1,218,913 research outputs found

    Imaging studies of comets

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    Schmidt camera plates of comet Bradfield were secured on several nights in October 1987. The images of October 20 show the development of a huge bend in the plasma tail travelling several hundred kilometers per second down the tail; the likely solar-wind origin of this event is being explored. A charged coupled device (CCD) detector has been obtained. Calibration of the CCD is still underway, but high-quality, filtered cometary images shoud be possible in the near future

    Imaging studies of comets

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    The Joint Observatory for Cometary Research's (JOCR) historical mission has been to provide understanding of large-scale interactions between bright comets and solar wind using wide-angle (Schmidt) imagery and spacecraft data; in this pursuit the JOCR has excelled. The 16 inch Newtonian/Cassegrain telescope was upgraded to permit filtered, narrow-field charge coupled device (CCD) imaging of both bright and faint comets. Thus, the goal of obtaining narrow-band imagery of the near-nuclear region of bright comets was added to JOCR's original mission with emphasis on ionization processes and total gas production. A 300 mm lens/CCD system exists with 3 degree field of view (FOV) which uses comet filters; this system bridges the gap between the wide-field (8 x 10 deg) Schmidt plates and the several-arcmin. field of the 16 inch telescope. JOCR is located under dark skies on South Baldy Mountain (el. 10,600 ft.) near Socorro, NM, and is one of the last truly dark sites in the continental U.S

    Solar Activity Studies using Microwave Imaging Observations

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    We report on the status of solar cycle 24 based on polar prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness enhancement (MBE) information obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph. The north polar region of the Sun had near-zero field strength for more than three years (2012 to 2015) and ended only in September 2015 as indicated by the presence of polar PEs and the lack of MBE. The zero-polar-field condition in the south started only around 2013, but it ended by June 2014. Thus the asymmetry in the times of polarity reversal switched between cycle 23 and 24. The polar MBE is a good proxy for the polar magnetic field strength as indicated by the high degree of correlation between the two. The cross-correlation between the high- and low-latitude MBEs is significant for a lag of ~5.5 to 7.3 years, suggesting that the polar field of one cycle indicates the sunspot number of the next cycle in agreement with the Babcock-Leighton mechanism of solar cycles. The extended period of near-zero field in the north-polar region should result in a weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures, invited paper to the URSI Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference in Seoul, August 21-25, 201

    Patient Attitudes Toward a Physician Led Radiology Review: Improved Understanding of Medical Conditions and a Potential New Quality Metric

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    Objectives: We were interested in understanding patient perspectives regarding the importance of reviewing their imaging studies with a surgeon. Specific Aims: 1. What value do patients place on viewing their imaging? 2. Do patients have a better understanding of their disease and planned operation after a surgeon led review of imaging studies? 3. Do patients find viewing images an accessible educational tool?https://jdc.jefferson.edu/patientsafetyposters/1022/thumbnail.jp

    Large space antenna technology applied to radar-imaging, rain-rate measurements, and ocean wind sensing

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    During the last decade, the utility of spaceborne microwave remote sensing systems for ocean windspeed measurement, ocean wave imaging and sea ice studies was demonstrated. Development of large space antennas offers some interesting possibilities for rain rate measurements, ocean and ice studies, and radar imaging. The joint use of active and passive sensors using the 15 m antenna for ocean, ice, and soil moisture studies; rain rate measurements; and radar imaging is considered. Verification of the frequency agile rain radar concept with Shuttle offers the possibility of much needed rain rate statistics over the ocean

    IMPROVING The QUALITY OF BREAST MR IMAGING

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    The indications for and use of breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has increased over the past decade. Breast MR imaging is technically demanding, requiring excellent fat saturation, high spatial resolution, and rapid performance of postcontrast sequences. Patient and technical factors can lead to breast MR imaging artifacts. These artifacts may degrade image quality and confound interpretation. Breast MR imaging studies may be the only type of MR imaging studies that some radiologists interpret, particularly those who are dedicated exclusively to breast imaging. Technical factors that lead to suboptimal studies may not be recognized due to lack of experience with MR imaging in general. In this article, we review basic breast MR imaging technique and discuss and illustrate patient and technical factors that may result in artifacts. In addition, we provide practical suggestions for improving the quality of breast MR imaging

    Advancing imaging technologies for patients with spinal pain : with a focus on whiplash injury

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    Background: Radiological observations of soft-tissue changes that may relate to clinical symptoms in patients with traumatic and non-traumatic spinal disorders are highly controversial. Studies are often of poor quality and findings are inconsistent. A plethora of evidence suggests some pathoanatomical findings from traditional imaging applications are common in asymptomatic participants across the life span, which further questions the diagnostic, prognostic, and theranostic value of traditional imaging. Although we do not dispute the limited evidence for the clinical importance of most imaging findings, we contend that the disparate findings across studies may in part be due to limitations in the approaches used in assessment and analysis of imaging findings. Purpose: This clinical commentary aimed to (1) briefly detail available imaging guidelines, (2) detail research-based evidence around the clinical use of findings from advanced, but available, imaging applications (eg, fat and water magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization transfer imaging), and (3) introduce how evolving imaging technologies may improve our mechanistic understanding of pain and disability, leading to improved treatments and outcomes. Study Design/Setting: A non-systematic review of the literature is carried out. Methods: A narrative summary (including studies from the authors' own work in whiplash injuries) of the available literature is provided. Results: An emerging body of evidence suggests that the combination of existing imaging sequences or the use of developing imaging technologies in tandem with a good clinical assessment of modifiable risk factors may provide important diagnostic information toward the exploration and development of more informed and effective treatment options for some patients with traumatic neck pain. Conclusions: Advancing imaging technologies may help to explain the seemingly disconnected spectrum of biopsychosocial signs and symptoms of traumatic neck pain

    Neuroimaging as a selection tool and endpoint in preclinical and clinical trials

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    Standard imaging in acute stroke enables the exclusion of non-stroke structural CNS lesions and cerebral haemorrhage from clinical and pre-clinical ischaemic stroke trials. In this review, the potential benefit of imaging (e.g., angiography and penumbral imaging) as a translational tool for trial recruitment and the use of imaging endpoints are discussed for both clinical and pre-clinical stroke research. The addition of advanced imaging to identify a “responder” population leads to reduced sample size for any given effect size in phase 2 trials and is a potentially cost-efficient means of testing interventions. In pre-clinical studies, technical failures (failed or incomplete vessel occlusion, cerebral haemorrhage) can be excluded early and continuous multimodal imaging of the animal from stroke onset is feasible. Pre- and post-intervention repeat scans provide real time assessment of the intervention over the first 4–6 h. Negative aspects of advanced imaging in animal studies include increased time under general anaesthesia, and, as in clinical studies, a delay in starting the intervention. In clinical phase 3 trial designs, the negative aspects of advanced imaging in patient selection include higher exclusion rates, slower recruitment, overestimated effect size and longer acquisition times. Imaging may identify biological effects with smaller sample size and at earlier time points, compared to standard clinical assessments, and can be adjusted for baseline parameters. Mechanistic insights can be obtained. Pre-clinically, multimodal imaging can non-invasively generate data on a range of parameters, allowing the animal to be recovered for subsequent behavioural testing and/or the brain taken for further molecular or histological analysis
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