1,412 research outputs found

    Protective effects and mechanisms of ellagic acid on intestinal injury in piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

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    The present study was conducted to decipher the protection effects of ellagic acid (EA) on piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Thirty 7-day-old piglets were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: control, PEDV, and EA + PEDV groups. After a 3-day period of adaption, piglets in the EA + PEDV group were orally administered with 20 mg/kg·BW EA during days 4-11 of the trial. On day 8, piglets were orally administered with PEDV at a dose of 106 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) per pig. Additionally, intestinal porcine epithelial (IPEC-1) cells infected with PEDV were used to investigate the anti-PEDV effect of EA in vitro. The results showed that EA at a dose of 10-40 μmol/L increased the viability of PEDV-infected IPEC-1 cells, and EA administration mitigated intestinal edema in piglets challenged with PEDV. Further studies indicated that EA treatment significantly increased the proportion of white blood cells in blood and concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the serum, but decreased the TNF-α content and gene expression of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and CXCL2 in the jejunum. Moreover, EA intervention considerably elevated the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), but decreased the H2O2 concentration in the ileum of piglets. Importantly, EA suppressed the increased expression of antiviral-related genes and proteins (including MXI, ISG15, HSP70, and p-IRF7) induced by PEDV challenge in the jejunum. Furthermore, PEDV infection increased the protein abundance of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, which were further enhanced by EA supplementation. In conclusion, our results revealed that EA could promote the restoration of intestinal homeostasis by regulating the interferon pathway that was interrelated with the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. These findings provide theoretical basis for the use of EA as a therapy targeting PEDV infection in piglets

    Silybin Showed Higher Cytotoxic, Antiproliferative, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in the CaCo Cancer Cell Line while Retaining Viability and Proliferation in Normal Intestinal IPEC-1 Cells

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    The anticancer potential of silymarin is well known, including its anti-inflammatory as well as antiproliferative effect mediated by influencing the cell cycle, suppression of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell-survival kinases. However, less is known about silybin, the main component of the silymarin complex, where studies indicate its dual effect on the proliferation and immune response of various cell types in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there is a lack of studies comparing the effect of silybin on the same type of healthy and tumor cells, especially intestinal ones. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the concentration-dependent effect of silybin on the normal intestinal porcine epithelial cell line-1 (IPEC-1) and the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2). The metabolic viability, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis, and the relative gene expression for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were monitored in cells treated with silybin. Silybin stimulates metabolic viability as well as proliferation in IPEC-1 cells, protects the mitochondrial membrane, and thus exerts a cytoprotective effect, and has only a minimal effect on the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines but significantly increases the expression of anti-inflammatory TGF-β. In contrast, it inhibits metabolic viability in tumor intestinal CaCo-2 cells, has an antiproliferative effect accompanied by increased apoptosis, and significantly reduces the expression of genes for pro-inflammatory interleukins as well as TGF-β. The antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effect of silybin on tumor intestinal cells without a negative effect on healthy cells is a prerequisite for its potential use in the adjuvant therapy of colon cancer; however, further studies are necessary

    Association of gut microbiota and SCFAs with finishing weight of Diannan small ear pigs

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    Finishing weight is a key economic trait in the domestic pig industry. Evidence has linked the gut microbiota and SCFAs to health and production performance in pigs. Nevertheless, for Diannan small ear (DSE) pigs, a specific pig breed in China, the potential effect of gut microbiota and SCFAs on their finishing weight remains unclear. Herein, based on the data of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and metagenomic sequencing analysis, we found that 13 OTUs could be potential biomarkers and 19 microbial species were associated with finishing weight. Among these, carbohydrate-decomposing bacteria of the families Streptococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Prevotellaceae were positively related to finishing weight, whereas the microbial taxa associated with intestinal inflammation and damage exhibited opposite effects. In addition, interactions of these microbial species were found to be linked with finishing weight for the first time. Gut microbial functional annotation analysis indicated that CAZymes, such as glucosidase and glucanase could significantly affect finishing weight, given their roles in increasing nutrient absorption efficiency. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthologies (KOs) and KEGG pathways analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, phosphotransferase system (PTS), secondary bile acid biosynthesis, ABC transporters, sulfur metabolism, and one carbon pool by folate could act as key factors in regulating finishing weight. Additionally, SCFA levels, especially acetate and butyrate, had pivotal impacts on finishing weight. Finishing weight-associated species Prevotella sp. RS2, Ruminococcus sp. AF31-14BH and Lactobacillus pontis showed positive associations with butyrate concentration, and Paraprevotella xylaniphila and Bacteroides sp. OF04-15BH were positively related to acetate level. Taken together, our study provides essential knowledge for manipulating gut microbiomes to improve finishing weight. The underlying mechanisms of how gut microbiome and SCFAs modulate pigs’ finishing weight required further elucidation

    The Bidirectional Gut-Lung Axis in COPD

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    Epidemiological studies indicate that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with the incidence of changes in intestinal health. Cigarette smoking, as one of the major causes of COPD, can have an impact on the gastrointestinal system and promotes intestinal diseases. This points to the existence of gut-lung interactions, however, an overview of the underlying mechanisms of the bidirectional connection between the lungs and the gut in COPD is lacking. The interaction between the lungs and the gut can occur through circulating inflammatory cells and mediators. Moreover, gut microbiota dysbiosis, observed in both COPD and intestinal disorders, can lead to a disturbed mucosal environment, including the intestinal barrier and immune system, and hence, may negatively affect both the gut and the lungs. Furthermore, systemic hypoxia and oxidative stress that occurs in COPD may also be involved in intestinal dysfunction and play a role in the gut-lung axis. This review summarizes data from clinical research, animal models and in vitro studies that may explain the possible mechanisms of gut-lung interactions associated with COPD. Interesting observations on the possibility of promising future add-on therapies for intestinal dysfunction in COPD patients will be highlighted

    Sinapic acid alleviates inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through localization of tight junction proteins by direct binding to TAK1 and improves intestinal microbiota

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    Introduction: Although sinapic acid is found in various edible plants and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties including colitis, its underlying mechanism and effects on the composition of the gut microbiota are largely unknown. We aimed to identify an early response kinase that regulates the localization of tight junction proteins, act at the onset of the inflammatory response, and is regulated by sinapic acid. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of sinapic acid on the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiome.Methods: We examined the aberrant alterations of early response genes such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 within 2 h of sinapic acid treatment in fully differentiated Caco-2 cells with or without lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation. To confirm the effect of sinapic acid on stimulus-induced delocalization of tight junction proteins, including zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin, and claudin-2, all tight junction proteins were investigated by analyzing a fraction of membrane and cytosol proteins extracted from Caco-2 cells and mice intestines. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice using 2% dextran sulfate sodium and sinapic acid (2 or 10 mg/kg/day) was administrated for 15 days. Furthermore, the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical activities of sinapic acid for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) evaluated.Results: We confirmed that sinapic acid significantly suppressed the stimulus-induced delocalization of tight junction proteins from the intestinal cell membrane and abnormal intestinal permeability as well as the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo. Sinapic acid was found to bind directly to transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and inhibit the stimulus-induced activation of NF-κB as well as MAPK/ATF-2 pathways, which in turn regulated the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MLCK). Dietary sinapic acid also alleviated the imbalanced of gut microbiota and symptoms of IBD, evidenced by improvements in the length and morphology of the intestine in mice with colitis.Discussion: These findings indicate that sinapic acid may be an effective nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agent for IBD treatment as it targets TAK1 and inhibits subsequent NF-κB and ATF-2 signaling

    Hypoxia exacerbates heat stress effects on the porcine intestinal epithelium in vitro

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    Heat stress (HS) negatively impacts human health, as well as animal agriculture. The mechanisms underlying HS-induced intestinal dysfunction in vivo are still not fully elucidated. However, HS has been shown to cause intestinal ischemia/hypoxia, which contributes to reduced barrier integrity. The objective of this study was to examine hypoxia alone, HS alone, and a combination using IPEC-J2 cells. We hypothesized that hypoxia is a critical factor and important step in the pathway to HS-induced barrier dysfunction. Porcine IPEC-J2 cells were grown in Transwell™ plates and then treated either under thermal neutral (TN; 38°C) or heat stress (HS; 42°C) and either normoxia (NX; ~21% O2) or hypoxia (HX; 1% O2) conditions for 24 h. Transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular permeability marker, FITC-dextran, media interleukin 8, cell HSP70 and 90, CLDN4, ZO-1, and EEA1 were all analyzed. Results showed that HS did not increase intestinal permeability in this model and elicited a reduction in IL-8 while still exhibiting a robust HSP response. In this model, hypoxia was required to induce intestinal barrier dysfunction and TJ redistribution. The combination of HS and hypoxia caused even more severe tight junction disruption. This was accompanied by the absence of an IL-8 response under HS

    Intestinal Barrier in Post-Campylobacter jejuni Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Background: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. One sequela of this infection is the development of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). It has been suggested that a dysfunctional intestinal barrier may promote IBS development. We aimed to test this hypothesis against the background of the leaky gut concept for low-grade inflammation in PI-IBS. Methods: We identified patients with persistent PI-IBS symptoms after C. jejuni infection. During sigmoidoscopy, forceps biopsies were obtained for electrophysiological measurements of epithelial transport and barrier function in miniaturized Ussing devices. C. jejuni absence was checked by PCR and cytokine production with immunohistochemistry. Results: In PI-IBS, the epithelial resistance of the colon epithelium was unaltered, reflecting an intact paracellular pathway. In contrast, temperature-dependent horseradish peroxidase (HRP, 44 kDa) permeation increased. Short-circuit current (Isc) reflecting active anion secretion and ENaC-dependent electrogenic sodium absorption was unaffected. Early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) and IL-4 levels increased. C. jejuni is not incorporated into the resident microbiota of the colon mucosa in PI-IBS. Conclusions: In PI-IBS after C. jejuni infection, macromolecule uptake via endocytosis was enhanced, leading to low-grade inflammation with pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The findings will allow C. jejuni-induced pathomechanisms to be targeted during infection and, thereafter to reduce sequelae such as PI-IBS

    Goat milk extracellular vesicles: immuno-modulation effects on porcine monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro

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    IntroductionExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanometric-membrane-bound sub-cellular structures, which can be recovered from milk. Milk EVs have drawn increasing interest due to their potential biomedical applications, therefore it is important to investigate their impact on key immune cells, such as macrophages.MethodsIn this work, the immunomodulatory effects of goat milk EVs on untreated (moMФ) and classically activated (moM1) porcine monocyte-derived macrophages were investigated using flow cytometry, ELISA, and gene expression assays.ResultsThese particles were efficiently internalized by macrophages and high doses (60 mg protein weight) triggered the upregulation of MHC I and MHC II DR on moMФ, but not on moM1. In moMФ, exposure to low doses (0.6 mg) of mEVs enhanced the gene expression of IL10, EBI3, and IFNB, whereas high doses up-regulated several pro-inflammatory cytokines. These nanosized structures slightly modulated cytokine gene expression on moM1. Accordingly, the cytokine (protein) contents in culture supernatants of moMФ were mildly affected by exposure to low doses of mEVs, whereas high doses promoted the increased release of TNF, IL-8, IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12. The cytokines content in moM1 supernatants was not critically affected.DiscussionOverall, our data support a clinical application of these molecules: they polarized macrophages toward an M1-like phenotype, but this activation seemed to be controlled, to prevent potentially pathological over-reaction to stressors

    Extraction, characterization and anti-oxidant activity of polysaccharide from red Panax ginseng and Ophiopogon japonicus waste

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    Red ginseng and Ophiopogon japonicus are both traditional Chinese medicines. They have also been used as food in China for thousands of years. These two herbs were frequently used in many traditional Chinese patent medicines. However, the carbohydrate compositions of these two herbs were not normally used during the production of said medicine, such as Shenmai injection, resulting in a large amount of waste composed of carbohydrates. In this study, the extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology. The Shenmai injection waste polysaccharide was extracted by using distilled water that was boiled under the optimized conditions. The Shenmai injection waste polysaccharide (SMP) was thereby obtained. SMP was further purified by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. With this method, a neutral polysaccharide fraction (SMP-NP) and an acidic polysaccharide fraction (SMP-AP) were obtained. The results of structure elucidation indicated that SMP-NP was a type of levan, and SMP-AP was a typical acidic polysaccharide. SMP-NP exhibited potential stimulation activity on the proliferation of five different Lactobacilli strains. Therefore, SMP-AP could promote the antioxidant defense of IPEC-J2 cells. These findings suggest that Shenmai injection waste could be used as a resource for prebiotics and antioxidants