217,741 research outputs found

    Selective-sampling Raman imaging techniques for ex vivo assessment of surgical margins in cancer surgery

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    One of the main challenges in cancer surgery is to ensure the complete excision of the tumour while sparing as much healthy tissue as possible. Histopathology, the gold-standard technique used to assess the surgical margins on the excised tissue, is often impractical for intra-operative use because of the time-consuming tissue cryo-sectioning and staining, and availability of histopathologists to assess stained tissue sections. Raman micro-spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can detect microscopic residual tumours on ex vivo tissue samples with accuracy, based entirely on intrinsic chemical differences. However, raster-scanning Raman micro-spectroscopy is a slow imaging technique that typically requires long data acquisition times wich are impractical for intra-operative use. Selective-sampling Raman imaging overcomes these limitations by using information regarding the spatial properties of the tissue to reduce the number of Raman spectra. This paper reviews the latest advances in selective-sampling Raman techniques and applications, mainly based on multimodal optical imaging. We also highlight the latest results of clinical integration of a prototype device for non-melanoma skin cancer. These promising results indicate the potential impact of Raman spectroscopy for providing fast and objective assessment of surgical margins, helping surgeons ensure the complete removal of tumour cells while sparing as much healthy tissue as possible

    Ratiometric spectral imaging for fast tumor detection and chemotherapy monitoring in vivo

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    We report a novel in vivo spectral imaging approach to cancer detection and chemotherapy assessment. We describe and characterize a ratiometric spectral imaging and analysis method and evaluate its performance for tumor detection and delineation by quantitatively monitoring the specific accumulation of targeted gallium corrole (HerGa) into HER2-positive (HER2 +) breast tumors. HerGa temporal accumulation in nude mice bearing HER2 + breast tumors was monitored comparatively by a. this new ratiometric imaging and analysis method; b. established (reflectance and fluorescence) spectral imaging; c. more commonly used fluorescence intensity imaging. We also tested the feasibility of HerGa imaging in vivo using the ratiometric spectral imaging method for tumor detection and delineation. Our results show that the new method not only provides better quantitative information than typical spectral imaging, but also better specificity than standard fluorescence intensity imaging, thus allowing enhanced in vivo outlining of tumors and dynamic, quantitative monitoring of targeted chemotherapy agent accumulation into them

    Multifunctional targeting micelle nanocarriers with both imaging and therapeutic potential for bladder cancer.

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    BackgroundWe previously developed a bladder cancer-specific ligand (PLZ4) that can specifically bind to both human and dog bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We have also developed a micelle nanocarrier drug-delivery system. Here, we assessed whether the targeting micelles decorated with PLZ4 on the surface could specifically target dog bladder cancer cells.Materials and methodsMicelle-building monomers (ie, telodendrimers) were synthesized through conjugation of polyethylene glycol with a cholic acid cluster at one end and PLZ4 at the other, which then self-assembled in an aqueous solution to form micelles. Dog bladder cancer cell lines were used for in vitro and in vivo drug delivery studies.ResultsCompared to nontargeting micelles, targeting PLZ4 micelles (23.2 ± 8.1 nm in diameter) loaded with the imaging agent DiD and the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel or daunorubicin were more efficient in targeted drug delivery and more effective in cell killing in vitro. PLZ4 facilitated the uptake of micelles together with the cargo load into the target cells. We also developed an orthotopic invasive dog bladder cancer xenograft model in mice. In vivo studies with this model showed the targeting micelles were more efficient in targeted drug delivery than the free dye (14.3×; P < 0.01) and nontargeting micelles (1.5×; P < 0.05).ConclusionTargeting micelles decorated with PLZ4 can selectively target dog bladder cancer cells and potentially be developed as imaging and therapeutic agents in a clinical setting. Preclinical studies of targeting micelles can be performed in dogs with spontaneous bladder cancer before proceeding with studies using human patients

    HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of gastric cancer

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    The successful development of safe and highly effective nanoprobes for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo gastric cancer is a great challenge. Herein we reported for the first time that anti-α-subunit of ATP synthase antibody, HAI-178 monoclonal antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles, was successfully used for targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo gastric cancer. A total of 172 specimens of gastric cancer tissues were collected, and the expression of α-subunit of ATP synthase in gastric cancer tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry method. Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and conjugated with HAI-178 monoclonal antibody, and the resultant HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (HAI-178-FMNPs) were co-incubated with gastric cancer MGC803 cells and gastric mucous GES-1 cells. Gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models were established, were injected with prepared HAI-178-FMNPs via tail vein, and were imaged by magnetic resonance imaging and small animal fluorescent imaging system. The results showed that the α-subunit of ATP synthase exhibited high expression in 94.7% of the gastric cancer tissues. The prepared HAI-178-FMNPs could target actively MGC803 cells, realized fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging of in vivo gastric cancer, and actively inhibited growth of gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, HAI-178 antibody-conjugated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles have a great potential in applications such as targeted imaging and simultaneous therapy of in vivo early gastric cancer cells in the near future

    Preclinical Analysis of JAA-F11, a Specific Anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich Antibody via Immunohistochemistry and In Vivo Imaging.

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    The tumor specificity of JAA-F11, a novel monoclonal antibody specific for the Thomsen-Friedenreich cancer antigen (TF-Ag-alpha linked), has been comprehensively studied by in vitro immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of human tumor and normal tissue microarrays and in vivo biodistribution and imaging by micro-positron emission tomography imaging in breast and lung tumor models in mice. The IHC analysis detailed herein is the comprehensive biological analysis of the tumor specificity of JAA-F11 antibody performed as JAA-F11 is progressing towards preclinical safety testing and clinical trials. Wide tumor reactivity of JAA-F11, relative to the matched mouse IgG3 (control), was observed in 85% of 1269 cases of breast, lung, prostate, colon, bladder, and ovarian cancer. Staining on tissues from breast cancer cases was similar regardless of hormonal or Her2 status, and this is particularly important in finding a target on the currently untargetable triple-negative breast cancer subtype. Humanization of JAA-F11 was recently carried out as explained in a companion paper "Humanization of JAA-F11, a Highly Specific Anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich Pancarcinoma Antibody and In Vitro Efficacy Analysis" (Neoplasia 19: 716-733, 2017), and it was confirmed that humanization did not affect chemical specificity. IHC studies with humanized JAA-F11 showed similar binding to human breast tumor tissues. In vivo imaging and biodistribution studies in a mouse syngeneic breast cancer model and in a mouse-human xenograft lung cancer model with humanized 124I- JAA-F11 construct confirmed in vitro tumor reactivity and specificity. In conclusion, the tumor reactivity of JAA-F11 supports the continued development of JAA-F11 as a targeted cancer therapeutic for multiple cancers, including those with unmet need

    Multimodal Multispectral Optical Endoscopic Imaging for Biomedical Applications

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    Optical imaging is an emerging field of clinical diagnostics that can address the growing medical need for early cancer detection and diagnosis. Various human cancers are amenable to better prognosis and patient survival if found and treated during early disease onset. Besides providing wide-field, macroscopic diagnostic information similar to existing clinical imaging techniques, optical imaging modalities have the added advantage of microscopic, high resolution cellular-level imaging from in vivo tissues in real time. This comprehensive imaging approach to cancer detection and the possibility of performing an ‘optical biopsy’ without tissue removal has led to growing interest in the field with numerous techniques under investigation. Three optical techniques are discussed in this thesis, namely multispectral fluorescence imaging (MFI), hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) and fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy (FCE). MFI and HRI are novel endoscopic imaging-based extensions of single point detection techniques, such as laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This results in the acquisition of spectral data in an intuitive imaging format that allows for quantitative evaluation of tissue disease states. We demonstrate MFI and HRI on fluorophores, tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues and present the results as an RGB colour image for more intuitive assessment. This follows dimensionality reduction of the acquired spectral data with a fixed-reference isomap diagnostic algorithm to extract only the most meaningful data parameters. FCE is a probe-based point imaging technique offering confocal detection in vivo with almost histology-grade images. We perform FCE imaging on chemotherapy-treated in vitro human ovarian cancer cells, ex vivo human cancer tissues and photosensitiser-treated in vivo murine tumours to show the enhanced detection capabilities of the technique. Finally, the three modalities are applied in combination to demonstrate an optical viewfinder approach as a possible minimally-invasive imaging method for early cancer detection and diagnosis

    Detection of non-melanoma skin cancer by in vivo fluorescence imaging with fluorocoxib A.

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    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the US and its incidence is increasing. The current standard of care is visual inspection by physicians and/or dermatologists, followed by skin biopsy and pathologic confirmation. We have investigated the use of in vivo fluorescence imaging using fluorocoxib A as a molecular probe for early detection and assessment of skin tumors in mouse models of NMSC. Fluorocoxib A targets the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme that is preferentially expressed by inflamed and tumor tissue, and therefore has potential to be an effective broadly active molecular biomarker for cancer detection. We tested the sensitivity of fluorocoxib A in a BCC allograft SCID hairless mouse model using a wide-field fluorescence imaging system. Subcutaneous allografts comprised of 1000 BCC cells were detectable above background. These BCC allograft mice were imaged over time and a linear correlation (R(2) = 0.8) between tumor volume and fluorocoxib A signal levels was observed. We also tested fluorocoxib A in a genetically engineered spontaneous BCC mouse model (Ptch1(+/-) K14-Cre-ER2 p53(fl/fl)), where sequential imaging of the same animals over time demonstrated that early, microscopic lesions (100 μm size) developed into visible macroscopic tumor masses over 11 to 17 days. Overall, for macroscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 88% and the specificity was 100%. For microscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 85% and specificity was 56%. These results demonstrate the potential of fluorocoxib A as an in vivo imaging agent for early detection, margin delineation and guided biopsies of NMSCs