34,931 research outputs found

    Concepciones docentes sobre las estrategias de enseñanza de la lectoescritura en estudiantes con dislexia

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    Esta investigación de enfoque cualitativo y de tipo descriptivo, aborda el tema de la dislexia, una dificultad en la adquisición de la lectura y escritura, las cuales son habilidades indispensables en el desarrollo académico y social del estudiante. Si bien es poco estudiada en nuestro país, es esencial que los docentes que enseñan en el nivel primario la conozcan, para brindar una adecuada intervención a través de las estrategias de enseñanza. Por ello, el objetivo general es analizar las concepciones de docentes de primaria sobre las estrategias de enseñanza de la lectoescritura en estudiantes con dislexia. De los objetivos específicos, el primero consiste en: identificar las concepciones que poseen los docentes de educación primaria acerca de la dislexia: Concepto, origen, características, y consecuencias; y el segundo objetivo específico es describir las concepciones de los docentes sobre las acciones de intervención necesarias para atender a estudiantes con dislexia en el aula, específicamente a través de las estrategias de enseñanza. La recolección de información se realizó a través de la aplicación de una encuesta, así como una entrevista a ocho docentes de 3° a 6° grado de educación primaria. Esta investigación mostró que los docentes tienen ideas sobre qué es la dislexia, señalando que es una dificultad en la que se encuentra involucrada la lectura y escritura. Además, la experiencia en talleres es muy relevante, ya que los docentes que participaron de algún taller sobre necesidades educativas especiales son los que poseen mayores conocimientos sobre las estrategias para la enseñanza de la lectoescritura en estudiantes con dislexia. A diferencia de aquellos que no asistieron, quienes conocen algunas estrategias que no son específicas para desarrollar la lectoescritura en estudiantes con esta dificultad. En este sentido, es importante que se continúe investigando acerca de la dislexia con la finalidad de conocer cómo llevan a cabo los docentes las adaptaciones y las estrategias para atender a los estudiantes diagnosticados con esta dificultad.This research presents a qualitative and descriptive approach. The subject of study is dyslexia, a difficulty in the acquisition of reading and writing, which are indispensable skills in the academic and social development of the student. Although it is little studied in our country, it is essential that teachers who teach at the primary level know about it, in order to provide an adequate intervention through teaching strategies. Therefore, the general objective is to analyze the conceptions of primary school teachers about teaching strategies for literacy in students with dyslexia. The specific objectives are: to identify the conceptions held by elementary school teachers about dyslexia: concept, characteristics, types, and consequences, and to describe the teachers' conceptions about the needs of students with dyslexia and the intervention actions necessary to address them in the classroom, specifically through teaching strategies. Information was collected through the application of a survey, as well as an interview with eight teachers from 3rd to 6th grade of elementary education. This research showed that teachers have ideas about what dyslexia is, pointing out that it is a difficulty in which reading and writing are involved. In addition, the experience in workshops is very relevant, since teachers who participated in a workshop on special educational needs are the ones who have more knowledge about strategies for teaching reading and writing to students with dyslexia. Unlike those who did not attend, who know some strategies that are not specific to develop literacy in students with this difficulty. In this sense, it is important to continue researching about dyslexia in order to know how teachers carry out adaptations and strategies to serve students diagnosed with this difficulty


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    Background: As one of the most common non-communicable diseases in India, stroke results in significant residual disability and high mortality rates. Stroke care in India is often fragmented, exacerbated by a lack of public resources, information, and awareness. Stroke survivors experience a range of disabilities and are cared for by their families long-term. Rehabilitation combined with secondary prevention is critical to post-discharge stroke care, in reducing recurrence, mortality, and improve outcomes. This study explores key components, and challenges of post-discharge stroke services with clinical staff. Methods: We undertook ten semi-structured qualitative interviews with a purposive sample from health professionals, representing the multidisciplinary stroke teams from Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana (CMCL) between July 2021 and January 2022. As a tertiary-level teaching hospital, CMCL serves a diverse patient population. The research team conducted interviews, before translating, transcribing, and thematically analysing data (using NVivo software). Results: Ten participants (3 nurses, 2 neurologists, 2 physiotherapists, 2 occupational therapists, and 1 dietician) indicated the multi-disciplinary stroke team enabled individualised comprehensive post discharge plan. Patient/caregiver training and education is provided during hospitalisation and continues through follow-up, with verbal/written information supported by videos or leaflets in Hindi, Punjabi, and English. Adherence to prescribed medication, diet, rehabilitation, and follow-up visits were impacted by challenges in patient literacy, stroke awareness, financial resources, or post discharge care. Community stroke care was provided through tele-stroke services, home-based physiotherapists, and community health workers. We identified four themes: Integrated Inpatient Discharge Care Planning; Patient and Caregiver Engagement; Post discharge Care and Support; and Working with Challenges. Conclusion: Key components of CMCL stroke services include treatment by a multi-disciplinary stroke care team, individualised post-discharge plan, patient-caregiver training and education, and postdischarge community care and tele-stroke services. Post-discharge care weighs heavily on family/caregivers facing various challenges (literacy, finances, local language education and availability)

    A life ‘in and with nature?’ Developing nature engaging and nature enhancing pedagogies for babies and toddlers

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    The holistic relationship between children and nature is at the heart of Froebel’s philosophy and practice: he took for granted that young children would grow up ‘in’ and ‘with’ nature. This paper explores the contemporary relevance of this thinking to babies and toddlers in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings. It is based on a research project funded by the Froebel Trust which explores outdoor provision in English settings. Our findings suggest that whilst the pedagogic potential of the outdoors for babies and toddlers appears to be generally recognised, there is little emphasis on supporting them to engage with the natural characteristics of the outdoor environment. Concerns about safety and an emphasis on physical activity mean that natural elements may be discouraged in favour of manufactured alternatives such as artificial grass or commercially produced resources. We argue that Froebelian philosophy offers a much-needed theoretical lens that can illuminate the limitations of such practices for both the human and non-human world. Importantly, we highlight the interconnectedness of human and environmental health and suggest the need to develop nature engaging and nature enhancing pedagogies from birth

    Identifying and responding to people with mild learning disabilities in the probation service

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    It has long been recognised that, like many other individuals, people with learningdisabilities find their way into the criminal justice system. This fact is not disputed. Whathas been disputed, however, is the extent to which those with learning disabilities arerepresented within the various agencies of the criminal justice system and the ways inwhich the criminal justice system (and society) should address this. Recently, social andlegislative confusion over the best way to deal with offenders with learning disabilities andmental health problems has meant that the waters have become even more muddied.Despite current government uncertainty concerning the best way to support offenders withlearning disabilities, the probation service is likely to continue to play a key role in thesupervision of such offenders. The three studies contained herein aim to clarify the extentto which those with learning disabilities are represented in the probation service, toexamine the effectiveness of probation for them and to explore some of the ways in whichprobation could be adapted to fit their needs.Study 1 and study 2 showed that around 10% of offenders on probation in Kent appearedto have an IQ below 75, putting them in the bottom 5% of the general population. Study 3was designed to assess some of the support needs of those with learning disabilities in theprobation service, finding that many of the materials used by the probation service arelikely to be too complex for those with learning disabilities to use effectively. To addressthis, a model for service provision is tentatively suggested. This is based on the findings ofthe three studies and a pragmatic assessment of what the probation service is likely to becapable of achieving in the near future

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    Victims' Access to Justice in Trinidad and Tobago: An exploratory study of experiences and challenges of accessing criminal justice in a post-colonial society

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    This thesis investigates victims' access to justice in Trinidad and Tobago, using their own narratives. It seeks to capture how their experiences affected their identities as victims and citizens, alongside their perceptions of legitimacy regarding the criminal justice system. While there have been some reforms in the administration of criminal justice in Trinidad and Tobago, such reforms have not focused on victims' accessibility to the justice system. Using grounded theory methodology, qualitative data was collected through 31 in-depth interviews with victims and victim advocates. The analysis found that victims experienced interpersonal, structural, and systemic barriers at varying levels throughout the criminal justice system, which manifested as institutionalized secondary victimization, silencing and inequality. This thesis argues that such experiences not only served to appropriate conflict but demonstrates that access is often given in a very narrow sense. Furthermore, it shows a failure to encompass access to justice as appropriated conflicts are left to stagnate in the system as there is often very little resolution. Adopting a postcolonial lens to analyse victims' experiences, the analysis identified othering practices that served to institutionalize the vulnerability and powerlessness associated with victim identities. Here, it is argued that these othering practices also affected the rights consciousness of victims, delegitimating their identities as citizens. Moreover, as a result of their experiences, victims had mixed perceptions of the justice system. It is argued that while the system is a legitimate authority victims' endorsement of the system is questionable, therefore victims' experiences suggest that there is a reinforcement of the system's legal hegemony. The findings suggest that within the legal system of Trinidad and Tobago, legacies of colonialism shape the postcolonial present as the psychology and inequalities of the past are present in the interactions and processes of justice. These findings are relevant for policymakers in Trinidad and Tobago and other regions. From this study it is recognized that, to improve access to justice for victims, there needs to be a move towards victim empowerment that promotes resilience and enhances social capital. Going forward it is noted that there is a need for further research

    Gamification in E-Learning: game factors to strengthen specific English pronunciation features in undergraduate students at UPTC Sogamoso

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    Appendix A Characterization survey (104), Appendix B. EFL Students’ questionnaire (109), Appendix C. Characterization survey: data treatment question (113), Appendix D. Informed consent letter, English version (114), Appendix E. Carta de consentimiento informado, versión en español (117), Appendix F. Time Schedule (120), Appendix G. Sample Challenges at Moodle (126), Appendix H. Participants’ questionnaire results (128).La gamificación es un término que suele denotar el uso de componentes del juego en situaciones no relacionadas con el juego en sí para crear experiencias de aprendizaje agradables, divertidas y motivadoras para los estudiantes (Werbach y Hunter, 2012). Por lo tanto, el análisis de los factores básicos de los juegos se convierte en algo esencial a la hora de definir y utilizar la gamificación como estrategia de mediación del inglés como lengua extranjera para fortalecer rasgos específicos de pronunciación en los estudiantes de pregrado de la UPTC Sogamoso. El procedimiento de estudio se basa en la investigación acción mediante la implementación de la estrategia de gamificación para la mediación en la pronunciación del inglés, orientada a treinta estudiantes de diferentes programas de ingeniería, administración y tecnología con niveles heterogéneos de dominio del inglés. Las actividades se centran principalmente en la producción de sonidos, el ritmo, el acento y la entonación, los rasgos de pronunciación segmental y suprasegmental. Los resultados arrojaron una evidente mejora en las características segméntales y suprasegmentales de la percepción en la pronunciación de los participantes así como la contribución del objetivo de los juegos a la instrucción fonética y fonológica, la sensación en el juego a la motivación para mejorar la pronunciación, el reto establecido en los juegos a la actitud positiva de los participantes, y la sociabilidad a la exposición practica de la pronunciación inglesa.Gamification is a relatively new term that often denotes the use of game components in situations unrelated to the game itself to create enjoyable, fun, and motivating learning experiences for students (Werbach and Hunter, 2012). Therefore, analyzing the games' basic factors becomes essential when defining and using gamification as a strategy for English as Foreign Language mediation to strengthen specific pronunciation features in UPTC Sogamoso undergraduate students. The study procedure is based on action research by implementing the gamification strategy for mediation in English pronunciation, oriented to thirty students from different engineering, management, and technology programs at heterogeneous levels of English proficiency. The activities mainly focus on sound production, rhythm, stress, and intonation, segmental and suprasegmental pronunciation features. The results showed an evident improvement in the segmental and suprasegmental features of the participants' pronunciation perception as well as the contribution of game goals to phonetics and phonological instruction, the game sensation to the motivation for pronunciation improvement, the game challenge to the participants' positive attitude, and the sociality to the English pronunciation exposure practice

    Educació postural: avaluació dels coneixements de la salut de l'esquena en activitats de la vida diària en estudiants d'Educació Secundària

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    Objectiu: Dissenyar i validar un qüestionari sobre coneixements de la salut i la cura de l’esquena en activitats de la vida diària en joves També analizar diferents models de puntuació de les respostes. Metodologia: Es va seguir un mètode general de prospectiva (Delphi), amb el consens d’un grup de sis experts. Estudi de consistencia interna i fiabilitat en una mostra de 89 xics i 80 xiques. Amb les dades obteses aplicació de cinc models de puntuació basats en donar un pes diferent a les respostes. Consistència interna del qüestionari calculada amb l'Alfa de Cronbach amb cadascú dels models. Estudi de la fiabilitat amb l'anàlisi de mesures repetides test-retest i l’estudi de l’error de mesura amb la representació gràfica dels valors descrita per Bland i Altman. Es calcularen les desviacions estàndard de les diferències, la prova t per a una mostra amb les diferències, els coeficients de correlació intraclasse i els seus intervals de confiança del 95%, l’error estàndard de mesura, el canvi mínim detectable i el coeficient de reproductibilitat. Efecte sòl/sostre calculat amb els percentatges de resposta més alts i més baixos en les puntuacions del primer passe. Per a l'anàlisi de la capacitat discriminatòria de les puntuacions obtingudes es van utilitzar les mitjanes totals del primer passe, es va reagrupar la variable en quatre grups per quartils i es va aplicar una ANOVA d'un factor entres el quartil 1 y el quartil 4. Resultats: Anàlisi de la validesa tots els valors obtesos sobre la consistència interna són iguals o majors a .6 Als diferents models, l'Alfa de Cronbach va oscil·lar entre .6 i .7. En la representació de les puntuacions mitjanes de totes dues passades i el càlcul del pendent de la seua funció lineal hi ha una relació positiva entre les mesures. El valor del pendent, en tots els models al voltant de .7 excepte en el model C que va ser de .56. L’índex de determinació va mostrar un nivell de coherència de les mesures reals amb les teòriques moderat Coeficient de correlació entre les puntuacions i el coeficient de correlació intraclasse igual o major a .75. Error de mesura i límits d'acord de les puntuacions calculats a partir de la desviació típica de la diferència de les mitjanes van indicar una probabilitat molt baixa de ser diferents entre ells. L'efecte sòl/sostre va indicar que aquest efecte no es va produir L'anàlisi de regressió de les mitjanes i diferències de les puntuacions totals de tots els models va indicar un augment significatiu de les diferències en les puntuacions a mesura que el valor mitjà d'aquestes va augmentar. Les diferències entre tots els models van ser significatives. Conclusions: Es presenta un qüestionari per a mesurar els coneixements sobre la postura corporal i la cura de l'esquena en activitats de la vida diària en adolescents validat. Es determina que les mateixes dades, es poden analitzar utilitzant diferents models, proporcionant cadascun d#aquests informació diferent

    Incentivising research data sharing : a scoping review

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    Background: Numerous mechanisms exist to incentivise researchers to share their data. This scoping review aims to identify and summarise evidence of the efficacy of different interventions to promote open data practices and provide an overview of current research. Methods: This scoping review is based on data identified from Web of Science and LISTA, limited from 2016 to 2021. A total of 1128 papers were screened, with 38 items being included. Items were selected if they focused on designing or evaluating an intervention or presenting an initiative to incentivise sharing. Items comprised a mixture of research papers, opinion pieces and descriptive articles. Results: Seven major themes in the literature were identified: publisher/journal data sharing policies, metrics, software solutions, research data sharing agreements in general, open science ‘badges’, funder mandates, and initiatives. Conclusions: A number of key messages for data sharing include: the need to build on existing cultures and practices, meeting people where they are and tailoring interventions to support them; the importance of publicising and explaining the policy/service widely; the need to have disciplinary data champions to model good practice and drive cultural change; the requirement to resource interventions properly; and the imperative to provide robust technical infrastructure and protocols, such as labelling of data sets, use of DOIs, data standards and use of data repositories
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