34,958 research outputs found

    Database for validation of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behaviour in bentonites

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    This paper presents a database of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical tests on bentonites, which has been named “Bento_DB4THCM”. After a comprehensive literature review, a set of experimental tests have been compiled. The experimental data are used to perform validation exercises for numerical codes to simulate the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and geochemical behaviour of bentonites. The database contains the information required for the simulation of each experimental test solving a boundary value problem. The validation exercises cover a wide range of clays, including the best-known bentonites (MX-80, FEBEX, GMZ) as well as others. The results collected in this database are from free swelling, swelling under load, swelling pressure and squeezing tests. The database is attached as Supplementary material.En este artículo se presenta una base de datos de ensayos termo-hidro-quimio-mecánicos sobre bentonitas, a la que se ha denominado “Bento_DB4THCM”. Después de una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura, se ha compilado un conjunto de pruebas experimentales. Los datos experimentales se utilizan para realizar ejercicios de validación de códigos numéricos para simular el comportamiento termohidromecánico y geoquímico acoplado de las bentonitas. La base de datos contiene la información requerida para la simulación de cada prueba experimental que resuelve un problema de valor límite. Los ejercicios de validación cubren una amplia gama de arcillas, incluidas las bentonitas más conocidas (MX-80, FEBEX, GMZ) entre otras. Los resultados recopilados en esta base de datos provienen de pruebas de hinchamiento libre, hinchamiento bajo carga, presión de hinchamiento y compresión. La base de datos se adjunta como material complementario

    Ecological successions throughout the desiccation of Tirez lagoon (Spain) as an astrobiological time-analog for wet-to-dry transitions on Mars

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    Tirez was a small and seasonal endorheic athalassohaline lagoon that was located in central Spain. In recent years, the lagoon has totally dried out, offering for the first time the opportunity to analyze its desiccation process as a “time-analog” to similar events occurred in paleolakes with varying salinity during the wet-to-dry transition on early Mars. On the martian cratered highlands, an early period of water ponding within enclosed basins evolved to a complete desiccation of the lakes, leading to deposition of evaporitic sequences during the Noachian and into the Late Hesperian. As Tirez also underwent a process of desiccation, here we describe (i) the microbial ecology of Tirez when the lagoon was still active 20 years ago, with prokaryotes adapted to extreme saline conditions; (ii) the composition of the microbial community in the dried lake sediments today, in many case groups that thrive in sediments of extreme environments; and (iii) the molecular and isotopic analysis of the lipid biomarkers that can be recovered from the sediments today. We discuss the implications of these results to better understanding the ecology of possible Martian microbial communities during the wet-to-dry transition at the end of the Hesperian, and how they may inform about research strategies to search for possible biomarkers in Mars after all the water was los

    Fruit Crop Improvement with Genome Editing, In Vitro and Transgenic Approaches

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    Fruit species contribute to nutritional and health security by providing micronutrients, antioxidants, and bioactive phytoconstituents, and hence fruit-based products are becoming functional foods presently and for the future. Although conventional breeding methods have yielded improved varieties having fruit quality, aroma, antioxidants, yield, and nutritional traits, the threat of climate change and need for improvement in several other traits such as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and higher nutritional quality has demanded complementary novel strategies. Biotechnological research in fruit crops has offered immense scope for large-scale multiplication of elite clones, in vitro, mutagenesis, and genetic transformation. Advanced molecular methods, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), QTLomics, genomic selection for the development of novel germplasm having functional traits for agronomic and nutritional quality, and enrichment of bioactive constituents through metabolic pathway engineering and development of novel products, are now paving the way for trait-based improvement for developing genetically superior varieties in fruit plant species for enhanced nutritional quality and agronomic performance. In this article, we highlight the applications of in vitro and molecular breeding approaches for use in fruit breeding

    Wheat blast: The last enemy of hunger fighters

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    Abstract Effective strategies for disease control are crucial for sustaining world food production and ensuring food security for the population. Wheat blast, a disease caused by the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum, has been a concern for cereal producers and researchers due to its aggressiveness and rapid expansion. To solve this problem, the development of resistant varieties with durable resistance is an effective, economical and sustainable way to control the disease. Conventional breeding can be aided by several molecular tools to facilitate the mining of many sources of resistance, such as R genes and QTLs. The identification of new sources of resistance, whether in the wheat crop or in other cereals are an opportunity for efficient wheat breeding through the application of different techniques. Since this disease is still poorly studied in wheat, knowledge of the rice Magnaporthe pathotype may be adapted to control wheat blast. Thus, genetic mapping, molecular markers, transgenic approaches, and genomic editing are valuable technologies to fight wheat blast. This review aimed to compile the biotechnological alternatives available to accelerate the development of improved cultivars for resistance to wheat blast

    Microplastics in European sea salts – An example of exposure through consumer choice and of interstudy methodological discrepancies

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    Microplastics are contaminants of emerging concern, not least due to their global presence in marine surface waters. Unsurprisingly, microplastics have been reported in salts harvested from numerous locations. We extracted microplastics from 13 European sea salts through 30% H2O2 digestion and filtration over 5-µm filters. Filters were visually inspected at magnifications to x100. A subsample of potential microplastics was subjected to Raman spectroscopy. Particle mass was estimated, and human dose exposure calculated. After blank corrections, median concentrations were 466 ± 152 microplastics kg-1 ranging from 74 to 1155 items kg-1. Traditionally harvested salts contained fewer microplastics than most industrially harvested ones (t-test, p < 0.01). Approximately 14 µg of microplastics (< 12 particles) may be absorbed by the human body annually, of which a quarter may derive from a consumer choosing sea salt. We reviewed existing studies, showing that targeting different particle sizes and incomplete filtrations hinder interstudy comparison, indicating the importance of method harmonisation for future studies. Excess salt consumption is detrimental to human health; the hazardousness of ingesting microplastics on the other hand has yet to be shown. A portion of microplastics may enter sea salts through production processes rather than source materials

    Drift of ablated material after pellet injection in a tokamak

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    Pellet injection is used for fuelling and controlling discharges in tokamaks, and it is foreseen in ITER. During pellet injection, a movement of the ablated material towards the low-field side (or outward major radius direction) occurs because of the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field. Due to the complexity of the theoretical models, computer codes developed to simulate the cross-field drift are computationally expensive. Here, we present a one-dimensional semi-analytical model for the radial displacement of ablated material after pellet injection, taking into account both the Alfv\'en and ohmic currents which short-circuit the charge separation creating the drift. The model is suitable for rapid calculation of the radial drift displacement, and can be useful for e.g. modelling of disruption mitigation via pellet injection.Comment: 22 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to Journal of Plasma Physic

    Effects of replacing dietary fish oil and fish meal with microbial oil and algal biomass on lipid class, total fatty acid and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon liver and muscle tissues

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    With the continuous growth of aquaculture comes a growing demand for an alternative lipid source for fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) in aquafeeds. Certain microorganisms provide a potential sustainable replacement for FO and FM due to their content of omega-3 (ω3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are essential for the growth and health of fish. Two feeding trials were conducted to determine the effects of replacing FO and FM with oil and biomass from two different microorganism species. The first feeding trial comprised of replacing FO with a microbial oil (MO) derived from a novel strain, Schizochytrium sp. (strain T18), in diets for Atlantic salmon. Four experimental diets were developed: a fish oil control diet (FO), a blend of fish oil/canola oil control diet (FO/CO), a fish oil replacement with low proportions of microbial oil diet (LMO), and a fish oil replacement with high proportions of microbial oil diet (HMO). After 16 weeks of feeding, there were no significant effects on growth parameters across the dietary treatments. Fatty acid profiles reflected the diets with DHA being present in high proportions in the tissues, especially in the cellular membrane. The purpose of the second feeding trial was to reduce FO and replacing FM with algal biomass (AB) derived from Pavlova sp. strain CCMP459 (Pav459) in diets for Atlantic salmon. Three experimental diets were developed: a fish meal control diet (FM), a blend of a fish meal/algal biomass Pav459 diet (FM/AB), and a complete FM replacement with algal biomass Pav459 diet (AB). After 12 weeks of feeding, again, there was no significant effect on growth paraments, and the fatty acid profiles also reflected those of the diets. The DHA was present in high proportions in the tissues for all dietary treatments, especially the cellular membrane. The stable isotope data suggested a direct integration of EPA and DHA and not biosynthesis from its precursor ALA

    アジア動向年報2010 - 2019 : 大韓民国編

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    The temporality of rhetoric: the spatialization of time in modern criticism

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    Every conception of criticism conceals a notion of time which informs the manner in which the critic conceives of history, representation and criticism itself. This thesis reveals the philosophies of time inherent in certain key modern critical concepts: allegory, irony and the sublime. Each concept opens a breach in time, a disruption of chronology. In each case this gap or aporia is emphatically closed, elided or denied. Taking the philosophy of time elaborated by Giorgio Agamben as an introductory proposition, my argument turns in Chapter One to the allegorical temporality which Walter Benjamin sees as the time of photography. The second chapter examines the aesthetics of the sublime as melancholic or mournful untimeliness. In Chapter Three, Paul de Man's conception of irony provides an exemplary instance of the denial of this troubling temporal predicament. In opposition to the foreclosure of the disturbing temporalities of criticism, history and representation, the thesis proposes a fundamental rethinking of the philosophy of time as it relates to these categories of reflection. In a reading of an inaugural meditation on the nature of time, and in examining certain key contemporary philosophical and critical texts, I argue for a critical attendance to that which eludes those modes of thought that attempt to map time as a recognizable and essentially spatial field. The Confessions of Augustine provide, in the fourth chapter, a model for thinking through the problems set up earlier: Augustine affords us, precisely, a means of conceiving of the gap or the interim. In the final chapter, this concept is developed with reference to the criticism of Arnold and Eliot, the fiction of Virginia Woolf and the philosophy of cinema derived from Deleuze and Lyotard. In conclusion, the philosophical implications of the thesis are placed in relation to a conception of the untimeliness of death
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