16,773 research outputs found

    2011 - Indian Reorganization Act - Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs

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    Hearing on the Indian Reorganization Act—75 Years Later: Renewing Our Commitment to Restore Tribal Homelands and Promote Self-Determination. Members looked at the history of U.S. Indian Policy examining the original intent and legislative history of the Indian Reorganization Act [IRA] and subsequent amendment to the Act. Since 1934, the IRA has stood as the bedrock of Federal Indian policy. A 2009 Supreme Court decision narrowly construed the text of the IRA up-ending the status quo, which had existed for 75 years, contrary to Congressional intent, legislative history and previous affirmative actions by the Administration. Statements, letters, and materials submitted for the record include those of the following: John E. Echohawk, John Barrasso, Tom Udall, Michael O. Finley, Carole E. Goldberg, Steven J.W. Heeley, Frederick E. Hoxie, Jefferson Keel, Richard Monette, William Rice, Daniel K. Akaka, and Cedric Cromwell.https://digitalcommons.csumb.edu/hornbeck_usa_2_f/1006/thumbnail.jp

    Tribal Self-Government and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

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    The Indian Reorganization (Wheeler-Howard) Act of 1934 (IRA) was, by all accounts, one of the most significant single pieces of legislation directly affecting Indians ever enacted by the Congress of the United States. It has been equalled in scope and significance only by the legislation of June 30, 1834, and the General Allotment Act of February 8, 1887. A major reversal of governmental policy and approach toward Indian affairs was effectuated by the IRA. This Comment will be concerned with the IRA as it affected the concept of tribal self-government, and primarily with those sections providing for adoption of tribal constitutions and organization as chartered business corporations. It will trace the development of tribal self-government through 1934, delve into the Act itself and the objectives behind it, consider whether those objectives have been realized, and suggest a possible role for the IRA and its theory in the future

    Ethnography Of One Family On A 1939 Blackfeet Indian Reservation Farm Project In Montana

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    The General Allotment Act of 1887, or the Dawes Act as it came to be known, authorized the president of the United States to divide American Indian lands into private sections to be allotted to individual members of the tribes. The act was designed to move Indians from tribal ways into mainstream U.S. American life. According to Scherer, the Dawes Act became one of the most far-reaching and, for Native Americans, disastrous pieces of Indian legislation ever passed by Congress. By the time the allotment process was stopped in 1934, the amount of Indianheld land in the United States had dropped from 138 million acres to 48 million acres, and, of the remaining Indian-owned land, almost half was arid or semiarid desert. The Dawes Act was not the only attempt by the U.S. government to change the way American Indians used their land. In this study I investigate water resource and land use development as well as one family’s participation in a tribalfederal government-sponsored 1939 farm project on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in Montana. The project was developed to ensure the Indians’ utilization of water rights associated with the irrigation projects constructed on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in the early twentieth century. It was also a socioeconomic development effort to ameliorate the desperate living conditions the Blackfeet had suffered with the loss of their traditional buffalo economy. The 1934 Indian Reorganization Act provided start-up capital for tribal government development efforts as well as the opportunity for tribal members to become independent farmers. In this case, the Indian farmer could also provide feed for the emerging individual Indian livestock industry on the reservation

    Ethnography Of One Family On A 1939 Blackfeet Indian Reservation Farm Project In Montana

    Get PDF
    The General Allotment Act of 1887, or the Dawes Act as it came to be known, authorized the president of the United States to divide American Indian lands into private sections to be allotted to individual members of the tribes. The act was designed to move Indians from tribal ways into mainstream U.S. American life. According to Scherer, the Dawes Act became one of the most far-reaching and, for Native Americans, disastrous pieces of Indian legislation ever passed by Congress. By the time the allotment process was stopped in 1934, the amount of Indianheld land in the United States had dropped from 138 million acres to 48 million acres, and, of the remaining Indian-owned land, almost half was arid or semiarid desert. The Dawes Act was not the only attempt by the U.S. government to change the way American Indians used their land. In this study I investigate water resource and land use development as well as one family’s participation in a tribalfederal government-sponsored 1939 farm project on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in Montana. The project was developed to ensure the Indians’ utilization of water rights associated with the irrigation projects constructed on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in the early twentieth century. It was also a socioeconomic development effort to ameliorate the desperate living conditions the Blackfeet had suffered with the loss of their traditional buffalo economy. The 1934 Indian Reorganization Act provided start-up capital for tribal government development efforts as well as the opportunity for tribal members to become independent farmers. In this case, the Indian farmer could also provide feed for the emerging individual Indian livestock industry on the reservation

    On the Drafting of Tribal Constitutions

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    Felix Cohen (1907-1953) was a leading architect of the Indian New Deal and steadfast champion of American Indian rights. Appointed to the Department of the Interior in 1933, he helped draft the Indian Reorganization Act (1934) and chaired a committee charged with assisting tribes in organizing their governments. His Basic Memorandum on Drafting of Tribal Constitutions, submitted in November 1934, provided practical guidelines for that effort. Largely forgotten until Cohen\u27s papers were released more than half a century later, the memorandum now receives the attention it has long deserved. David E. Wilkins presents the entire work, edited and introduced with an essay that describes its origins and places it in historical context. Cohen recommended that each tribe consider preserving ancient traditions that offered wisdom to those drafting constitutions. Strongly opposed to sending out canned constitutions from Washington, he offered ideas for incorporating Indigenous political, social, and cultural knowledge and structure into new tribal constitutions. On the Drafting of Tribal Constitutions shows that concepts of Indigenous autonomy and self-governance have been vital to Native nations throughout history. As today\u27s tribal governments undertake reform, Cohen\u27s memorandum again offers a wealth of insight on how best to amend previous constitutions. It also helps scholars better understand the historic policy shift brought about by the Indian Reorganization Act.https://scholarship.richmond.edu/bookshelf/1330/thumbnail.jp

    Extreme Rubber-Stamping: The Fee-to-Trust Process of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

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    In recognition of the massive loss of Indian territory since the European “discovery” of America, the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 provides a process whereby Indian tribes can expand their reservations by applying to have additional land placed into trust for their benefit. This process, known as the fee-to-trust process, is the subject of fervent opposition by many affected communities because once taken into trust for a tribe, such land is no longer subject to state and local taxation or zoning, planning, and other regulatory controls. Accordingly, this Comment explores the efficacy of the fee-to-trust process by analyzing the Pacific Region Bureau of Indian Affairs decisions on proposed trust acquisitions from 2001 through 2011. Supported by this data, which shows a 100% acceptance rate, this Comment ultimately concludes that the process is shockingly biased and toothless—merely an exercise in extreme rubber-stamping. Thus, there is great need for comprehensive reform of the fee-to-trust process, including the creation of a meaningful role in the process for affected communities, establishment of clear and specific standards for acceptance of land into trust, and an emphasis on collaborative solutions

    Oklahoma's Newer New Deal: The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936

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    Historians contend that the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), enacted in 1934 forever changed the direction of federal Indian policy. The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act (OIWA) passed two years later in 1936 helped transform life for Oklahoma Indians. Scholars have explored and written extensively about the IRA. However, they have focused little attention on the OIWA. This study contends the OIWA proved as transformative for Oklahoma Indians as the IRA did for Indians across the country. To appreciate fully the Indian New Deal, one must understand the OIWA. Indian voice is integral to this study as a means to fully appreciate the rapid changes most Oklahoma Indians experienced over the short period during the Great Depression and World War II era. This study explores Oklahoma Indians and how the OIWA impacted their social, political, and economic institutions, and along with other forces helped propel them into the evolving urban and industrialized society that emerged following World War II
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