5,857 research outputs found

    Challenges in the Design and Implementation of IoT Testbeds in Smart-Cities : A Systematic Review

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    Advancements in wireless communication and the increased accessibility to low-cost sensing and data processing IoT technologies have increased the research and development of urban monitoring systems. Most smart city research projects rely on deploying proprietary IoT testbeds for indoor and outdoor data collection. Such testbeds typically rely on a three-tier architecture composed of the Endpoint, the Edge, and the Cloud. Managing the system's operation whilst considering the security and privacy challenges that emerge, such as data privacy controls, network security, and security updates on the devices, is challenging. This work presents a systematic study of the challenges of developing, deploying and managing urban monitoring testbeds, as experienced in a series of urban monitoring research projects, followed by an analysis of the relevant literature. By identifying the challenges in the various projects and organising them under the V-model development lifecycle levels, we provide a reference guide for future projects. Understanding the challenges early on will facilitate current and future smart-cities IoT research projects to reduce implementation time and deliver secure and resilient testbeds

    Beam scanning by liquid-crystal biasing in a modified SIW structure

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    A fixed-frequency beam-scanning 1D antenna based on Liquid Crystals (LCs) is designed for application in 2D scanning with lateral alignment. The 2D array environment imposes full decoupling of adjacent 1D antennas, which often conflicts with the LC requirement of DC biasing: the proposed design accommodates both. The LC medium is placed inside a Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) modified to work as a Groove Gap Waveguide, with radiating slots etched on the upper broad wall, that radiates as a Leaky-Wave Antenna (LWA). This allows effective application of the DC bias voltage needed for tuning the LCs. At the same time, the RF field remains laterally confined, enabling the possibility to lay several antennas in parallel and achieve 2D beam scanning. The design is validated by simulation employing the actual properties of a commercial LC medium

    Urban Renewal as Violence: Documenting the Erasure of Wooster Square

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    In American urban development, a defining period known as the urban renewal era took place in the decades after the Second World War. Many cities in the United States experienced a new interest in addressing urban decay; laws such as the 1949 Housing Act facilitated the movement. Municipalities had the capability to demolish areas that they labelled as ‘slums’ or ‘blighted’ in order to build new, attractive urban fabric and infrastructure. Although perhaps rooted in an optimistic and utopian vision of the future city, urban renewal projects had significant flaws—namely that the areas targeted for demolition disproportionately belonged to marginalized communities. In New Haven, Connecticut, the historic neighbourhood of Wooster Square was subject to an urban renewal scheme that included both rehabilitation of existing buildings, and complete redevelopment. Further, a new Interstate highway was situated through the centre of the neighbourhood, designed to sever Wooster Square into two distinct areas. This thesis explores the motivations and impact of Wooster Square’s renewal, both on the urban fabric itself, as well as on the neighbourhood’s Italian, immigrant and working class community. Through a series of ten illustrations that draw knowledge from archival sources such as photographs and oral histories, the thesis visualizes Wooster Square before and after renewal. In doing so, the thesis documents the destructive nature of the urban renewal approach and the violence that it inflicted on one of New Haven’s most marginalized groups

    Measurement of the Environmental Impact of Materials

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    Throughout their life cycles—from production, usage, through to disposal—materials and products interact with the environment (water, soil, and air). At the same time, they are exposed to environmental influences and, through their emissions, have an impact on the environment, people, and health. Accelerated experimental testing processes can be used to predict the long-term environmental consequences of innovative products before these actually enter the environment. We are living in a material world. Building materials, geosynthetics, wooden toys, soil, nanomaterials, composites, wastes and more are research subjects examined by the authors of this book. The interactions of materials with the environment are manifold. Therefore, it is important to assess the environmental impact of these interactions. Some answers to how this task can be achieved are given in this Special Issue

    ‘Making Floppy Floppy': Peter Halley's Postmodernist Abstraction (1980-1987):

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    Having completed studies at Yale and The University of New Orleans, in 1980 American artist Peter Halley returned to his hometown in New York City, took a studio in the East Village, and began to paint. Within six years he would become one of the most talked about artists in America. In this thesis I argue that Halley’s paintings of the 1980s constructed new relationships, or chains of meaning, between past abstract art—in particular, though not exclusively, forms of American minimalist abstract painting and sculpture from the 1950s and 1960s—and a range of social forms and urban textures particular to New York City. By suggesting new social interpretations of past abstract art, Halley’s model of ‘postmodernist abstraction’ prompts us to revise our understanding of the historicity and criticality of postmodernist painting. Pushing back against arguments about 1980s postmodernism as historical amnesia (Fredric Jameson), or market-complicit conventionalism (Hal Foster), I read Halley’s ‘Neo-geo’ as one example of how strategies such as pastiche and double-coding—identified by many critics as central tenets of the postmodernist art that emerged in New York in the 1980s—functioned as vehicles for historical orientation during a decade otherwise marked by disorientating economic, social, and cultural change

    Ecology and Applied Environmental Science

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    Ecology and Applied Environmental Science addresses the impact of contemporary environmental problems by using the main principles of scientific ecology. It offers a brief yet comprehensive explanation of ecosystems based on energy, populations, and cycles of chemical elements. The book presents a variety of scientific ecological issues and uses these to examine a range of environmental problems while considering potential engineering, scientific, and managerial solutions. It takes an engineering approach and avoids excessive biological detail, while introducing ecology with a systemic approach. The book examines categories of organisms as well as the physical and chemical processes that affect them. It refers to the dynamics of populations and analysis of their major mutual influences, elaborates on the roles of primary production, limiting factors, energy flow, and circulation of chemical substances in the ecosystems, and presents the basic functions of aquatic ecosystems. The author considers important issues related to environmental degradation of forests, aquatic habitats, coastal zones, other natural landscapes, and urban areas, includes a survey of problems related to waste and toxic and radioactive substances, and presents the greenhouse effect and impacts from climate change. He discusses environmental management prospects and the potential for technological control of pollution from liquid, solid, and gaseous waste. He also highlights existing tools for environmental management, ecological and social aspects of biodiversity and landscape protection, and the contrast between development and environment in combination with ideas about sustainability. The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.taylorfrancis.com, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license

    Resource Recovery from Water

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    Throughout history, the first and foremost role of urban water management has been the protection of human health and the local aquatic environment. To this end, the practice of (waste-)water treatment has maintained a central focus on the removal of pollutants through dissipative pathways. Approaches like – in the case of wastewater treatment – the activated sludge process, which makes ‘hazardous things’ disappear, have benefitted our society tremendously by safeguarding human and environmental health. While conventional (waste-)water treatment is regarded as one of the greatest engineering achievements of the 20th century, these dissipative approaches will not suffice in the 21st century as we enter the era of the circular economy. A key challenge for the future of urban water management is the need to re-envision the role of water infrastructure, still holding paramount the safeguard of human and environmental health while also becoming a more proactive force for sustainable development through the recovery of resources embedded in urban water. This book aims (i) to explain the basic principles governing resource recovery from water (how much is there, really); (ii) to provide a comprehensive overview and critical assessment of the established and emerging technologies for resource recovery from water; and (iii) to put resource recovery from water in a legal, economic (including the economy of scale of recovered products), social (consumer's point of view), and environmental sustainability framework. This book serves as a powerful teaching tool at the graduate entry master level with an aim to help develop the next generation of engineers and experts and is also highly relevant for seasoned water professionals and practicing engineers

    Green Economy and Sustainable Development

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    Considering the importance of the challenges for sustainable development, this Book is intended to disseminate the results of cutting-edge research and broadcast the opinions of scientists from around the world, providing technological breakthroughs in green energy and urbanism, recycling and modernization of basic industries, conducting fundamental research on the economic problems of the transition to sustainable development

    Green Energy Technology

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    This book, entitled “The Green Energy Technology”, covers technologies, products, equipment, and devices, as well as energy services, based on software and data protected by patents and/or trademarks. The recent trends underline the principles of a circular economy such as sustainable product design, extending the product’s lifecycle, reusability, and recycling. These are highly related to climate change and environmental impact, and limited natural resources require scientific research and novel technical solutions. This book will serve as a collection of the latest scientific and technological approaches to “green”—i.e., environmentally friendly and sustainable—technologies. While the focus is on energy and bioenergy, it also covers "green" solutions in all aspects of industrial engineering. Green Energy Technology addresses researchers, advanced students, technical consultants and decision-makers in industries and politics. This book is a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical research paper addressing recent progress in Green Energy Technology. We hope that readers will enjoy reading this book