21,123 research outputs found

    „Ich war mutig“: Eine qualitative Studie zur Rekonstruktion kindlicher Perspektiven auf Erfahrungen im pferdegestützten Setting

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    Das vorliegende kumulative Dissertationsprojekt besteht aus fünf Fachbeiträgen und befasst sich mit pferdegestützten Interventionen aus der Perspektive von Kindern. Zunächst wird eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Forschungsfeld tiergestützter Interventionen vorgenommen, da hier häufig Erklärungsansätze herangezogen werden, die wissenschaftlich nicht abgesichert sind. Diese Ansätze sollen in der eigenen Arbeit nicht reproduziert werden. Für die Erhebung des Forschungsstandes werden Studien herangezogen, welche sich mit der psychischen, sozialen und emotionalen Wirkung pferdegestützter Interventionen bei Kindern befassen. Das bearbeitete Forschungsdesiderat ergab sich aus der Betrachtung bestehender Studien, da die Kinderperspektive in diesem Zusammenhang bisher kaum wissenschaftlich betrachtet wurde. Um zu verstehen, was für Kinder an pferdegestützten Interventionen relevant ist, wird ein Forschungsdesign verwendet, welches die Kinder in den Forschungsprozess einbezieht, sodass sie ihre eigenen Relevanzen explizieren können. Somit wird eine neue Perspektive auf bestehende Forschungsergebnisse eröffnet, welche ein tieferes Verständnis für die Wirkweisen pferdegestützter Interventionen bietet und die Möglichkeit zur Evaluation der praktischen Durchführung beinhaltet. Die Ergebnisse beruhen auf der Befragung von 23 Kindern die wöchentlich an einer pferdegestützten Intervention teilnahmen. Die meisten der Kinder lebten zum Zeitpunkt des Interviews in Einrichtungen der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe und nicht bei ihren Familien und standen somit unter erhöhter psychosozialer Belastung. Wie Kinder pferdegestützte Förderung wahrnehmen, wird mit Hilfe von offenen Leitfadeninterviews und der Grounded Theory herausgearbeitet. Als zusätzliche Ausdrucksmöglichkeit der Kinder wurden Bilder, die sie vom pferdegestützten Setting malten, als ergänzendes Material genutzt und mittels Segmentanalyse ausgewertet. Am Ende der Arbeit ist festzuhalten, dass in pferdegestützten Interventionen, mit dem Ziel der Förderung von mentaler Gesundheit, reitpädagogische Fachkräfte Situationen mit Pferden konstruieren, die das interpersonale Vertrauen und das Selbstvertrauen von Kindern stärken, indem gezielt die Bewältigung von Herausforderungen mit dem Pferd unterstützend angeleitet wird. Insbesondere die zentrale Rolle der reitpädagogischen Fachkraft sowie relevante Wirkfaktoren werden vertieft betrachtet

    Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

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    Many studies have shown that people with eating disorders have higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide than the general population. One of the diseases with the highest suicide rate among psychiatric disorders is anorexia nervosa. Some hypotheses have been proposed to explain possible causes of increased suicidal behavior in eating disorders. Some conditions common to eating disorders and suicidal behavior, such as dissatisfaction with the body and interoceptive deficits, have been cited. It has been conclusively shown that psychiatric comorbidity, especially the co-diagnosis of depression, increases the risk of suicide in patients with eating disorders. However, increased suicidal behavior in eating disorders cannot be explained by comorbidity alone. The interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS), developed by Joiner, aims to understand why people commit suicide and to explain the differences in individual suicidal behavior. Some researchers have thought that the increased suicidal behavior of people with eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa patients, is expected from the perspective of IPTS. The compensatory behaviors of patients with eating disorders, such as vomiting or chronic restrictive food intake, are painful and challenging actions for the body. It can be considered that repeated encounters with painful and challenging experiences form a habit in the individual and reduce pain avoidance. When viewed from the IPTS perspective, decreased pain avoidance may explain the increased suicide attempts and completed suicides of individuals. Clinicians working with eating disorder patients must conduct regular and comprehensive assessments of suicide. Comorbidities such as major depression, anxiety disorder, and substance-use disorder should not be overlooked in patients with eating disorders and should be taken seriously

    Psychological Resilience in Children and Adolescents: The Power of Self-Recovery

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    Many children in the world grow up without good enough opportunities under challenging conditions such as poverty, violence, neglect, abuse, family discord and diseases. These conditions hinder the mental, emotional and social development of children and young people, making it difficult for them to reach their potential to become healthy adults. In addition to all these, there are children who can survive even in the most severe conditions and continue their development with health and functionality. Psychological resilience is a resource that protects and develops the psychological well-being of children and adolescents, rather than an invariable, innate feature, it is a dynamic process that can be developed, continuous and shaped by the interaction of the individual with his own internal factors and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to present a review of the literature on resilience research from past to present. The article includes the definition of resilience, the history of resilience research, components of resilience, models, measurement, interventions, and future directions in resilience research. Investments in the development of resilience in children and adolescents will produce health-promoting outcomes that balance individual and community-based psychological well-being throughout life, including positive outcomes and potential improvements

    Development of tobacco and nicotine policy : Proposals for action by the working group 2023

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    Development of tobacco and nicotine policy : Proposals for action by the working group 2023On 7 February 2022, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health appointed a working group tasked with making proposals for legislative amendments and other measures that support and promote the end of the use of tobacco and nicotine products by 2030. The working group had three specific tasks related to preventing the use of all nicotine products (including nicotine replacement therapy products), improving the smoke-free environment of housing corporations and raising the purchasing age limit from 18 years of age. Achieving the objective of the Tobacco Act requires the continuation and development of the current systematic and determined implementation of measures and the introduction of new measures. In order to achieve this objective, the proposals presented by the working group will need to be implemented already at the beginning of the next government term. The measures proposed in the report create the conditions for eliminating the use of tobacco and other nicotine products. Further efforts are needed every few years to achieve this goal. The working group considers that the implementation of the new proposals should always be included in the next government programme. The working group's proposals concern taxation, prevention of starting the use of tobacco and nicotine products by young people, smoke-free environments, sales and marketing, support for quitting, passenger imports, regulation of new nicotine products, enhanced enforcement, and resourcing, monitoring and evaluation

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Strategies for Early Learners

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    Welcome to learning about how to effectively plan curriculum for young children. This textbook will address: • Developing curriculum through the planning cycle • Theories that inform what we know about how children learn and the best ways for teachers to support learning • The three components of developmentally appropriate practice • Importance and value of play and intentional teaching • Different models of curriculum • Process of lesson planning (documenting planned experiences for children) • Physical, temporal, and social environments that set the stage for children’s learning • Appropriate guidance techniques to support children’s behaviors as the self-regulation abilities mature. • Planning for preschool-aged children in specific domains including o Physical development o Language and literacy o Math o Science o Creative (the visual and performing arts) o Diversity (social science and history) o Health and safety • Making children’s learning visible through documentation and assessmenthttps://scholar.utc.edu/open-textbooks/1001/thumbnail.jp

    Not all babies are in the same boat: Exploring the effects of socioeconomic status, parental attitudes, and activities during the 2020 COVID- 19 pandemic on early executive functions

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    Early executive functions (EFs) lay the foundations for academic and social outcomes. In this parent- report study of 575 UK- based 8- to 36 month olds (218 fol-lowed longitudinally), we investigate how variation in the home environment before and during the 2020 pan-demic relates to infants’ emerging EFs. Parent- infant enriching activities were positively associated with infant Cognitive Executive Function (CEF) (encom-passing inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility). During the most- restrictive UK lockdown— but not subsequently— socioeconomic status (SES) was positively associated with levels of parent- infant enrich-ing activities. Parents who regard fostering early learn-ing, affection, and attachment as important were more likely to engage in parent- infant enriching activities, yet there was no significant pathway from parental at-titudes or SES to CEF via activities. Infant screen use was negatively associated with CEF and Regulation. Screen use fully mediated the effect of SES on CEF, and partially mediated the effect of SES on regulation

    Exploring differences in electromyography and force production between front and back squats before and after fatigue and how this differs between the sexes

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    Limited research has been conducted to explore sex differences in biomechanical and physiological demands of the front and back squat, especially in response to fatigue where technique may be altered. Therefore, this study investigated differences in electromyography and force production in performance of back and front squats before and after a fatigue protocol and how this differed between males and females. 35 participants (5 female, 30 male) performed a fatigue protocol for back and front squats with measures of maximal performance pre and post. Main findings were that mean and peak activation of the semitendinosus was greater in the back squat than the front squat suggesting that the back squat has greater hamstring activation possibly for hip stabilisation and knee flexion (p < 0.05). There were no differences in quadricep activation between back and front squats, disputing the notion that front squats have a greater quadricep focus, however, lending support to the hypothesis that quadricep activation equal to the back squat can be achieved with lighter absolute load in a front squat. There were no differences in electromyography as a result of fatigue however force production decreased for back squats following fatigue (p < 0.01). This decrease could result from decreased acceleration out of the bottom position and into the concentric phase. This study also presents preliminary findings of greater mean and peak rectus femoris activation in females compared to males in both front (p < 0.01) and back squats (p < 0.05). This was suggested to be in order to support the knee and in an attempt to prevent knee valgus and excess hip adduction. These findings have implications in programming for both high performance sport and for rehabilitation of lower limb injuries

    Der Einfluss der nichtinvasiven Vagusnervstimulation auf die absteigende Schmerzhemmung

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    Hintergrund: Klinische Studien zur Therapie chronischer Kopfschmerz- und Schmerzerkrankungen zeigen vielversprechende analgetische Effekte der nichtinvasiven Vagusnervstimulation (nVNS). Die zugrunde liegenden Mechanismen sind trotz intensiver Forschung nur teilweise verstanden. Tierexperimentelle Studien geben Hinweise auf eine nVNS-vermittelte Aktivierung des Nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) und dessen Projektionen zum Locus coeruleus und den Raphekernen. Von diesen Hirnstammregionen reichen absteigende serotonerge und noradrenerge Bahnen („absteigende Schmerzhemmung“) in das Rückenmark und bewirken dort eine Reduktion der nozizeptiven Übertragung. Eine Modulation affektiver Schmerzkomponenten durch nVNS könnte ebenfalls zur schmerzhemmenden Wirkung der nVNS beitragen. Ziel der hier dargestellten Arbeit war die Untersuchung eines möglichen Effekts der zervikalen nVNS auf die absteigende Schmerzhemmung, quantifiziert mit dem nozizeptiven Flexorreflex (RIII-Reflex) und dem Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM-) Paradigma. Veränderungen in der supraspinalen Schmerzverarbeitung wurden mittels später somatosensibel evozierter Potentiale (SEPs) und Schmerzintensitäts- und Unangenehmheitsbewertungen erfasst. Methoden: 27 Probanden nahmen an dieser doppelblinden crossover Studie teil. In 2 experimentellen Sitzungen wurde, in randomisierter Reihenfolge, über 4 Minuten entweder nVNS oder eine Sham-Stimulation appliziert. RIII-Reflexe, Schmerz-/Unangenehmheitsbewertungen und SEPs wurden zur Baseline, während, 5, 15, 30 und 60 Minuten nach Intervention (nVNS/Sham-Stimulation) erfasst. Im Anschluss wurde der CPM-Effekt erhoben. 4 Teilnehmer mussten aus methodischen Gründen ausgeschlossen werden, sodass die statistische Analyse 23 Teilnehmer umfasste. Ergebnisse: nVNS zeigte keinen statistisch signifikanten Effekt auf die RIII-Reflexflächen, die RIIIReflex- und Schmerzschwellen, die Schmerzintensitätsbewertungen, die Amplituden der späten SEP-Komponenten und den CPM-Effekt im Vergleich zur Sham-Stimulation. Die Unangenehmheitsbewertungen der Schmerzreize wurden im Vergleich zur Sham-Stimulation während nVNS signifikant von 4,4 ± 2,4 (NRS 0 - 10) auf 4,1 ± 2,5 reduziert (F [1,22] = 6.82, p = .016, η2 p = .237). Es wurden keine länger andauernde Effekte (5 - 60 Minuten nach Intervention) der nVNS gefunden. Zusammenfassung: Die dargestellten Ergebnisse stützen nicht die Hypothese eines akuten Effekts der nVNS auf die absteigende Schmerzhemmung oder auf die supraspinale Nozizeption (Schmerzintensitätsbewertungen, SEPs) bei gesunden Probanden. Es zeigte sich jedoch ein kleiner und kurzfristiger Effekt der nVNS auf die Unangenehmheitsbewertungen von Schmerzen, was für eine nVNS-vermittelte Modulation affektiv-emotionaler statt sensorisch-diskriminativer Schmerzaspekte spricht
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