16,520 research outputs found

    Grasping nothing: a study of minimal ontologies and the sense of music

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    If music were to have a proper sense ÔÇô one in which it is truly given ÔÇô one might reasonably place this in sound and aurality. I contend, however, that no such sense exists; rather, the sense of music takes place, and it does so with the impossible. To this end, this thesis ÔÇô which is a work of philosophy and music ÔÇô advances an ontology of the impossible (i.e., it thinks the being of what, properly speaking, can have no being) and considers its implications for music, articulating how ontological aporias ÔÇô of the event, of thinking the absolute, and of sovereigntyÔÇÖs dismemberment ÔÇô imply senses of music that are anterior to sound. John CageÔÇÖs Silent Prayer, a nonwork he never composed, compels a rerethinking of silence on the basis of its contradictory status of existence; Florian Hecker et al.ÔÇÖs Speculative Solution offers a basis for thinking absolute music anew to the precise extent that it is a discourse of meaninglessness; and Manfred WerderÔÇÖs [yearn] pieces exhibit exemplarily that musicÔÇÖs sense depends on the possibility of its counterfeiting. Inso-much as these accounts produce musical senses that take the place of sound, they are also understood to be performances of these pieces. Here, then, thought is musicÔÇÖs organon and its instrument

    Anatomy and kinematic evolution of an ancient passive margin involved into an orogenic wedge (Western Southern Alps, Varese area, Italy and Switzerland)

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    We make use of own geological mapping, interpretations of seismic reflection profiles and deep geophysical data to build a lithospheric-scale cross-section across the European Western Southern Alps (Varese area) and to model a progressive restoration from the end of Mesozoic rifting to present-day. Early phases of Alpine orogeny were characterized by Europe-directed thrusting, whereas post-Oligocene shortening led to basement-involving crustal accretion accompanied by backfolding, and consistent with the kinematics of the adjoining Ivrea Zone. Wedging was favored by a significant component of reactivation of the inherited Adriatic rifted margin. Our results also suggest that, during the collisional and post-collisional tectonics, lithosphere dynamics drove diachronically the onset of tectonic phases (i.e., wedging and slab retreat), from east to west, across the Western Southern Alps

    How the Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche can be succinctly encapsulated within his Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy

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    This thesis aims to illustrate that the broad philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche can be subordinated to his conceptual dichotomy: the Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy. Through an analysis of the Birth of Tragedy, Beyond Good and Evil, Twilight of the Idols, as well as a brief analysis of the Will to Power, I will make the case that the dichotomy is the umbrella under which all Nietzschean concepts are to be read and understood. The texts that were chosen represent key stages in NietzscheÔÇÖs intellectual development ÔÇô from the Birth of Tragedy, which marks the beginning of Nietzschean philosophy; to Twilight of the Idols, which represents the end. The constituent parts of the dichotomy are to be understood in two contexts: firstly, the terms (Apollonian/Dionysian) are used to denote the forces required for the creation of art; secondly, the terms come to signify the type of individual who makes use of those forces as it is the case that different types of art can be created by different types of men. Nietzschean philosophy is to be understood through art as it is explicitly stated that the essence of existence is one of a perpetual Becoming wherein there exists only that which is created by man, for man, in service of manÔÇÖs own will to power. All attempts to discern a fixed Being in-itself existing outside of this will to power are false and are indicative of a weak and sickly disposition, the symptoms of which are found in the progenitorsÔÇÖ art (be it a morality, table of categories, or a transcendent deity). Through the positing of the thing-in-itself as the will to power Nietzsche conceptualises the world of Becoming as a canvas onto which two different types of men imprint a Being which reveals, physiologically, their endowment as either Apollonian or Dionysian

    Introduction to the Special Section

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    Introduces the Special Section on Reimagining the Margins of Kinship, explaining its origins, the questions it addresses, and the four papers that make up the Section

    On Curation: A Hermeneutical Approach

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    Starting point of this paper is the philosophical field of hermeneutics. Hermeneutics was established to account for different conditions of understanding and how they shape our interpretative processes. As different times constitute different conditions, the goal of the discipline essentially is to bridge the temporal gap between the creation of a work and its perception at a given point in time. Whereas traditionally, understanding was a matter of analyzing the historical tradition of author/artist and reader/viewer, nowadays, the perception and interpretation of art is shaped by another instance, the curator. Under the premise that selection and arrangement, i.e. curating, cannot be neutral, the author analyzes different contexts in which curating takes place and how different contexts account for different effects on our perception of art. After outlining the development of the curatorial practiceÔÇöfrom institutional to independent curationÔÇö, a case study of Swiss curator Harald Szeemann serves as opportunity to examine specific phenomena and exhibitions in a detailed manner. A cultural and methodological cesura is proposed after which curators were able to execute the power and influence they have today: independent curation and the ahistorical exhibition. Ahistorical exhibitions disregard chronological display and enable curators to create individual narratives and themes by gathering artworks in a cross-temporal and geographical manner. Throughout the paper, it is assessed if and to what degree the application of hermeneutics onto the field of independent curation is fruitful. This theoretical analysis is followed by a market overview, in which various functions the curator fulfills in different institutions, e.g. museums, galleries, auction houses, are outlined and compared. Optimally, the consideration of cultural and commercial factors enables viewers to approach and see (curated) art in a differentiated way

    Examples of works to practice staccato technique in clarinet instrument

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    Klarnetin staccato tekni─čini g├╝├žlendirme a┼čamalar─▒ eser ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒yla uygulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ge├ži┼člerini h─▒zland─▒racak ritim ve n├╝ans ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒na yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čman─▒n en ├Ânemli amac─▒ sadece staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒ de─čil parmak-dilin e┼č zamanl─▒ uyumunun hassasiyeti ├╝zerinde de durulmas─▒d─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n─▒ daha verimli hale getirmek i├žin eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n i├žinde et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒na da yer verilmi┼čtir. ├çal─▒┼čmalar─▒n ├╝zerinde titizlikle durulmas─▒ staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n ilham verici etkisi ile m├╝zikal kimli─če yeni bir boyut kazand─▒rm─▒┼čt─▒r. Sekiz ├Âzg├╝n eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n her a┼čamas─▒ anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Her a┼čaman─▒n bir sonraki performans ve tekni─či g├╝├žlendirmesi esas al─▒nm─▒┼čt─▒r. Bu ├žal─▒┼čmada staccato tekni─činin hangi alanlarda kullan─▒ld─▒─č─▒, nas─▒l sonu├žlar elde edildi─či bilgisine yer verilmi┼čtir. Notalar─▒n parmak ve dil uyumu ile nas─▒l ┼čekillenece─či ve nas─▒l bir ├žal─▒┼čma disiplini i├žinde ger├žekle┼čece─či planlanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Kam─▒┼č-nota-diyafram-parmak-dil-n├╝ans ve disiplin kavramlar─▒n─▒n staccato tekni─činde ayr─▒lmaz bir b├╝t├╝n oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Ara┼čt─▒rmada literat├╝r taramas─▒ yap─▒larak staccato ile ilgili ├žal─▒┼čmalar taranm─▒┼čt─▒r. Tarama sonucunda klarnet tekni─čin de kullan─▒lan staccato eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n az oldu─ču tespit edilmi┼čtir. Metot taramas─▒nda da et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n daha ├žok oldu─ču saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. B├Âylelikle klarnetin staccato tekni─čini h─▒zland─▒rma ve g├╝├žlendirme ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ sunulmu┼čtur. Staccato et├╝t ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒ yap─▒l─▒rken, araya eser ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒n girmesi beyni rahatlatt─▒─č─▒ ve isteklili─či daha artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ g├Âzlemlenmi┼čtir. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmas─▒n─▒ yaparken do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi ├╝zerinde de durulmu┼čtur. Staccato tekni─čini do─čru ├žal─▒┼čmak i├žin do─čru bir kam─▒┼č─▒n dil h─▒z─▒n─▒ artt─▒rd─▒─č─▒ saptanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žimi kam─▒┼čtan rahat ses ├ž─▒kmas─▒na ba─čl─▒d─▒r. Kam─▒┼č, dil atma g├╝c├╝n├╝ vermiyorsa daha do─čru bir kam─▒┼č se├žiminin yap─▒lmas─▒ gereklili─či vurgulanm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒nda ba┼čtan sona bir eseri yorumlamak zor olabilir. Bu a├ž─▒dan ├žal─▒┼čma, verilen m├╝zikal n├╝anslara uyman─▒n, dil at─▒┼č performans─▒n─▒ rahatlatt─▒─č─▒n─▒ ortaya koymu┼čtur. Gelecek nesillere edinilen bilgi ve birikimlerin aktar─▒lmas─▒ ve geli┼čtirici olmas─▒ te┼čvik edilmi┼čtir. ├ç─▒kacak eserlerin nas─▒l ├ž├Âz├╝lece─či, staccato tekni─činin nas─▒l ├╝stesinden gelinebilece─či anlat─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r. Staccato tekni─činin daha k─▒sa s├╝rede ├ž├Âz├╝me kavu┼čturulmas─▒ ama├ž edinilmi┼čtir. Parmaklar─▒n yerlerini ├Â─čretti─čimiz kadar belle─čimize de ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n kaydedilmesi ├Ânemlidir. G├Âsterilen azmin ve sabr─▒n sonucu olarak ortaya ├ž─▒kan yap─▒t ba┼čar─▒y─▒ daha da yukar─▒ seviyelere ├ž─▒karacakt─▒r

    Exploring Potential Domains of Agroecological Transformation in the United States

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    There is now substantial evidence that agroecology constitutes a necessary pathway towards socially just and ecologically resilient agrifood systems. In the United States, however, agroecology remains relegated to the margins of research and policy spaces. This dissertation explores three potential domains of agroecological transformation in the US. Domains of transformation are sites of contestation in which agroecology interfaces with the industrial agrifood system; these material and conceptual spaces may point to important pathways for scaling agroecology. To explore this concept, I examine formal agroecology education (Chapter 1), extension services and statewide discourses around soil health (Chapter 2), and models of farmland access not based on private property (Chapter 3). While these constitute three distinct topics, I seek to demonstrate that they are linked by similar forces that enable and constrain the extent to which these domains can be sites of agroecological transformation. First, I use case study methodology to explore the evolution of an advanced undergraduate agroecology course at the University of Vermont. I examine how course content and pedagogy align with a transformative framing of agroecology as inherently transdisciplinary, participatory, action-oriented, and political. I find that student-centered pedagogies and experiential education on farms successfully promote transformative learning whereby students shift their understanding of agrifood systems and their role(s) within them. In my second chapter, I zoom out to consider soil health discourses amongst farmers and extension professionals in Vermont. Using co-created mental models and participatory analysis, I find that a singular notion of soil health based on biological, chemical, and physical properties fails to capture the diverse ways in which farmers and extension professionals understand soil health. I advocate for a principles-based approach to soil health that includes social factors and may provide a valuable heuristic for mobilizing knowledge towards agroecology transition pathways. My third chapter, conducted in collaboration with the national non-profit organization Agrarian Trust, considers equitable farmland access. Through semi-structured interviews with 13 farmers and growers across the US, I explore both farmer motivations for engaging with alternative land access models (ALAMs) and the potential role(s) these models may play within broader transformation processes. I argue that ALAMs constitute material and conceptual ÔÇśthird spacesÔÇÖ within which the private property regime is challenged and new identities and language around land ownership can emerge; as such, ALAMs may facilitate a (re)imagining of land-based social-ecological relationships. I conclude the dissertation by identifying conceptual and practical linkages across the domains explored in Chapters 1-3. I pay particular attention to processes that challenge neoliberal logics, enact plural ways of knowing, and prefigure just futures. In considering these concepts, I apply an expansive notion of pedagogy to explore how processes of teaching and (un)learning can contribute to cultivating foundational capacities for transition processes

    The temporality of rhetoric: the spatialization of time in modern criticism

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    Every conception of criticism conceals a notion of time which informs the manner in which the critic conceives of history, representation and criticism itself. This thesis reveals the philosophies of time inherent in certain key modern critical concepts: allegory, irony and the sublime. Each concept opens a breach in time, a disruption of chronology. In each case this gap or aporia is emphatically closed, elided or denied. Taking the philosophy of time elaborated by Giorgio Agamben as an introductory proposition, my argument turns in Chapter One to the allegorical temporality which Walter Benjamin sees as the time of photography. The second chapter examines the aesthetics of the sublime as melancholic or mournful untimeliness. In Chapter Three, Paul de Man's conception of irony provides an exemplary instance of the denial of this troubling temporal predicament. In opposition to the foreclosure of the disturbing temporalities of criticism, history and representation, the thesis proposes a fundamental rethinking of the philosophy of time as it relates to these categories of reflection. In a reading of an inaugural meditation on the nature of time, and in examining certain key contemporary philosophical and critical texts, I argue for a critical attendance to that which eludes those modes of thought that attempt to map time as a recognizable and essentially spatial field. The Confessions of Augustine provide, in the fourth chapter, a model for thinking through the problems set up earlier: Augustine affords us, precisely, a means of conceiving of the gap or the interim. In the final chapter, this concept is developed with reference to the criticism of Arnold and Eliot, the fiction of Virginia Woolf and the philosophy of cinema derived from Deleuze and Lyotard. In conclusion, the philosophical implications of the thesis are placed in relation to a conception of the untimeliness of death

    Supernatural crossing in Republican Chinese fiction, 1920sÔÇô1940s

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    This dissertation studies supernatural narratives in Chinese fiction from the mid-1920s to the 1940s. The literary works present phenomena or elements that are or appear to be supernatural, many of which remain marginal or overlooked in Sinophone and Anglophone academia. These sources are situated in the May Fourth/New Culture ideological context, where supernatural narratives had to make way for the progressive intellectualsÔÇÖ literary realism and their allegorical application of supernatural motifs. In the face of realism, supernatural narratives paled, dismissed as impractical fantasies that distract one from facing and tackling real life. Nevertheless, I argue that the supernatural narratives do not probe into another mystical dimension that might co-exist alongside the empirical world. Rather, they imagine various cases of the charactersÔÇÖ crossing to voice their discontent with contemporary society or to reflect on the notion of reality. ÔÇťCrossingÔÇŁ relates to charactersÔÇÖ acts or processes of trespassing the boundary that separates the supernatural from the conventional natural world, thus entailing encounters and interaction between the natural and the supernatural. The dissertation examines how crossing, as a narrative device, disturbs accustomed and mundane situations, releases hidden tensions, and discloses repressed truths in Republican fiction. There are five types of crossing in the supernatural narratives. Type 1 is the crossing into ÔÇťhauntedÔÇŁ houses. This includes (intangible) human agency crossing into domestic spaces and revealing secrets and truths concealed by the scary, feigned ÔÇśhauntingÔÇÖ, thus exposing the hidden evil and the other house occupiersÔÇÖ silenced, suffocated state. Type 2 is men crossing into female ghostsÔÇÖ apparitional residences. The female ghosts allude to heart-breaking, traumatic experiences in socio-historical reality, evoking sympathetic concern for suffering individuals who are caught in social upheavals. Type 3 is the crossing from reality into the charactersÔÇÖ delusional/hallucinatory realities. While they physically remain in the empirical world, the charactersÔÇÖ abnormal perceptions lead them to exclusive, delirious, and quasi-supernatural experiences of reality. Their crossings blur the concrete boundaries between the real and the unreal on the mental level: their abnormal perceptions construct a significant, meaningful reality for them, which may be as real as the commonly regarded objective reality. Type 4 is the crossing into the netherworld modelled on the real world in the authorsÔÇÖ observation and bears a spectrum of satirised objects of the Republican society. The last type is immortal visitors crossing into the human world. This type satirises humanityÔÇÖs vices and destructive potential. The primary sources demonstrate their writersÔÇÖ witty passion to play with super--natural notions and imagery (such as ghosts, demons, and immortals) and stitch them into vivid, engaging scenes using techniques such as the gothic, the grotesque, and the satirical, in order to evoke sentiments such as terror, horror, disgust, dis--orientation, or awe, all in service of their insights into realist issues. The works also creatively tailor traditional Chinese modes and motifs, which exemplifies the revival of Republican interest in traditional cultural heritage. The supernatural narratives may amaze or disturb the reader at first, but what is more shocking, unpleasantly nudging, or thought-provoking is the problematic society and peopleÔÇÖs lives that the supernatural (misunderstandings) eventually reveals. They present a more compre--hensive treatment of reality than Republican literature with its revolutionary consciousness surrounding class struggle. The critical perspectives of the supernatural narratives include domestic space, unacknowledged history and marginal individuals, abnormal mentality, and pervasive weaknesses in humanity. The crossing and supernatural narratives function as a means of better understanding the lived reality. This study gathers diverse primary sources written by Republican writers from various educational and political backgrounds and interprets them from a rare perspective, thus filling a research gap. It promotes a fuller view of supernatural narratives in twentieth-century Chinese literature. In terms of reflecting the social and personal reality of the Republican era, the supernatural narratives supplement the realist fiction of the time

    Marvellous real in the Middle East: a comparative study of magical realism in contemporary womenÔÇÖs fiction

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    Magical realism has been studied extensively in relation to Latin America and subsequently in other parts of the world, yet the Middle East has not received adequate attention in academic scholarship. This PhD study examines a selection of contemporary female-authored narratives from the Middle East to establish an understanding of the practice of magical realism in this region. The selected texts for this study are: Raja AlemÔÇÖs Fatma and My Thousand and One Nights; Shahrnush ParsipurÔÇÖs Women Without Men and Touba and the Meaning of Night; Elif ShafakÔÇÖs The Bastard of Istanbul and Gina B. NahaiÔÇÖs Moonlight on the Avenue of Faith. This study firstly explores the concept of magical realism as a mode of writing and determines its relationship to the Middle Eastern context. It then evaluates the texts under scrutiny by examining how the narrative of magical realism is constructed and what the sources are of the magical component in these texts, specifically in relation to Middle Eastern mythology. It also investigates the ideological aspect behind the employment of magical realism and whether it serves any political goal. The analysis of the selected texts is approached from three standpoints, that is, from literary, mythological and ideological perspectives. I argue that magical realism serves various purposes and that it is applied from perspectives that can be regarded as marginal to their communitiesÔÇÖ dominant values, to subvert mainstream ideology. I also demonstrate that the Middle East is a crucial place to investigate magical realism because of the numerous complex cultural values that interact with each other in this region, and which enrich the practice of magical realism
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