216,902 research outputs found

    Nonlocal Electrodynamics of Linearly Accelerated Systems

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    The measurement of an electromagnetic radiation field by a linearly accelerated observer is discussed. The nonlocality of this process is emphasized. The nonlocal theory of accelerated observers is briefly described and the consequences of this theory are illustrated using a concrete example involving the measurement of an incident pulse of radiation by an observer that experiences uniform acceleration during a limited interval of time.Comment: 24 pages, no figures, expanded version accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Sampled-data sliding mode observer for robust fault reconstruction: A time-delay approach

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    A sliding mode observer in the presence of sampled output information and its application to robust fault reconstruction is studied. The observer is designed by using the delayed continuous-time representation of the sampled-data system, for which sufficient conditions are given in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to guarantee the ultimate boundedness of the error dynamics. Though an ideal sliding motion cannot be achieved in the observer when the outputs are sampled, ultimately bounded solutions can be obtained provided the sampling frequency is fast enough. The bound on the solution is proportional to the sampling interval and the magnitude of the switching gain. The proposed observer design is applied to the problem of fault reconstruction under sampled outputs and system uncertainties. It is shown that actuator or sensor faults can be reconstructed reliably from the output error dynamics. An example of observer design for an inverted pendulum system is used to demonstrate the merit of the proposed methodology compared to existing sliding mode observer design approaches

    Guaranteed state estimation using a bundle of interval observers with adaptive gains applied to the induction machine

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    he scope of this paper is the design of an interval observer bundle for the guaranteed state estimation of an uncertain induction machine with linear, time-varying dynamics. These guarantees are of particular interest in the case of safety-critical systems. In many cases, interval observers provide large intervals for which the usability becomes impractical. Hence, based on a reduced-order hybrid interval observer structure, the guaranteed enclosure within intervals of the magnetizing current’s estimates is improved using a bundle of interval observers. One advantage of such an interval observer bundle is the possibility to reinitialize the interval observers at specified timesteps during runtime with smaller initial intervals, based on previously observed system states, resulting in decreasing interval widths. Thus, unstable observer dynamics are considered so as to take advantage of their transient behavior, whereby the overall stability of the interval estimation is maintained. An algorithm is presented to determine the parametrization of reduced-order interval observers. To this, an adaptive observer gain is introduced with which the system states are observed optimally by considering a minimal interval width at variable operating points. Furthermore, real-time capability and validation of the proposed methods are shown. The results are discussed with simulations as well as experimental data obtained with a test bench

    Reduced-order interval-observer design for dynamic systems with time-invariant uncertainty

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    © . This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/This paper addresses the design of reduced-order interval-observers for dynamic systems with time-invariant uncertainty. Because of the limitations of using the set-based approach to preserve the time dependency of parameter uncertainty and the wrapping effect to deal with interval-observers, the trajectory-based interval-observer approach is used with an appropriate observer gain. But, there could be some diculties to satisfy the conditions for selecting a suitable gain to guarantee the positivity of the resulting observer. Then, a reduced-order observer is designed to reduce the computational complexity and to increase the degree of freedom when selecting the observer gain. Finally, a simulation example is employed for illustrating and analyzing the eectiveness of the proposed approach.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Gravitational blueshift from a collapsing object

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    We discuss a counterintuitive phenomenon of classical general relativity, in which a significant fraction of the radiation emitted by a collapsing object and detected by a distant observer may be blueshifted rather than redshifted. The key-point is that when the radiation propagates inside the collapsing body it is blueshifted, and this time interval may be sufficiently long for the effect to be larger than the later redshift due to the propagation in the vacuum exterior, from the surface of the body to the distant observer. Unfortunately, the phenomenon can unlikely have direct observational implications, but it is interesting by itself as a pure relativistic effect.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures. v2: refereed versio

    Conditioned spin and charge dynamics of a single electron quantum dot

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    In this article we describe the incoherent and coherent spin and charge dynamics of a single electron quantum dot. We use a stochastic master equation to model the state of the system, as inferred by an observer with access to only the measurement signal. Measurements obtained during an interval of time contribute, by a past quantum state analysis, to our knowledge about the system at any time tt within that interval. Such analysis permits precise estimation of physical parameters, and we propose and test a modification of the classical Baum-Welch parameter re-estimation method to systems driven by both coherent and incoherent processes.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figure
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