175,759 research outputs found

    Automated Discrimination of Pathological Regions in Tissue Images: Unsupervised Clustering vs Supervised SVM Classification

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    Recognizing and isolating cancerous cells from non pathological tissue areas (e.g. connective stroma) is crucial for fast and objective immunohistochemical analysis of tissue images. This operation allows the further application of fully-automated techniques for quantitative evaluation of protein activity, since it avoids the necessity of a preventive manual selection of the representative pathological areas in the image, as well as of taking pictures only in the pure-cancerous portions of the tissue. In this paper we present a fully-automated method based on unsupervised clustering that performs tissue segmentations highly comparable with those provided by a skilled operator, achieving on average an accuracy of 90%. Experimental results on a heterogeneous dataset of immunohistochemical lung cancer tissue images demonstrate that our proposed unsupervised approach overcomes the accuracy of a theoretically superior supervised method such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) by 8%

    Breast cancer or metastasis? An unusual case of metastatic malignant pleural mesothelioma to the breast

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    Background: Metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are very rare, and ruling out the diagnosis of primary breast tumor is important in order to decide on clinical management and predict prognosis. Case presentation: Clinical examination revealed in a 49-year-old hairdresser a 3-cm hard lump adherent to the underlying layers in the right breast. Trucut biopsy was performed. Histology showed a solid proliferation of medium-sized neoplastic polygonal cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed tumor cells diffusely positive for cytokeratin 8/18 and calretinin and focally positive for cytokeratin 5/6 and Wilms’ tumor 1, e-cadherin, and human bone marrow endothelial-1. Estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors were negative. The final diagnosis was metastatic epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. Conclusions: Immunohistochemistry is an important tool for a conclusive diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Owing to the degree of histological and immunohistochemical overlap, a high level of clinical suspicion is essential in order to avoid unnecessary mutilating surgery

    Automated Segmentation of Cells with IHC Membrane Staining

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    This study presents a fully automated membrane segmentation technique for immunohistochemical tissue images with membrane staining, which is a critical task in computerized immunohistochemistry (IHC). Membrane segmentation is particularly tricky in immunohistochemical tissue images because the cellular membranes are visible only in the stained tracts of the cell, while the unstained tracts are not visible. Our automated method provides accurate segmentation of the cellular membranes in the stained tracts and reconstructs the approximate location of the unstained tracts using nuclear membranes as a spatial reference. Accurate cell-by-cell membrane segmentation allows per cell morphological analysis and quantification of the target membrane proteins that is fundamental in several medical applications such as cancer characterization and classification, personalized therapy design, and for any other applications requiring cell morphology characterization. Experimental results on real datasets from different anatomical locations demonstrate the wide applicability and high accuracy of our approach in the context of IHC analysi

    Immunophenotype of Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma of the Uterus: Diagnostic Value and Insight on Pathogenesis

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    Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) is a rare uterine lesion constituted by atypical endometrioid glands, squamous morules, and myofibromatous stroma. We aimed to assess the immunophenotype of the 3 components of APA, with regard to its pathogenesis and its differential diagnosis. A systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases from their inception to January 2019 for immunohistochemical studies of APA. Thirteen studies with 145 APA cases were included. APA glands appeared analogous to atypical endometrial hyperplasia (endometrioid cytokeratins pattern, Ki67≤50%, common PTEN loss, and occasional mismatch repair deficiency); the prominent expression of hormone receptors and nuclear β-catenin suggest that APA may be a precursor of "copy number-low," CTNNB1-mutant endometrial cancers. Morules appeared as a peculiar type of hyperdifferentiation (low KI67, nuclear β-catenin+, CD10+, CDX2+, SATB2+, p63-, and p40-), analogous to morular metaplasia in other lesions and distinguishable immunohistochemically from both conventional squamous metaplasia and solid cancer growth. Stroma immunphenotype (low Ki67, α-smooth-muscle-actin+, h-caldesmon-, CD10-, or weak and patchy) suggested a derivation from a metaplasia of normal endometrial stroma. It was similar to that of nonatypical adenomyoma, and different from adenosarcoma (Ki67 increase and CD10+ in periglandular stroma) and myoinvasive endometrioid carcinoma (h-caldesmon+ in myometrium and periglandular fringe-like CD10 pattern)

    Alterations of FHIT and P53 genes in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous and radicular cyst

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    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine fragile histidine triad (FHIT) and p53 protein expression, and to analyze FHIT and p53 gene status in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT), dentigerous cysts (DC) and radicular cysts (RC). ----- METHODS: The methods used were immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic methods including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and gene sequencing. ----- RESULTS: FHIT protein expression was different among groups. Aberrant expression was the highest in KOT, then in RC and DC. p53 protein expression was different among groups. LOH in paraffin-embedded specimens was detected in 22.6% and 12.9% for FHIT and p53 respectively. Mutation of p53 gene at codon 237 was observed in only two specimens (one KOT and one DC). Of the six frozen specimens, three exhibited FHIT gene LOH (two RC and one KOT). KOT showed loss of exons 6-7 at FHIT locus and mutation at codon 237 at p53 locus, but this could be a chance result. ----- CONCLUSION: Aberrations of FHIT and p53 genes/proteins could be considered markers responsible for the development of odontogenic lesions

    The immunohistochemical analysis of fibronectin, collagen type III, laminin, and cytokeratin 5 in putrified skin

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    Fibronectin, collagen type III, laminin, and cytokeratin 5 were visualized in normal skin and in skin showing early or advanced signs of autolytic decomposition to prove whether the immunohistochemical analysis of these antigens can provide useful information for an age-estimation of skin wounds obtained from putrified corpses. In cases with early signs of decomposition (visible course of veins, greenish discoloration) and without microscopic alterations like relaxation of the epidermal cell layers or destruction of the blood vessel structures, the staining pattern was identical to that found in normal, non-putrefied skin. In skin already showing microscopic alteration of the tissue structure, fibronectin and collagen type III could not be localized unambiguously. The distribution of laminin and cytokeratin 5, however, was well preserved. In advanced putrefied skin no reliable staining results could be obtained for fibronectin, collagen type III, and laminin. Even though cytokeratin 5 was still detectable in remnants of decomposition-resistant skin appendages, no information useful for an age-estimation of skin wounds can be obtained due to the autolytic detachment of the epidermal layers

    Clinical-pathological study on β-APP, IL-1β, GFAP, NFL, Spectrin II, 8OHdG, TUNEL, miR-21, miR-16, miR-92 expressions to verify DAI-diagnosis, grade and prognosis

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    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most important death and disability cause, involving substantial costs, also in economic terms, when considering the young age of the involved subject. Aim of this paper is to report a series of patients treated at our institutions, to verify neurological results at six months or survival; in fatal cases we searched for βAPP, GFAP, IL-1β, NFL, Spectrin II, TUNEL and miR-21, miR-16, and miR-92 expressions in brain samples, to verify DAI diagnosis and grade as strong predictor of survival and inflammatory response. Concentrations of 8OHdG as measurement of oxidative stress was performed. Immunoreaction of β-APP, IL-1β, GFAP, NFL, Spectrin II and 8OHdG were significantly increased in the TBI group with respect to control group subjects. Cell apoptosis, measured by TUNEL assay, were significantly higher in the study group than control cases. Results indicated that miR-21, miR-92 and miR-16 have a high predictive power in discriminating trauma brain cases from controls and could represent promising biomarkers as strong predictor of survival, and for the diagnosis of postmortem traumatic brain injury

    TTF-1/p63-positive poorly differentiated NSCLC: A histogenetic hypothesis from the basal reserve cell of the terminal respiratory unit

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    TTF-1 is expressed in the alveolar epithelium and in the basal cells of distal terminal bronchioles. It is considered the most sensitive and specific marker to define the adenocarcinoma arising from the terminal respiratory unit (TRU). TTF-1, CK7, CK5/6, p63 and p40 are useful for typifying the majority of non-small-cell lung cancers, with TTF and CK7 being typically expressed in adenocarcinomas and the latter three being expressed in squamous cell carcinoma. As tumors with coexpression of both TTF-1 and p63 in the same cells are rare, we describe different cases that coexpress them, suggesting a histogenetic hypothesis of their origin. We report 10 cases of poorly differentiated non-small-cell lung carcinoma (PD-NSCLC). Immunohistochemistry was performed by using TTF-1, p63, p40 (∆Np63), CK5/6 and CK7. EGFR and BRAF gene mutational analysis was performed by using real-time PCR. All the cases showed coexpression of p63 and TTF-1. Six of them showing CK7+ and CK5/6− immunostaining were diagnosed as “TTF-1+ p63+ adenocarcinoma”. The other cases of PD-NSCLC, despite the positivity for CK5/6, were diagnosed as “adenocarcinoma, solid variant”, in keeping with the presence of TTF-1 expression and p40 negativity. A “wild type” genotype of EGFR was evidenced in all cases. TTF1 stained positively the alveolar epithelium and the basal reserve cells of TRU, with the latter also being positive for p63. The coexpression of p63 and TTF-1 could suggest the origin from the basal reserve cells of TRU and represent the capability to differentiate towards different histogenetic lines. More aggressive clinical and morphological features could characterize these “basal-type tumors” like those in the better known “basal-like” cancer of the breast
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