39,960 research outputs found

    The applied psychology of addictive orientations : studies in a 12-step treatment context.

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    The clinical data for the studies was collected at The PROMIS Recovery Centre, a Minnesota Model treatmentc entre for addictions,w hich encouragesth e membership and use of the 12 step Anonymous Fellowships, and is abstinence based. The area of addiction is contextualised in a review chapter which focuses on research relating to the phenomenon of cross addiction. A study examining the concept of "addictive orientations" in male and female addicts is described, which develops a study conductedb y StephensonM, aggi, Lefever, & Morojele (1995). This presents study found a four factor solution which appeared to be subdivisions of the previously found Hedonism and Nurturance factors. Self orientated nurturance (both food dimensions, shopping and caffeine), Other orientated nurturance (both compulsive helping dimensions and work), Sensation seeking hedonism (Drugs, prescription drugs, nicotine and marginally alcohol), and Power related hedonism (Both relationship dimensions, sex and gambling. This concept of "addictive orientations" is further explored in a non-clinical population, where again a four factor solution was found, very similar to that in the clinical population. This was thought to indicate that in terms of addictive orientation a pattern already exists in this non-clinical population and that consideration should be given to why this is the case. These orientations are examined in terms of gender differences. It is suggested that the differences between genders reflect power-related role relationships between the sexes. In order to further elaborate the significance and meaning behind these orientations, the next two chapters look at the contribution of personality variables and how addictive orientations relate to psychiatric symptomatology. Personality variables were differentially, and to a considerable extent predictably involved with the four factors for both males and females.Conscientiousness as positively associated with "Other orientated Nurturance" and negatively associated with "Sensation seeking hedonism" (particularly for men). Neuroticism had a particularly strong association with the "Self orientated Nurturance" factor in the female population. More than twice the symptomatology variance was explained by the factor scores for females than it was for males. The most important factorial predictors for psychiatric symptomatology were the "Power related hedonism" factor for males, and "Self oriented nurturance" for females. The results are discussed from theoretical and treatment perspectives

    The labour supply and retirement of older workers: an empirical analysis

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    This thesis examines the labour supply of older workers, their movement into retirement, and any movement out of retirement and back into work. In particular the labour force participation, labour supply and wage elasticity and other income elasticity of work hours are estimated for older workers and compared to younger workers. The thesis goes on to look at the movement into retirement for older workers as a whole by examining cohorts by gender, wave and age. The thesis also presents a descriptive and quantitative ‚ÄĘ examination of the changes in income and happiness that occur as an individual retires. Finally the thesis examines the reasons why an individual may return to work from v . retirement. The results of the findings suggest: that younger workers are significantly more responsive to wage and household income changes than older worker

    The Influence of Quality on eWOM: A Digital Transformation in Hotel Management

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    612324There is no doubt that the use of Internet for purchasing products and services has constituted a crucial change in how people go about buying them. In the era of digital transformation, the possibility of accessing information provided by other users about their personal experiences has taken on more weight in the selection and buying processes. On these lines, traditional word-of-mouth (WOM) has given way to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), which constitutes a major social change. This behavior is particularly relevant in the services area, where potential users cannot in advance assess what is on offer. There is an abundant literature analyzing the effects of eWOM on different variables of interest in this sector. However, little is known about the factors that determine eWOM. Thus, the main objective of the present paper is to analyze the impact of two variables (objective quality and perceived quality) on eWOM. Both of them are crucial for potential customers in the process of finding hotel accommodations and they can motivate people to make such comments. The results demonstrate that these variables truly have a significant impact on whether or not users make comments on line. Moreover, it proved possible to observe certain differences according to the profile of the tourist involved and the destination where the hotel is located. In the current changing environment, this information is of great use for hotel managers in order to design strategies according to the type of guest they wish to attract.S

    Metformin versus sulphonylureas for new onset atrial fibrillation and stroke in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based study.

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    To gain insights on the cardiovascular effects of metformin and sulphonylurea, the present study compares the rates of incident atrial fibrillation, stroke, cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality between metformin and sulphonylurea users in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients receiving either sulphonylurea or metformin monotherapy between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2019. The primary outcome was new-onset AF or stroke. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Propensity score matching (1:2 ratio) between sulphonylurea and metformin users was performed, based on demographics, CHA-DS-VASc score, past comorbidities and medication use. Cox regression was used to identify significant risk factors. Competing risk analysis was conducted using cause-specific and subdistribution hazard models. Sensitivity analyses using propensity score stratification, high-dimensional propensity score and inverse probability of treatment weighting were conducted. Subgroup analyses were conducted for age and gender in the matched cohort. A total of 36,228 sulphonylurea users and 72,456 metformin users were included in the propensity score-matched cohort. Multivariable Cox regression showed that sulphonylurea users had higher risks of incident AF (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.75-3.77; P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001), stroke (HR: 3.23, 95% CI: 3.01-3.45; P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.60, 95% CI: 2.62-4.81; P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001) and all-cause mortality (HR: 4.35, 95% CI: 3.16-4.75; P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001) compared to metformin users. Similarly, significant results were observed using cause-specific and subdistribution hazard models. Sensitivity analysis using techniques based on the propensity score also yielded similar results. Sulphonylurea use was associated with higher risks of incident AF, stroke, cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality compared to metformin. Males and patients older than 65¬†years with sulphonylurea use were exposed to the highest risks. [Abstract copyright: ¬© 2022. Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature.

    ClasiÔ¨Ācaci√≥n de riesgo para frecuencias y severidades en un seguro de autom√≥viles usando modelos GAMLSS

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    En la tariÔ¨Ācaci√≥n de seguros generales, en particular en seguros de veh√≠culos, es valioso incorporar toda la informaci√≥n disponible del asegurado, del bien asegurado y de los siniestros que se han presentado, con el Ô¨Ān de obtener modelos que consideren las variables relevantes en la estimaci√≥n y as√≠ generar una prima de riesgo adecuada para el riesgo que se est√° analizando. Los modelos a considerar est√°n construidos con base en las reclamaciones que ha presentado el asegurado y su estimaci¬īon se obtiene mediante distribuciones del n√ļmero y monto de siniestros dando como resultado tarifas que incluyen recargos y descuentos en base a la experiencia siniestral, lo que se conoce como Sistema Bonus-Malus. Adicionalmente se han analizado modelos de regresi√≥n que incluyen informaci√≥n tanto del asegurado como del veh√≠culo y cuya estimaci√≥n de la prima de riesgo se realiza a trav√©s de la media tanto de la frecuencia como de la severidad. Sin embargo, dado que los riesgos en la cartera expuesta son heterog√©neos, se plantean tambi√©n modelos de regresi√≥n en los que la estimaci√≥n de la frecuencia y la severidad se realiza a trav√©s de par√°metros como: la media, la varianza, el sesgo y la curtosis, estos √ļltimos son denominados modelos aditivos generalizados de localizaci√≥n, escala y forma (GAMLSS)

    Genetically Determined Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Total, Trunk, and Arm Fat-Free Mass: A Mendelian Randomization Study

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    Purpose: Low serum vitamin D status has been associated with reduced muscle mass in observational studies although the relationship is controversial and a causal association cannot be determined from such observations. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was applied to assess the association between serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) and total, trunk, arm and leg fat-free mass (FFM). Methods: MR was implemented using summary-level data from the largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on vitamin D (n=73,699) and total, trunk, arm and leg FFM. Inverse variance weighted method (IVW) was used to estimate the causal estimates. Weighted median (WM)-based method, and MR-Egger, leave-one-out were applied as sensitivity analysis. Results: Genetically higher serum 25(OH)D levels had a positive effect on total (IVW = Beta: 0.042, p = 0.038), trunk (IVW = Beta: 0.045, p = 0.023) and arm (right arm IVW = Beta: 0.044, p = 0.002; left arm IVW = Beta: 0.05, p = 0.005) FFM. However, the association with leg FFM was not significant (right leg IVW = Beta: 0.03, p = 0.238; left leg IVW = Beta: 0.039, p = 0.100). The likelihood of heterogeneity and pleiotropy was determined to be low (statistically non-significant), and the observed associations were not driven by single SNPs. Furthermore, MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier test did not highlight any outliers. Conclusions: Our results illustrate the potentially causal, positive effect of serum 25(OH)D concentration on total, trunk and upper body appendicular fat-free mass

    3D printed Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery

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    3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing and prototyping technology that has altered the outlooks of numerous industrial and scientific fields since its introduction. Recently, it has attracted attention for its potential as a manufacturing tool for transdermal microneedles for drug delivery. In the present thesis, the 3D printability of solid and hollow microneedles via photopolymerisation-based 3D printing was investigated, aiming at establishing robust manufacturing strategies for reproducible, mechanically strong and versatile microneedles. The developed microneedles were employed as drug delivery systems for the treatment of diabetes via insulin administration. Solid microneedles featuring different geometries were designed and 3D printed. It was demonstrated that the printing and post-printing parameters affected the printed quality, a finding that was employed to optimise the manufacturing strategy. Microneedle geometry was also found to have an impact on the piercing and fracture behaviour; however all microneedle designs were found to be mechanically safe upon application. The solid microneedles were subsequently coated with insulin-polymer films, using a 2D inkjet printing technology. The coating process achieved spatial control of the drug deposition, with quantitative accuracy. The microneedle geometry was shown to influence the morphology of the coating film, an effect that was pronounced during in the in vitro delivery studies of insulin to porcine skin. Furthermore, hollow microneedles were designed and 3D printed, featuring different heights. Two photopolymerisation-based technologies were studied, and their performance was compared. The key influential parameters of the printing outcome and microneedle quality were identified to be the printing angle and the size of the microneedle opening. The hollow microneedles were found to be effective in piercing porcine skin without structural damaging. The hollow microneedles were incorporated into complex patches with internal microfluidic structures for the provision and distribution of drug-containing solutions. The developed complex hollow microneedle patches were coupled with a microelectromechanical system to create a novel platform device for controlled, personalised transdermal drug delivery. Advanced imaging techniques revealed that the device achieved distribution of the liquid within porcine skin tissue without the creation of depots that would delay absorption. The device was evaluated for its efficacy to transdermally deliver a model dye and insulin in vitro. In vivo trials were also conducted using diabetic rodents, with the device achieving faster onset of insulin action and sustained glycemic control, in comparison to subcutaneous injections. Overall, the findings of the present research are anticipated to elucidate key problematic areas associated with the application of 3D printing for microneedle manufacturing and propose feasible solutions. The outermost goal of this work is to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field of 3D printed transdermal drug delivery systems, in order to bring them one step closer to their adoption in the clinical setting

    Factors influencing the ground thermal regime in a mid-latitude glacial cirque (Hoyo Empedrado, Cantabrian Mountains, 2006‚Äď2020)

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    .Air and near-surface ground temperatures were measured using dataloggers over 14 years (2006‚Äď2020) in 10 locations at 2262 to 2471 m.a.s.l. in a glacial cirque of the Cantabrian Mountains. These sites exhibit relevant differences in terms of substrate, solar radiation, orientation, and geomorphology. Basal temperature of snow (BTS) measurements and electrical resistivity tomography of the talus slope were also performed. The mean annual near-surface ground temperatures ranged from 5.1 ¬įC on the sunny slope to 0.2 ¬įC in the rock glacier furrow, while the mean annual air temperature was 2.5 ¬įC. Snow cover was inferred from near-surface ground temperature (GST) data, estimating between 130 and 275 days per year and 0.5 to 7.1 m snow thickness. Temperature and BTS data show that the lowest part of the talus slope and the rock glacier furrow are the coldest places in this cirque, coinciding with a more persistent and thickest snow cover. The highest temperatures coincide with less snow cover, fine-grained soils, and higher solar radiation. Snow cover has a primary role in controlling GST, as the delayed appearance in autumn or delayed disappearance in spring have a cooling effect, but no correlation with mean annual near-surface ground temperatures exists. Heavy rain-over-snow events have an important influence on the GST. In the talus slope, air circulation during the snow-covered period produces a cooling effect in the lower part, especially during the summer. Significant inter-annual GST differences were observed that exhibited BTS limitations. A slight positive temperature trend was detected but without statistically significance and less prominent than nearby reference official meteorological stations, so topoclimatic conditions reduced the more global positive temperature trend. Probable existence of permafrost in the rock glacier furrow and the lowest part of the talus slope is claimed; however, future work is necessary to confirm this aspect.S
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