30,201 research outputs found

    “[This] I Know from My Grandfather”: The Battle for Admissibility of Indigenous Oral History as Proof of Tribal Land Claims

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    A major obstacle indigenous land claimants must face is the application of federal evidentiary rules, like the hearsay doctrine, which block the use of oral history to establish legal claims. It is often oral history and stories that tribes rely upon as evidence to support their claims, reducing substantially the likelihood of a tribe prevailing. Indigenous oral history presents unique challenges to judges when faced with its admissibility. Canadian courts have largely overcome these challenges by interpreting evidentiary rules liberally, in favor of the aborigines. As such, Canadian aborigines have enjoyed greater land claim success than indigenous claimants in the United States, raising the question why United States courts do not follow the Canadian example. After examining the evidentiary strengths and weaknesses of indigenous oral history and the barriers posed to its admissibility in court, this article finds the answer is the willingness of Canada to both recognize the harm done to aboriginal peoples during the country\u27s colonial history and to make amends by opening the courts to these claims

    Colonizing the Last Frontier

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    In Aboriginal Rights and Judicial Wrongs: The Colonization of the Last Frontier, I examine a recent sea-change in federal Indian law that has escaped the notice of scholars. In the light of the divestiture of tribal sovereignty characterizing recent Supreme Court decisions, my article interrogates a contemporary case that rejects the property principle underlying all of federal Indian law itself in favor of a conception of aboriginal title never before countenanced in the United States and long discredited elsewhere. My analysis argues that this new conception traduces 175 years of American precedent and violates international law. I also contend that it vitiates the constitutional separation of powers, in which plenary power over the Indian nations is allocated to Congress, and amounts to a legislative decision by the courts to colonize the nation\u27s last frontier, the ocean, through extinguishment of aboriginal interests therein. My article meticulously critiques the case at issue, Native Village of Eyak v. Trawler Diane Marie, Inc., and its interplay with common law aboriginal title, federal supremacy over the ocean, and the international law of sovereign succession. It draws novelly on English law in respect of the territorial sea and aboriginal title in current and former Commonwealth states, particularly Australia, Canada, and New Zealand but also Southern Nigeria and India. The article also situates the matter in the context of indigenous peoples\u27 rights under international law and deploys the political philosophy of James Tully and Will Kymlicka to evoke the broader discourse of group rights and Rawlsian liberalism. Finally, I conclude it with recommendations: that Eyak be overturned as a doctrinally incorrect and politically indefensible intrusion into congressional prerogative and tribal autonomy; that its contemptible vision of aboriginal title be rejected as having no place in a postcolonial world; and that Congress alternatively fulfill its fiduciary duty to the plaintiff Indians by granting a title commensurate to their claim or providing compensation for the judicial taking of their right of occupation

    Indigenous Rights and Intellectual Property Law: A Comparison of the United States and Australia

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    Quantum Physics has many concepts that are hard to conceive. The main goal with this project is to explain and demonstrate some of these. To achieve this, a setup has been built where a beam is split into two paths, which then subsequently coincide on a mutual screen. If we choose to deny ourselves the possibility of determining which path the wave takes, the paths are said to be indistinguishable. In this case the waves from the two dierent paths will interfere, which will be seen as a periodic interference pattern on the screen. If we instead choose to do a measurement in such a way that we know which path the wave took, the paths are distinguishable. As this occurs, the interference pattern will disappear. There is also a third possibility. The third possibility is to leave the opportunity of measuring, but not actually doing it. This alternative gives the same result as if the path was actually determined, the interference pattern will disappear. In this setup the wavefront is split into two by a thin metal wire. On each side is a polarisation lter with perpendicular polarisation with respect to one another. These lters help us to distinguish the two possible paths. By placing a third polariser between the wire and the screen, parallel to one of the earlier polarisers, it can be seen which path the light has taken, making the paths distinguishable. If the third polariser is instead rotated at a 45o-angle letting through equal parts of both paths, the passing light will have a mutual direction of polarisation. This will once again make the light indistinguishable and the interference pattern will reappear.Kvantfysiken har mÄnga svÄrbegripliga koncept. MÄlet med detta projekt Àr att förklara och demonstrera vissa av dessa. För att uppnÄ detta har en uppstÀllning byggts dÀr en ljusstrÄle delas upp och fÄr utbredas lÀngs tvÄ olika vÀgar. VÀgen kan kodas pÄ de respektive vÀgarna med hjÀlp av polarisationslter. DÀrefter lÄter man ljuset som tog de tvÄ vÀgarna sammanfalla pÄ en gemensam skÀrm. Om vi vÀljer att avsÀga oss möjligheten att avgöra vilken vÀg ljuset tar, sÀgs ljuset som tog respektive vÀg icke-sÀrskiljbart. I detta fall kommer vÄgorna frÄn de tvÄ olika banorna interferera, vilket syns som ett mönster pÄ skÀrmen. DÀremot om vi vÀljer att mÀta vilken bana vÄgen tar Àr banorna sÀrskiljbara. NÀr vi gör detta val försvinner interferensm önstret. Det nns Àven ett tredje alternativ. Det alternativet Àr att skapa en möjlighet att mÀta, men inte utnyttja den. Detta fall ger samma resultat som att faktiskt mÀta, det vill sÀga interferens- 3 mönstret försvinner. I vÄr uppstÀllning delas vÄgfronten upp i tvÄ delar med hjÀlp av en metalltr Äd. PÄ vardera sida om trÄden sitter polariseringslter med vinkelr Àta polarisationsriktningar i förhÄllande till varandra. Med hjÀlp av dessa kan vÀgarna sÀrskiljas. Genom att sÀtta ett tredje polarisations- lter mellan metalltrÄden och skÀrmen parallellt med ett av ltren kan man bestÀmma vilken vÀg ljuset tagit, vilket gör banorna sÀrskiljbara. Om vi dÀremot sÀtter det tredje ltret i 45o-vinkel mot de vinkelrÀta polarisatorerna sÄ att ljuset frÄn de bÄda vÀgarna Äterigen fÄr samma polarisationsrikting, gÄr det inte lÀngre att avgöra vilken vÀg ljuset tagit. AlltsÄ Àr vÀgarna nu icke-sÀrskiljbara och interferensmönstret pÄ skÀrmen ÄteruppstÄr.

    Indigenous Institutional Inclusion

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    While attending James Cook University (JCU) in Cairns, Australia and researching Arizona University (UA) in Tucson, Arizona, I noticed differences concerning the inclusion of Indigenous representation within their educational institutions.While UA focuses on academic education and community outreach through external concentration, JCU focuses on positive cultural awareness and acts of reconciliation through internal concentration. The influence of colonization in both the United States and Australia contributed to the presence, or lack, of tribal sovereignty in Indigenous communities therefore effecting federal recognition, reconciliation, and government funding which ultimately impacted the school systems

    Envisioning Indigenous Community Courts to Realize Justice in Canada for First Nations

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    Through European colonization in North America, the time-honored rule of law, or good way of life, in Indigenous communities was displaced with external forums and processes, primarily from the British juridical traditions. In contemporary Canada, the use of external laws as a tool of colonization and the injustice experienced by Aboriginal peoples in Canadian courts has been the focus of media attention, policy papers, and legal reports for decades. The Canadian justice system is viewed by many as external and a means of subjugation for First Nation, MĂ©tis and Inuit peoples. As the Canadian government has attempted to come to terms with the long shadow cast by colonization, Indigenous peoples are consistently and increasingly calling for the ability to fully self-govern and reinstate Indigenous law and legal principles. This article will first discuss the current issues in the Canadian judiciary for Aboriginal peoples with a focus on criminal law and child welfare practices. Tracing the response to the crisis of overincarceration of Aboriginal peoples, the Supreme Court of Canada has laid out principles on appropriate sentencing of Aboriginal offenders. Another response has been to develop specialized provincial courts for proper sentencing of Aboriginal peoples. Despite these efforts, overincarceration continues to increase. Next, the statistics on the over-removal of Aboriginal children from their homes will be discussed and the role of the Canadian judiciary. To provide an example from the United States, Tribal Courts have been instrumental in providing culturally appropriate dispute resolution forums in Indigenous communities, particularly for domestic issues such as child welfare and for criminal conduct occurring on reservations. By comparing the growth of U.S. Tribal Courts and the beginnings of justice systems that are formally recognized for Aboriginal peoples in Canada, the article will provide insight and recommendations to address the need for Aboriginal peoples to implement their own judicial forums. Next, the efforts of First Nations through Section 107 of the Indian Act Native Justices of the Peace program will be discussed. A review of the Court of Kahan:wake and the Akwesasne Court as trailblazers for more Indigenous courts in Canada follows. The article will conclude with a recommendation for the creation of a system of Indigenous Community Courts and the necessary steps to realize Indigenous-led justice initiatives including appropriate recognition of jurisdiction and proper funding

    Unsettling Immigration Laws: Settler Colonialism and the U.S. Immigration Legal System

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    "Newe Sogobie": treaty breach, trust status and extinguished land title

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