18,823 research outputs found

    The cinematic relationship between Italy and Iran

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    Questa tesi illustra la presenza del cinema italiano in Iran e analizza come gli spettatori abbiano accettato il cinema straniero in concomitanza con le trasformazioni della societ├á iraniana. LÔÇÖindagine parte dagli aspetti economici derivati dal petrolio come motore di crescita e cambiamento della societ├á iraniana. Elemento imprescindibile dai rapporti diplomatici con i paesi occidentali, la tesi ripercorre le tappe della nazionalizzazione petrolifera, analizza il ruolo giocato dallÔÇÖItalia in questo contesto e la nascita del rapporto commerciale tra Italia e Iran. Lo studio prende poi in esame pi├╣ nel dettaglio le relazioni italo-iraniane dal punto di vista cinematografico, e il successo dei film italiani in Iran. Pertanto, la tesi illustra le motivazioni della presenza cinematografica italiana in Iran e prende in esame lÔÇÖinfluenza prodottasi attraverso le relazioni bilaterali. LÔÇÖanalisi attraversa le tappe del doppiaggio cinematografico in lingua persiana effettuato in Italia, il cinema popolare iraniano e il cinema intellettuale. Fermo restando una componente italiana nello studio, maggiore attenzione ├Ę dedicata al Paese dÔÇÖarrivo, lÔÇÖIran, usando dati tratti da documenti storici, testi, giornali, risorse disponibili e interviste con persone informate in materia. Lo studio ├Ę concentrato su testi che approfondiscono la situazione economica e cinematografica iraniana allÔÇÖepoca della monarchia di Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, coincidente con il secondo dopoguerra, durante il quale lÔÇÖinfluenza cinematografica italiana si ├Ę fatta maggiormente sentire sul cinema iraniano. Obiettivo della tesi ├Ę definire le ragioni che hanno favorito lo sviluppo del rapporto cinematografico tra i due paesi, come il cinema italiano si sia manifestato nel cinema iraniano, e i presupposti che hanno comportato la crescita di questÔÇÖultimo.This thesis illustrates the presence of Italian cinema in Iran and analyses how the Iranian public accepted foreign cinema, in parallel with the changes that were happening to their society. This inquiry begins with the economic aspects derived from oil acting as a growth and change driver for the Iranian society. The thesis retraces the stages of the nationalization of oil - a vital element in the relations with western countries -, and analyses the role Italy played in that context and the birth of trade relationships between Italy and Iran. Then, the project examines in more detail the relations between Italy and Iran from the cinematographic point of view, and the success of Italian movies in Iran. Consequently, the thesis illustrates the reasons behind the presence of Italian cinema in Iran, and examines the influences produced by their bilateral relationships. The analysis goes through the various stages of the recording in Italy of dubbings in Persian, and the Iranian popular and intellectual cinemas. Notwithstanding an Italian side to this project, the majority of the attention is dedicated to the recipient state, Iran, by using data taken from historical documents, texts, newspapers, available resources and interviews with people competent in the subject matter. The work focuses on texts that delve into the economic and cinematographic situation of Iran at the time of the monarchy of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, coinciding with the post-World War II years, during which Italian cinema held the most influence over Iranian cinema. Purpose of the thesis is to define the reasons behind the development in the cinematographic relationships between the two countries, how Italian cinema transpired through Iranian cinema, and the premises that led to development of the latter

    Forms (ňŻó XING) and Visions (Ŕ▒í XIANG): A Comparative History of Screendance in Europe and in China

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    La presente tesi si propone di trattare il soggetto della┬áscreendance, giovane disciplina in continua definizione nata combinando cinema e coreografia, da una prospettiva alternativa, coerente con le ultime trasformazioni sociali. La ricerca, suddivisa in quattro parti, inizia da una ricognizione critica sulla terminologia utilizzata per indicare la screendance┬ánel suo sviluppo storico in Europa e in Cina durante il XX secolo.┬áAdoperando┬áuna metodologia basata sugli strumenti della storiografia comparativa,┬ávengono utilizzati┬ácome chiavi di lettura i due concetti taoisti di┬áxiang┬áo visione e┬áxing┬áo forma, lÔÇÖuno riferito al contesto culturale, storico e artistico di una data societ├á umana in un dato periodo storico, e lÔÇÖaltro alludente alle forme artistiche specifiche┬ádefinite┬áda quei principi. Nel focalizzarsi sul confronto tra i differenti sviluppi della┬áscreendance┬ánel corso del XX secolo in Europa e in Cina, nella seconda parte, la tesi┬áaffronta┬áuna comparazione diacronica delle trasformazioni di┬áxiang┬ádelle due aree geografiche,┬áinsieme a┬áuna comparazione sincronica delle┬áxing, rendendo pi├╣ evidenti analogie e divergenze di numerosi case studies occidentali e cinesi.┬á Uno sguardo sul panorama europeo,┬áattento alle differenze nella disseminazione┬ádella screendance┬áattraverso┬ái┬áfestival in Gran Bretagna, Francia, Belgio e Italia, costituisce il focus della terza parte. Con la quarta ed ultima parte, la tesi riserva ampio spazio alla disamina della situazione contemporanea della┬áscreendance, seguendone la diffusione negli ultimi quattro decenni attraverso i festival e, pi├╣ recentemente, i nuovi canali social di creazione e condivisione di contenuti video, e prospettando un futuro in cui la realt├á della┬áscreendance┬áeuropea e quella cinese potranno confrontare le proprie identit├á culturali. Il ricco apparato documentario include un elenco dei festival di┬áscreendance┬áeuropei e cinesi, e una serie di interviste inedite ai maggiori operatori e professionisti del settore, italiani ed europei.This thesis aims to deal with the subject of screendance from an alternative perspective, consistent with the latest social transformations. The research, divided into four parts, begins with a critical review of the terminology used to indicate screendance in its historical development in Europe and China during the twentieth century. Using a methodology based on the tools of comparative historiography, the author uses the two Taoist concepts of xiang or vision and xing or form as keys, one referring to the cultural, historical and artistic context of a given human society in a given historical period , and the other alluding to the specific artistic forms defined by those principles. The second part is focused on the comparison between the different developments of the screendance during the twentieth century in Europe and China, and deals with a diachronic comparison of the xiang transformations of the two geographical areas, together with a synchronic comparison of the xing, making more evident analogies and divergences of numerous Western and Chinese case studies. A look at the European panorama, attentive to the differences in the dissemination of the screendance through the festivals in Great Britain, France, Belgium and Italy, constitutes the focus to the third part. With the fourth and last part, the thesis reserves ample space for the examination of the contemporary situation of screendance, following its diffusion in the last four decades through festivals and, more recently, the new social channels for creating and sharing video content, and envisaging a future in which the reality of the European and Chinese screendance will be able to compare their own cultural identities. The rich documentary apparatus includes a list of European and Chinese screendance festivals, and a series of unpublished interviews with the major operators and professionals in the sector, both Italian and European

    Grasping nothing: a study of minimal ontologies and the sense of music

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    If music were to have a proper sense ÔÇô one in which it is truly given ÔÇô one might reasonably place this in sound and aurality. I contend, however, that no such sense exists; rather, the sense of music takes place, and it does so with the impossible. To this end, this thesis ÔÇô which is a work of philosophy and music ÔÇô advances an ontology of the impossible (i.e., it thinks the being of what, properly speaking, can have no being) and considers its implications for music, articulating how ontological aporias ÔÇô of the event, of thinking the absolute, and of sovereigntyÔÇÖs dismemberment ÔÇô imply senses of music that are anterior to sound. John CageÔÇÖs Silent Prayer, a nonwork he never composed, compels a rerethinking of silence on the basis of its contradictory status of existence; Florian Hecker et al.ÔÇÖs Speculative Solution offers a basis for thinking absolute music anew to the precise extent that it is a discourse of meaninglessness; and Manfred WerderÔÇÖs [yearn] pieces exhibit exemplarily that musicÔÇÖs sense depends on the possibility of its counterfeiting. Inso-much as these accounts produce musical senses that take the place of sound, they are also understood to be performances of these pieces. Here, then, thought is musicÔÇÖs organon and its instrument

    People make Places

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    For centuries Glasgow, as a bucolic fishing village and ecclesiastical centre on the banks of the River Clyde, held little of strategic significance. When success and later threats came to the city, it was as a consequence of explosive growth during the industrial era that left a significant civic presence accompanied by social and environmental challenges. Wartime damage to the fabric of the city and the subsequent implementation of modernist planning left Glasgow with a series of existential threats to the lives and the health of its people that have taken time to understand and come to terms with. In a few remarkable decades of late 20th century regeneration, Glasgow began to be put back together. The trauma of the second half of the 20th century is fading but not yet a distant memory. Existential threats from the climate emergency can provoke the reaction ÔÇťwhat, again?ÔÇŁ However, the resilience built over the last 50 years has instilled a belief that a constructive, pro-active and creative approach to face this challenge along with the recognition that such action can be transformational for safeguarding and improving peopleÔÇÖs lives and the quality of their places. A process described as a just transition that has become central to GlasgowÔÇÖs approach. Of ScotlandÔÇÖs four big cities, three are surrounded by landscape and sea only Glasgow is surrounded by itself. Even with a small territory, Glasgow is still the largest of ScotlandÔÇÖs big cities and by some margin. When the wider metropolitan area is considered, Glasgow is ÔÇô like Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool ÔÇô no mean city. People make Places begins with a review of the concept and complexities of place, discusses why these matter and reviews the growing body of evidence that place quality can deliver economic, social and environmental value. The following chapters focus on the history and evolution of modern Glasgow in four eras of 19th and early 20th century industrialisation, de- industrialisation and modernism in mid 20th century, late 20th century regeneration and a 21st century recovery towards transition and renaissance, and document the process, synthesis and the results of a major engagement programme and to explore systematic approaches to place and consensus building around the principal issues. The second half of the work reflects on a stocktaking of place in contemporary Glasgow, looking at the city through the lenses of an international, metropolitan and everyday city, concluding with a review of the places of Glasgow and what may be learned from them revealing some valuable insights presented in a series of Place Stories included. The concluding chapter sets out the findings of the investigation and analysis reviewing place goals, challenges and opportunities for Glasgow over the decades to 2030 and 2040 and ends with some recommendations about what Glasgow might do better to combine place thinking and climate awareness and setting out practical steps to mobilise GlasgowÔÇÖs ÔÇśplace ecosystemÔÇÖ

    BEYOND THE MYTH: Screenwriting Approaches to Biographical Films

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    This PhD submission comprises an original screenplay on the relationship between African American activist Paul Robeson and the mining community of south Wales titled Robeson: They CanÔÇÖt Stop Us Singing, and the accompanying exegesis. The aim is to explore, by academic study (gnosis) and creative practice (praxis), the previously overlooked field of writing biographical films, or biopics, and to acknowledge the role of the screenwriter in telling a personÔÇÖs life story on film. The script is the experiment; the exegesis is the analysis and methodology. The role of the screenwriter is underrepresented across cinema studies, but no more so than in the discussion of biopics. My exegesis begins by exploring what academic and popular writing already exists on English-language biopics, highlighting that amidst auteurist approaches prevalent in cinema studies, little credit has been afforded to screenwriters. I seek to address this by examining how screenwriters have responded to historiographical and socio-political contexts while balancing the needs of the audience with factual integrity (or sometimes not), before using the case studies of Abraham Lincoln and Charles Lindbergh to explore how American hero figures have been represented on screen. How does a script written on Lincoln in 1939, for example, differ in terms of tone and political philosophy to one delivered in the 21st century? Using historical approaches, the exegesis then examines the life of Paul Robeson and the Welsh miners he knew, to observe the meticulous choices required by the screenwriter researching and writing a biopic script. Using primary sources (interviews with living dramatic writers, including the BAFTA-nominated screenwriter of the biopic, Good Vibrations) and secondary sources (screenplays, films, audio, interviews, other academic writing), I question where and when to begin and end a biographical story, which parts of a personÔÇÖs life to include or jettison, how to make a historical figureÔÇÖs events pertinent to a contemporary audience, and how to utilise fictionalised elements in a drama while adhering to a central truth. My own screenplay on Robeson and Wales is the embodiment of this research. The script demonstrates the myriad artistic decisions that need to be made to present the qualities and flaws of the historical figure. It shows why fictionalised moments and composite characters contribute to an understanding of a real personÔÇÖs motives and feelings in a way documentary and historical writing cannot. And it stands as a record of the screenwriterÔÇÖs previously overlooked contribution to creating biographical films

    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekni─čini g├╝├žlendirme a┼čamalar─▒ eser ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒yla uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ge├ži┼člerini h─▒zland─▒racak ritim ve n├╝ans ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒na yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čman─▒n en ├Ânemli amac─▒ sadece staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒ de─čil parmak-dilin e┼č zamanl─▒ uyumunun hassasiyeti ├╝zerinde de durulmas─▒d─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n─▒ daha verimli hale getirmek i├žin eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n i├žinde et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒na da yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čmalar─▒n ├╝zerinde titizlikle durulmas─▒ staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n ilham verici etkisi ile m├╝zikal kimli─če yeni bir boyut kazand─▒rm─▒┼čt─▒r. Sekiz ├Âzg├╝n eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n her a┼čamas─▒ anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Her a┼čaman─▒n bir sonraki performans ve tekni─či g├╝├žlendirmesi esas al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada staccato tekni─činin hangi alanlarda kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒, nas─▒l sonu├žlar elde edildi─či bilgisine yer verilmi┼čtir. Notalar─▒n parmak ve dil uyumu ile nas─▒l ┼čekillenece─či ve nas─▒l bir ├žal─▒┼čma disiplini i├žinde ger├žekle┼čece─či planlanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Kam─▒┼č-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-n├╝ans ve disiplin kavramlar─▒n─▒n staccato tekni─činde ayr─▒lmaz bir b├╝t├╝n oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ara┼čt─▒rmada literat├╝r taramas─▒ yap─▒larak staccato ile ilgili ├žal─▒┼čmalar taranm─▒┼čt─▒r. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekni─čin de kullan─▒lan staccato eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n az oldu─ču tespit edilmi┼čtir. Metot taramas─▒nda da et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n daha ├žok oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. B├Âylelikle klarnetin staccato tekni─čini h─▒zland─▒rma ve g├╝├žlendirme ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ sunulmu┼čtur. Staccato et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ yap─▒l─▒rken, araya eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n girmesi beyni rahatlatt─▒─č─▒ ve isteklili─či daha artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ g├Âzlemlenmi┼čtir. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒ yaparken do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi ├╝zerinde de durulmu┼čtur. Staccato tekni─čini do─čru ├žal─▒┼čmak i├žin do─čru bir kam─▒┼č─▒n dil h─▒z─▒n─▒ artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi kam─▒┼čtan rahat ses ├ž─▒kmas─▒na ba─čl─▒d─▒r. Kam─▒┼č, dil atma g├╝c├╝n├╝ vermiyorsa daha do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žiminin yap─▒lmas─▒ gereklili─či vurgulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒nda ba┼čtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu a├ž─▒dan ├žal─▒┼čma, verilen m├╝zikal n├╝anslara uyman─▒n, dil at─▒┼č performans─▒n─▒ rahatlatt─▒─č─▒n─▒ ortaya koymu┼čtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktar─▒lmas─▒ ve geli┼čtirici olmas─▒ te┼čvik edilmi┼čtir. ├ç─▒kacak eserlerin nas─▒l ├ž├Âz├╝lece─či, staccato tekni─činin nas─▒l ├╝stesinden gelinebilece─či anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato tekni─činin daha k─▒sa s├╝rede ├ž├Âz├╝me kavu┼čturulmas─▒ ama├ž edinilmi┼čtir. Parmaklar─▒n yerlerini ├Â─čretti─čimiz kadar belle─čimize de ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n kaydedilmesi ├Ânemlidir. G├Âsterilen azmin ve sabr─▒n sonucu olarak ortaya ├ž─▒kan yap─▒t ba┼čar─▒y─▒ daha da yukar─▒ seviyelere ├ž─▒karacakt─▒r

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    The Disputation: The Enduring Representations in William Holman Hunt's ÔÇťThe Finding of the Saviour in the Temple,ÔÇŁ 1860

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    This interdisciplinary thesis problematizes the Jewish presence in the painting The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple (1860) by William Holman Hunt. This ÔÇťJewish presenceÔÇŁ refers to characters within the painting, Jews who posed for the picture and the paintingÔÇÖs portrayal of Judaism. The thesis takes a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to The Finding providing careful description and interpretation of what appears in the painting. It situates the painting within a newly configured genre of disputation paintings depicting the Temple scene from the Gospel of Luke (2:47 ÔÇô 52). It asks two questions. Why does The Finding look the way it does? And how did Holman Hunt know how to create the picture? Under the rubric of the first question, it explores and challenges customary accounts of the painting, explicitly challenging the over reliance upon F.G. StephensÔÇÖs pamphlet. Additionally, it examines Pre-Raphaelite and Victorian religious contexts and bringing hitherto unacknowledged artistic contexts to the fore. The second question examines less apparent influences through an analysis of the originary Lukan narrative in conjunction with the under-examined genre of Temple ÔÇťdisputationÔÇŁ paintings, and a legacy of scholarly and religious disputation. This demonstrates a discourse of disputation informing The Finding over and above the biblical narrative. In showing that this discourse strongly correlates with the paintingÔÇÖs objectifying and spectacular properties, this thesis provides a new way to understand The FindingÔÇÖs orientalism which is further revealed in its typological critical reworking of two Christian medieval and renaissance paintings. As a demonstration of the discourse, the thesis includes an examination of Jewish artists who addressed the theme of disputation overtly or obliquely thereby engaging with and challenging the assumptions upon which the disputation rests

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis
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