289 research outputs found

    Impact of Nurses' Knowledge Upon The Infection Control in Primary Health Care Centers at AL-Amara City.

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    Abstract:Objective: To evaluate the impact of the nurses' knowledge staff concerning the infection control at primary health care centers in AL-Amara city.Methodology: A descriptive study design was carried out in primary health care centers from 17th October, 2014 to August, 2014. The instruments was constructed by the researcher to reach the aims of the study using a non-probability sampling: purposive sample consist of (70) nurses, who worked in immunization unit and dressing unit at primary health care centers in AL-Amara city was selected, and Two study instruments were utilized for proper data collection [questionnaire and demographic information]; the study Reliability of instrument was determined through the use of test and retest and the instrument validity was determined through a panel of experts. The analysis of the data was used descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation) and statistical inferential ( chi square) Results: The results of the study revealed that (52.9%) at age groups (40) years and more years,. The findings of the present study indicated that (65.7%) of the sample were males and (47.2%) are Nursing institute graduate, (74.3%) have (1-5) years of experience, and (58.6%) have Training courses Conclusion: The study findings indicated that there were highly significant between nurses' knowledge in all domains related to infection control Recommendation: Encourage nurses and motivate them to participate in training programs and conferences held by specialists in infection control to update their knowledge about infection control.Keywords: nurse; knowledge; infection control

    Awareness and Practice of Standard Precaution for Infection Control among Student Nurses

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    Infection control is a critical concern in any health care setting among healthcare providerswhich include student nurses. The dearth of literature and studies among student nursesprompted the conduct of this study. This study sought to determine the awareness andpractice of standard precaution (handwashing, safe handling of needles and other sharpdevices, and disposal of contaminated materials) for infection control among student nurses.It also determined the relationship between awareness and practice on standard precaution forinfection control, the difference in the practice of standard precaution for infection controlwhen gender and year level were considered, and the predictors of practice of standardprecaution for infection control. Data were collected from 121nursing students comprising of2nd, 3rd and 4th years. Participants were obtained through purposive sampling, from one ofthe universities in the Philippines. Results showed that the awareness of the respondents wasvery high, practice of standard precautions for infection control in terms of handwashing andproper handling and disposal of contaminated materials were excellent, with very goodpractice in terms of safe handling of needles and other sharp devices. There was statisticallysignificant relationship between awareness and practice on standard precaution in terms ofproper handling and disposal of contaminated materials, wherein those with high awarenessare more likely to have a better practice. However, there was no significant relationshipbetween awareness and the practice of standard precautions for infection control in terms ofhandwashing and safe handling of needles and other sharp devices. Year level and gender didnot make any significant difference in the practice of standard precaution for infection control.However, year level and gender were significant predictors of practice of standard precautionfor infection control in terms of safe handling of needles and other sharp devices, whereinstudents in higher level tend to have a better practice. Awareness was a significant predictorof practice of standard precaution for infection control in terms of proper handling anddisposal of contaminated materials, wherein the higher the awareness the better is the practice.Standard precaution for infection control concept and proper practice should be introduced tothe students as early as their first year in the nursing program

    Environmental Pollution and Health Problems Due to Forest Fires with Co2 Parameters

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    Today, air pollution is a serious problem faced by industrial countries. The impact caused by air pollution is not only a direct impact on human health, but also can damage the environment. One of the sources of air pollution are now common is the forest fires which generate a compound emissions are carbon dioxide (CO2).Several studies in the medical literature documenting a causal link between air pollution, especially CO2 and negative impacts on health after short-term exposure, especially the unknown long-term health consequences of exposure to pollution. Some studies related to fire management models and CO2 emission reductions of them use the method of mapping risk of forest fires and the use of reforestation and the elimination of illegal logging is considered effective to implement

    A descriptive study of parent involvement in early intervention for children who are deaf or hard of hearing and have additional special needs

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    Abundant studies have documented the benefits of early intervention in overcoming the detrimental effects of congenital hearing loss. This research has lead to past and current recommendations by the Joint Commission on Infant Hearing on the timeliness of early intervention. Studies have focused on loss to follow-up for diagnosis and early intervention. The CDC (2015) estimated that of the infants diagnosed in 2013 with hearing loss, 36.8% were not documented as receiving early intervention. Most studies of these children and parents are substantially quantitative. Studies regarding barriers specific to families who have children with additional special needs are few. This study addressed a knowledge gap by exploring the lived experiences of 10 parents of 9 children in North Carolina who received early intervention for their child’s hearing loss and other special needs. Through semi-structured interviews, parents spoke of making choices in early intervention when their child has competing special needs. Parents’ adjustments to the diagnosis of hearing loss were complicated by stressors associated with their child’s additional special needs and co-occurring ambiguity or delay in the diagnosis of hearing loss. Families found strength in information, experience, faith and positive partnerships with professionals. Parents identified costs as obstacles to their children receiving early intervention services and a source of stress for parents. Financial support for hearing equipment and early intervention activities enhanced the family’s ability to participate in their child’s progress. Parents prioritized their child’s needs for intervention in a hierarchy, which often placed hearing, speaking and communicating as a lower priority than other skills. Improved training in communication with parents about hearing loss across disciplines could help provide a critical mass of practitioners to inform parents’ understanding of the impact of hearing loss. Educational and program materials for all providers could address this need. The inclusion of training in family-centered intervention and inter-professional training for educators and health providers is essential. Educational materials for parents tailored to hearing loss when a child has other special needs, could impact parents’ understanding of hearing loss and early intervention

    The process and practice of diagnosis: innovations in diagnostics for Lassa fever in Sierra Leone

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    This thesis is about the process and practice of diagnosis and the implications of new diagnostic technologies in low resource settings. As a setting and a disease which has seen significant investment in diagnostics, Lassa fever in Sierra Leone has been selected as a case study to examine these themes. In this thesis, 'new diagnostic technologies’ refers to laboratory-based diagnostics which are fast, reliable, accurate and can be used in low income settings. The starting point of this thesis is a narrative surrounding such technologies which suggests that they will revolutionise low income healthcare settings by allowing accurate scientific diagnosis in places where it was not possible before. Various perspectives on diagnosis are examined and some limitations are identified in relation to their accounts of diagnostic process, context, practice and technology. To explore the case, aspects of science and technology studies, the sociology of scientific knowledge and medical anthropology are combined. A multi-sited ethnography of Lassa fever diagnosis was conducted in three settings: a rural village, a laboratory and the wards of a hospital. Documents were reviewed and interviews conducted with key actors and ex-Lassa fever patients. Analysis focused on framings (partial and subjective interpretations), narratives (persuasive storylines which make use of particular framings) and practice in relation to Lassa fever and the development of technology for its diagnosis. Assumptions about the disease, diagnostics and the process of diagnosis are identified and the conclusion considers how they compare with practice in each setting. This thesis argues that diagnosis is a complex negotiated process and that new diagnostics represent only one aspect of that process. Thus, they are not a ‘silver bullet’ to transform low resource healthcare contexts. In particular, ‘improved’ diagnostics do not always have the expected impacts, sometimes even introducing complexity and uncertainty. In challenging narratives about diagnostics, this thesis provides an alternative, practice-based, approach to thinking about diagnostics and innovations in health systems; this approach acknowledges the importance, and complexity, of the diverse contexts which shape innovations and technology use

    Wound Care

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    Wounds and the many associated problems have challenged health care providers for centuries and today, despite the wealth of knowledge available, neither the incidence nor prevalence of wounds is reducing. Furthermore, in view of our changing demographic profile and the projected increase in the older population it is likely that wound management will become an ever increasing burden to the individual, health care services and society as a whole. The annual incidence of wounds in the EU-27 is approximately 4 million, and between 25% and 50% of acute hospital beds are occupied by patients with a wound, with up to 60% of these representing non-healing wounds (infected surgical wounds, pressure ulcers, leg/foot ulcers) The increasing prevalence and incidence of non-wounds healing is closely linked with quality of care and, as such, these rising figures reduce society’s confidence in the health service’s ability to deliver care that is timely, appropriate and effective. Thus, for those involved in this specialist area of clinical practice, the fundamental goal is to improve clinical outcomes, reduce the burden of wounds and improve health related quality of life. In this Special Issue “Wound Care” in Healthcare, we invited submission of manuscripts exploring contemporary issues in wound care. By devoting a special issue to wound care, we endeavoured to provide readers with a comprehensive reference source, outlining key areas of interest in this important aspect of clinical practice. The response to the call for manuscripts was fantastic and, as a result, we were able to include both original qualitative and quantitative research papers in addition to review papers, thereby providing readers with a wealth of valuable information pertinent to wound care

    The Ebola outbreak, 2013-2016: old lessons for new epidemics

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    Ebola virus causes a severe haemorrhagic fever in humans with high case fatality and significant epidemic potential. The 2013–2016 outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented in scale, being larger than all previous outbreaks combined, with 28 646 reported cases and 11 323 reported deaths. It was also unique in its geographical distribution and multicountry spread. It is vital that the lessons learned from the world's largest Ebola outbreak are not lost. This article aims to provide a detailed description of the evolution of the outbreak. We contextualize this outbreak in relation to previous Ebola outbreaks and outline the theories regarding its origins and emergence. The outbreak is described by country, in chronological order, including epidemiological parameters and implementation of outbreak containment strategies. We then summarize the factors that led to rapid and extensive propagation, as well as highlight the key successes, failures and lessons learned from this outbreak and the response
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