexity of their life histories and problems and the institutional context. Along with the growing understanding of the effects of developmental trauma, trauma-informed practice (TIP) has emerged as a theoretical framework guiding residential treatment and care. TIP was introduced in Norway around 2010 and has since become widespread, especially in child welfare settings. TIP is a theoretical framework or model, rather than a standardised or operationalised method, that must be operationalised within each concrete context. In Norway, TIP has mainly been based on the Three Pillars Model advanced by the Australian psychologist Howard Bath. The objective of this project was to gain information on how Bath’s TIP model was operationalised and experienced by staff at a child welfare institution for adolescents in Buskerud County, Norway. The institution was among the first in Norway to start operating in accordance with a TIP framework, starting with the implementation of Bath’s Three Pillars model in 2014. The regional resource centre on violence, traumatic stress, and suicide prevention in southern Norway (RVTS-south) facilitated the implementation process. The qualitative research project this thesis is based upon was initiated as part of this process. In the project, the following main research question was explored: how do staff in a residential care unit in Norway transform the TIP framework into practice, and how do they experience and reflect upon this practice? The project comprised three studies examining the research question from different angles with a qualitative phenomenological research methodology. Over the course of six years, a total of 27 individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 informants. Data were analysed in accordance with the principles of thematic analysis, thematic network analysis, and narrative inquiry. The findings of the three studies are presented in three separate papers. The focus of the first study (presented in Paper I) was how the TIP framework of Howard Bath was translated into concrete practices. Using thematic network analysis of data from interviews with all 19 informants, we identified three global themes: self-awareness, including self-reflection, other-regulation, and authenticity; intended actions, including building strength, building mentalisation skills, providing staff availability, setting safe limits, and collaborating with youth; and organisational and cultural practices, including having a commonly shared mindset, stability and routines, and cultural safety. We suggest that the described practices, in general, reflect shared ideas across TIP models and resonate with informants' training. However, some practices also seemed to be influenced by other, and perhaps partly conflicting perspectives. In particular, the results indicate confusion and the need for clarification regarding the roles of authenticity and boundary setting within TIP. The second study (presented in Paper II) focused on prerequisites for staff members’ capacity to maintain an emotionally regulated state when faced with disruptive emotional and behavioural expressions. Providing other-regulation through one’s own emotional state is considered a core element of TIP. Using thematic analysis of data from interviews with 15 of the informants, we found that informants experienced their self-regulation capacity as depending on critical self-reflection, self-acceptance, being part of a regulating work environment, and having a trustworthy theoretical model to be guided by. The findings point to the importance of organisational cultures and procedures that encourage critical self-reflection and self-acceptance, which promote self-compassion and shame-resilience, and where investments are made to ensure staff identification with the chosen model of care. The third study (presented in Paper III) explored informants’ experiences with situations and interactions that could potentially threaten their capacity to maintain an emotionally regulated state. Data from interviews with eight of the informants were analysed using narrative inquiry, with an interest in how informants made sense of their experiences. We identified three major narrative themes: Are we doing the right things?, My childhood issues surfaced, and Missing togetherness with trusted others. The themes reflect that situations and interactions were seen as particularly challenging due to their complexity and confusing character, their potential to trigger painful childhood memories, and their potential to evoke fear of disconnection from colleagues. Findings were discussed in terms of what strain working within a TIP framework may imply for staff members – a strain that we suggest should be acknowledged and addressed at an organisational and structural level. An overarching interpretation is that informants, in their ways of practicing TIP, experienced themselves as ‘the instruments of change’. They engaged in a reflexive self-scrutinising endeavour, where they tended to attribute successes and failures in interactions with residents to factors within themselves. Although informants were generally in favour of working in accordance with TIP principles, the results revealed that working this way comes at a cost and may be deeply personally and emotionally challenging. Findings of the project point to the importance of acknowledging these costs and of establishing cultural and organisational practices that enable staff to endure the strain they face as the 'instruments of change'. This may include a particular focus on the management of shame by working with self-compassion, for example, by applying standardised procedures developed for this purpose. To be able to face potentially dysregulating situations on a day-to-day basis, based on the project findings, the work environment should entail a culture of other-regulation, wherein cultural safety, transparency, and collegial support are emphasised. In addition, to be able to invest so much of themselves in their work, both personally and emotionally, staff would need an understanding of why they are doing it and confidence in the productivity of the approach. Additionally, based on project results, it is recommended that services practising or implementing TIP clarify to the greatest possible extent what TIP is and what it is not, including a clarification of what is unique or generic to the model. Clarifying the role of authenticity and boundary setting within TIP might be of particular importance.Doktorgradsavhandlin

    ”Velkommen til oss”. Ritualisering av livets begynnelse

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    Velkommen til oss is a dissertation in the discipline of Sociology of religion that illuminates the pluralisation of Norwegian culture, with a point of departure in traditional and more recent ritualisations of the beginning of life. It is the analysis of the actors themselves as opposed to the ritual structures that constitutes my contribution to an understanding of the traditional christening service and more recent ritual actions. The analytical focus is on the parents’ concrete creation of the ritual actions, their experiences from carrying out the actions, and the parents’ understanding of what a ritual is and what the actions signify in both a religious/life stance and social sense. The title of the dissertation, Ritualisation of the beginning of life, refers to rituals that are mutually exclusive and that take place only once in a lifetime – as a rule in the course of the first years of a person’s life. The approach to the christening and naming ceremonies that I have chosen is that of in-depth interviews with nine sets of parents who have christened their child, four sets of parents who had a Humanist naming ceremony under the auspices of the Norwegian Humanist Association for children, three sets of parents who have created naming ceremonies in the alternative religion community and three sets of parents who have created private naming ceremonies. The parents were all new parents who had held a christening or naming ceremony for their child. The parents comprised a broad spectrum in terms of social background, civil status, and religious affiliation and life stance. The interviews were done in the autumn of 2003 and the spring of 2004. In the analysis of the actors’ respective relations to the christening service and the naming ceremony, I have chosen a practice-oriented and embodied perspective. As a means of stressing that my focus is on the actors, I employ the concept ritualisation instead of ritual. The term ritualisation has been developed on the basis of the social anthropologists Caroline Humphrey and James Laidlaw’s views on what constitutes a ritual action, and the sociologist and anthropologist Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of action approach to society. The intention behind this combination of a structural approach (Bourdieu) and actor-based approach (Humphrey & Laidlaw) is to illustrate that ritualisation is a part of society’s social and cultural structures and that ritualisation has a cognitive dimension. From Bourdieu I have also taken the concepts of field and habitus. I use the field concept in the division of the informants according to religious and life stance field, and both habitus and field in the analysis of the parents’ approaches to the christening service and naming ceremonies. A comparative perspective on the ritualisation of life’s beginning has made it possible to describe a pattern with differences and similarities in experiences from and reflections upon ritualisations. It appears that a habitus exists – an internal principle for thought and action in connection with birth and naming, which organises the ritual actions and experiences. This implies that the habitus adheres to a pattern that structures the actors in defined and learned trajectories. We are accordingly talking about culturally determined actions that appear to be stored in the body and that find expression with some similarities and differences from field to field. The christening and naming ceremony parents’ ritual habituses are not always challenged as one might perhaps expect with respect to the fields. It is not always the case that the attitudes and practices of the naming ceremony parents necessarily differ from those of the christening parents. The naming ceremonies do not always challenge the norms of the Christian field. The ritual habituses of the christening parents, the parents in the Humanist field, the universal social field and the alternative religion field show not only contradistinctive features, but also common features. This is particularly the case with regard to the tradition of godparents and the child’s attire. Using Pierre Bourdieu’s theory about the inclusive and exclusive power of rituals, I have explored whether christening and naming ceremonies have network and “nest building” functions for the children and parents. I use the term nest building to refer to the social processes that contribute to the establishment of family relationships and friendships, and I understand nest building as meaning the social processes behind the formation of couples and nuclear families. Christenings and naming ceremonies appear to have important social functions. The parents’ practices and experiences indicate that christenings and naming ceremonies are kinship events that have the potential to define the nuclear family, the mother and father as a couple, and the parents’ closest friends. The differences between the christening and naming ceremonies’ defining and consolidating functions with regard to kinship structures are few. The norms determining who has the right to be “consecrated” on this day are remarkably similar in all fields. Christenings and naming ceremonies also have important identity-forming aspects. For the christening parents, the christening is only to a limited extent motivated by the wish to give the child a Christian identity, but is rather first and foremost a means by which the parents confirm their connection to the church and to Christianity. For the alternative religion parents, the alternative religion’s naming ceremonies are finite expressions of the parents’ current religious orientation and of the parameters for the children’s upbringing. For parents with a Humanist life stance, Humanist naming ceremonies are a moderate Humanist life stance identity project. For some of these parents the naming ceremony marks the start of an identity project, while others have only a weak connection to the Norwegian Humanist Association. The private naming ceremonies confirm only to a small extent the parents’ faith or life stance. Instead, the private naming ceremonies underline the parents’ standing as autonomous individuals who live independent of a particular religious or life stance community. Feelings play a crucial part in the parents’ descriptions of their actions during the christenings, the Humanist and the private naming ceremonies. In the naming ceremonies of alternative religions, feelings have been an important theme in the context of creating the ceremony. Given the large emotional involvement in the ritual actions on the part of a number of the christening and naming ceremony parents, it would appear that christenings and naming ceremonies bear features of defined emotional spheres where feelings operate according to a specific logic. The attitude to the ritualisations appears to be predefined. In spite of what the parents might have experienced in the way of negative experiences or disappointments from christenings and naming ceremonies, the parents’ experiences from the ritualisations are on the whole of a positive nature. Humphrey and Laidlaw’s notion of scripts bears a close resemblance to a number of the naming ceremony parents’ mentalities regarding what constitutes a ritual and is key in some of the christening parents’ evaluations of the christening service. I have therefore used the concept of the script as an analytical tool as a means of understanding how the naming ceremony parents define their naming ceremonies and how the christening and naming ceremony parents view their ritual experiences. In all of the fields there are a number of similar features to be found in the parents’ attitudes towards ritual. The parents’ understanding of what defines a ritual is focused on celebration, meaningful contents and a strict orchestration of the ritual itself, while it simultaneously demonstrates those aspects of ritual that the parents deem to be most important. Many of the parents operate on the basis of a rigidly defined view of what qualifies as a ritual and what is required to create a good ritual. On the whole, a high level of ritualisation (high scripted) is something positive and a low level (low scripted) is something negative. For a number of the parents, a high level of ritualisation is what enhances ritual qualities, such as celebration, meaning and a strict orchestration. The value attributed to the three ritual dimensions varies from field to field. For the alternative religion parents, for some of the christening parents and also for one mother who had a Humanist naming ceremony and one mother who had a private naming ceremony, the ritual actions had a religious significance. In the alternative religions, the naming ceremony parents’ religious convictions hold a central significance in the creation of the naming ceremony, and for a number of the christening parents, belief in God is significant to an understanding of the christening. The ritualisations are based on a belief that the christening and naming ceremonies have a transformative effect on the child. For those of the parents who interpret the christening religiously, the hope is that the child, through words and water, will be granted God’s protection or fellowship with Jesus Christ. The alternative religion parents understand the naming ceremony as being a means of strengthening the child in general, as a human being. I have described the christening parents’ attitudes to christening through use of the metaphor “life belt”. I view both the life belt mentality of the christening parents, and the naming ceremony parents’ view of the naming ceremony as serving to strengthen the child, respectively, as strategies on the part of the parents that are intended to equip the child for encountering the future and life’s challenges

    Om Ă„ vokse opp pĂ„ barnehjem og pĂ„ sykehus En undersĂžkelse av barnehjemsbarns opplevelser pĂ„ barnehjem sammenholdt med sanatoriebarns beskrivelser av langvarige sykehusopphold – og et forsĂžk pĂ„ forklaring

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    Before as well as after the 2nd World war -, to put children into children’s homes was often the ultimate solution to the practical problem that was facing the social authorities when private care failed and mother and father proved incompetent. The incompetency might involve sickness and death, poverty, mental retardation, drug abuse and alcoholism, as well as violence and physical/psychical abuse. This remained so even if the first choice, according to Children’s Act of 1953, was fostercare. The actual period of institutionalization in this study runs from about 1940 to about 1980. The present study is one where 37 children from earlier children’s homes were interviewed about their daily life during their stay. This stay was supposed to last for at least 2 years. The actual range of stay was from 3 years to 19. The interviews were compared to those of 11 children who had been taken into hospital care in the first part of the period mentioned above, as the tuberculosis hospitals were settled in the midsixties. The children from the sanatoriums were chosen as a quasi-control group, as they were supposed to be the only group(except for the asthmatics and those with poliomyelitis1) which might match the situation of being removed from home; brought up by strangers for years, and having the least possible contact with their own parents or family. The main aim of the study was to bring to daylight the experiences of children in children’s homes. The second was to see if – when compared – the daily life of a children’s home might as well have been one lived in a sanatorium. If so, the national and international critique directed towards children’s homes might as well have been directed against hospitals and may be against any institution where children were brought up. If not so, may be these instituitons were built on quite different grounds developing attitudes and ways of handling children which were unrelated From unstructured interviews that lasted from one to four hours, the transcripts were searched for the most prominent themes of the daily lives of the children, in a manner inspired by the the Grounded theory approach. However, the children’s stories are presented narratively to illustrate the themes found, and as a result the comparison showed them to be more alike than different in the two institutions. This was a surprise but not unexpected. Rumours, written documents and autobiographies have indicated that the way children were handled in hospitals that accommodated patients for years resembled the routines that have been criticised in children’s public care. Thus we are faced with a reality that tells us that the criticised suppressive routines of institutional child care are not restricted to these institutions but have their parallel ways in hospitals as well. One troubling fact of this investigation was that the persons who seemed responsible for the import and maintenance of these suppressive routines were those in charge; the educated and the Christians among the staff. The people who had made a vow to serve their fellow men, more often than not, were those called “evil” by the children. This situation is explained on the background that hundreds of years with repressive upbringing have created people who do not recognize their tendencies to act violently when met with other people’s –especially children’s – resistance to the adult’s will. Thus we are caught in a stream of acts which overrides the pure cognitive knowledge that we have, telling us what to do and even overrides our ethical principles. Reference is made to the thoughts of Alice Miller. However, this goes not without saying that the children also met women who were described as nice and kind and observant to the children’s needs, and some children have responded: “she became my mother”. Another finding has been called “the collective blindness”; an expression that describes the situation when adult personnel recognize a colleague abusing a child without himself (the personel) acting. These situations have two typical consequences: a) the children, who always are aware of what is happening, lose their trust in the adult(s); and b) this kind of non-responsiveness is cementing these situations and thereby increasing the probability that they will reappear on the daily scene. Conclusively, lines are drawn to the impossibility of acting professionally when in close contact with patients or clients, without being trained to recognize the above mentioned mechanisms in your own mind
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