37,966 research outputs found

    Revisão taxonómica do género Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) na Península Ibérica e Marrocos

    Get PDF
    The genus Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) includes, depending on the author, 10 to 25 species, distributed mainly in the Mediterranean basin. The taxonomy of this genus is considered to be extremely difficult, due to a great morphological variability, doubtfull relevance of some of the characters used to distinguish its species (e.g. the life form: annual or perennial; the habit: erect or diffuse, shape of the leaves, indumentum, relative size of the capitula and colour of disc or ray florets, achene morphology), but also due to the hybridization and polyploidization. Despite the numerous studies that have been published, no agreement on the classification and characters used to discriminate between taxa has been reached. A taxonomic study of the genus Calendula was conducted for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, aiming at (1) access the morphological variability between and within taxa, (2) confirm the chromosome numbers, (3) increase the nuclear DNA content estimations, (4) re-evaluate taxa delimitations and circumscription, and (5) reassess, and redefine, the descriptions and characters useful to distinguish taxa. In order to achieve a satisfying taxonomic core, extensive fieldwork, detailed morphometric analysis, chorological, karyological and genome size studies were conducted. For the Iberian Peninsula, four species were recognized, including nine subspecies (between these two new subspecies were described). For Morocco, including some taxa from Algeria and Tunisia 13 species were recognized (two new species and a nomenclatural change), including 15 subspecies (among these eight new subspecies were described). To corroborate the results obtained and to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among taxa, phylogenetic studies using molecular methods, such as ITS, microsatellites or other molecular markers, should be used.O género Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) inclui, dependendo do autor, 10 a 25 espécies, distribuídas essencialmente na bacia do Mediterrâneo. A taxonomia deste género é considerada extremamente difícil, devido à grande variabilidade morfológica, discutivel relevância de alguns dos caracteres utilizados para distinguir suas espécies (por exemplo, a forma de vida: anual ou perene, o hábito: erecto ou difuso, a forma das folhas, o indumento, o tamanho e a cor dos capítulos e a morfologia dos aquénios), mas também devido à hibridização e poliploidização. Apesar dos inúmeros estudos que foram publicados, não foi alcançado um acordo sobre a classificação e os caracteres utilizados para discriminar as suas espécies. Um estudo taxonómico do género Calendula foi realizado para a Península Ibérica e Marrocos, com o objectivo de (1) verificar a variabilidade morfológica, (2) confirmar o número de cromossomas, (3) aumentar as estimativas de conteúdo em ADN, (4) reavaliar a delimitação e a circunscrição dos taxa, e (5) reavaliar e redefinir as descrições e caracteres úteis para os distinguir. Para alcançar uma robustês taxonómica satisfatória, foram realizados extensos trabalhos de campo, análise morfométrica detalhada, abordagens corológicas, cariológicas e quanto ao conteúdo em ADN. Para a Península Ibérica, quatro espécies foram reconhecidas, incluindo nove subespécies (entre essas duas novas subespécies foram descritas). Para Marrocos, incluindo alguns taxa da Argelia e Tunisia, foram reconhecidas 13 espécies (duas novas e uma mudança nomenclatural), incluindo 15 subespécies (entre essas oito novas subespécies foram descritas). Para corroborar os resultados obtidos e avaliar as relações evolutivas e filogenéticas entre os taxa, estudos que utilizem diferentes métodos moleculares, tais como ITS, microsatélites ou outros marcadores moleculares, devem ser utilizados.Apoio financeiro do Laboratório Associado CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (AMB/50017) financiado por fundos nacionais através da FCT/MCTES e cofinanciado pelo FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), no âmbito do Acordo de Parceria PT2020, e Compete 2020Programa Doutoral em Biologi

    A New ±\pm Iwasawa Theory and Converse of Gross-Zagier and Kolyvagin Theorem (with an Appendix by Yangyu Fan)

    Full text link
    Let p>3p>3 be a prime. In this paper we develop a new kind of anticyclotomic local ±\pm-Iwasawa theory at pp for Hecke characters of quadratic imaginary fields which is valid for all ramification types of pp (split, inert and ramified). As an application we deduce the converse of Gross-Zagier-Kolyvagin theorem for these CM forms, which states that Selmer rank one implies analytic rank one. To carry out the Iwasawa theory argument we employ a recent construction of a new type of pp-adic LL-function by Andreatta-Iovita, and generalized by Yangyu Fan to Shimura curves in the Appendix, and a ``virtual Heenger family'' made via a limiting procedure from a Heegner family along Coleman-Mazur eigencurve constructed by Jetchev-Loeffler-Zerbes.Comment: with an appendix by Yangyu Fa

    Search for heavy Majorana or Dirac neutrinos and right-handed WW gauge bosons in final states with charged leptons and jets in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Full text link
    A search for heavy right-handed Majorana or Dirac neutrinos NRN_{\mathrm{R}} and heavy right-handed gauge bosons WRW_{\mathrm{R}} is performed in events with energetic electrons or muons, with the same or opposite electric charge, and energetic jets. The search is carried out separately for topologies of clearly separated final-state products (``resolved'' channel) and topologies with boosted final states with hadronic products partially overlapping and reconstructed as a large-radius jet (``boosted'' channel). The events are selected from pppp collision data at the LHC with an integrated luminosity of 139 fb−1^{-1} collected by the ATLAS detector at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV. No significant deviations from the Standard Model predictions are observed. The results are interpreted within the theoretical framework of a left-right symmetric model, and lower limits are set on masses in the heavy right-handed WRW_{\mathrm{R}} boson and NRN_{\mathrm{R}} plane. The excluded region extends to about m(WR)=6.4m(W_{\mathrm{R}}) = 6.4 TeV for both Majorana and Dirac NRN_{\mathrm{R}} neutrinos at m(NR)<1m(N_{\mathrm{R}})<1 TeV. NRN_{\mathrm{R}} with masses of less than 3.5 (3.6) TeV are excluded in the electron (muon) channel at m(WR)=4.8m(W_{\mathrm{R}})=4.8 TeV for the Majorana neutrinos, and limits of m(NR)m(N_{\mathrm{R}}) up to 3.6 TeV for m(WR)=5.2m(W_{\mathrm{R}}) = 5.2 (5.05.0) TeV in the electron (muon) channel are set for the Dirac neutrinos.Comment: 48 pages in total, author list starting page 31, 9 figures, 5 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/EXOT-2019-39

    Nonlinear realisation approach to topologically massive supergravity

    Full text link
    We develop a nonlinear realisation approach to topologically massive supergravity in three dimensions, with and without a cosmological term. It is a natural generalisation of a similar construction for N=1{\cal N}=1 supergravity in four dimensions, which was recently proposed by one of us. At the heart of both formulations is the nonlinear realisation approach to gravity which was given by Volkov and Soroka fifty years ago in the context of spontaneously broken local supersymmetry. In our setting, the action for cosmological topologically massive supergravity is invariant under two different local supersymmetries. One of them acts on the Goldstino, while the other supersymmetry leaves the Goldstino invariant. The former can be used to gauge away the Goldstino, and then the resulting action coincides with that given in the literature.Comment: 29 page

    Concatenated Forward Error Correction with KP4 and Single Parity Check Codes

    Full text link
    Concatenated forward error correction is studied using an outer KP4 Reed-Solomon code with hard-decision decoding and inner single parity check (SPC) codes with Chase/Wagner soft-decision decoding. Analytical expressions are derived for the end-to-end frame and bit error rates for transmission over additive white Gaussian noise channels with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quaternary amplitude shift keying (4-ASK), as well as with symbol interleavers and quantized channel outputs. The BPSK error rates are compared to those of two other inner codes: a two-dimensional product code with SPC component codes and an extended Hamming code. Simulation results for unit-memory inter-symbol interference channels and 4-ASK are also presented. The results show that the coding schemes achieve similar error rates, but SPC codes have the lowest complexity and permit flexible rate adaptation.Comment: Accepted for publication in IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technolog

    Quantum Mechanics Lecture Notes. Selected Chapters

    Full text link
    These are extended lecture notes of the quantum mechanics course which I am teaching in the Weizmann Institute of Science graduate physics program. They cover the topics listed below. The first four chapter are posted here. Their content is detailed on the next page. The other chapters are planned to be added in the coming months. 1. Motion in External Electromagnetic Field. Gauge Fields in Quantum Mechanics. 2. Quantum Mechanics of Electromagnetic Field 3. Photon-Matter Interactions 4. Quantization of the Schr\"odinger Field (The Second Quantization) 5. Open Systems. Density Matrix 6. Adiabatic Theory. The Berry Phase. The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation 7. Mean Field Approaches for Many Body Systems -- Fermions and Boson

    Metabolomic evaluation of PGPR defence priming in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars infected with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (stripe rust)

    Get PDF
    Plant-microbe interactions are a phenomenal display of symbiotic/parasitic relationships between living organisms. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are some of the most widely investigated plant-beneficial microbes due to their capabilities in stimulating plant growth and development and conferring protection to plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. As such, PGPR-mediated plant priming/induced systemic resistance (ISR) has become a hot topic among researchers, particularly with prospects of applications in sustainable agriculture. The current study applies untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high-definition mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HDMS) to investigate PGPR-based metabolic reconfigurations in the metabolome of primed wheat plants against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tricti (Pst). A seed bio-priming approach was adopted, where seeds were coated with two PGPR strains namely Bacillus subtilis and Paenibacillus alvei (T22) and grown under controlled conditions in a glasshouse. The plants were infected with Pst one-week post-germination, followed by weekly harvesting of leaf material. Subsequent metabolite extraction was carried out for analysis on a UHPLC-HDMS system for data acquisition. The data was chemometrically processed to reveal the underlying trends and data structures as well as potential signatory biomarkers for priming against Pst. Results showed notable metabolic reprogramming in primary and secondary metabolism, where the amino acid and organic acid content of primed-control, primed-challenged and non-primed-challenged plants were differentially reprogrammed. Similar trends were observed from the secondary metabolism, in which primed plants (particularly primed-challenged) showed an up-regulation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids-HCAs- and HCA amides) compared to the non-primed plants. The metabolomics-based semi-quantitative and qualitative assessment of the plant metabolomes revealed a time-dependent metabolic reprogramming in primed-challenged and primed-unchallenged plants, indicating the metabolic adaptations of the plants to stripe rust infection over time

    Differential responses in some quinoa genotypes of a consortium of beneficial endophytic bacteria against bacterial leaf spot disease

    Get PDF
    Many effective plant-microbe interactions lead to biological changes that can stimulate plant growth and production. This study evaluated the effect of the interaction between quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and endophytic bacterial strains on differential responses under biotic stress. Four strains of endophytic bacteria were used to inoculate three quinoa genotypes. Endophytic bacteria, isolated from the endosphere of healthy genotypes of quinoa plants, were used to evaluate their biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae on quinoa plants, which causes leaf spot disease, depending on some different parameters. Quinoa genotype plants were treated with four treatments: pathogenic bacteria only (T1), internal bacteria only (T2), pathogenic bacteria + endogenous bacteria (T3), and untreated as the control (T4). The results indicated that there was a significant difference between chlorophyll content index of infected plants without bioagent (untreated) compared to plants bio-inoculated with endophytic bacteria. The highest mean disease incidence was on the plants without bacterial inoculum (90, 80, and 100%) for quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The results showed that there were significant differences in the weight of grains/plant, as the value ranged from 8.1 to 13.3 g when treated with pathogens (T1) compared to the treatment with pathogens and endogenous bacteria (T3), which ranged from 11.7 to 18.6 g/plant. Decreases in total aromatic amino acids appeared due to the pathogen infection, by 6.3, 22.8, and 24.1% (compared to the control) in G1, G2, and G3, respectively. On the other hand, genotype G3 showed the highest response in the levels of total aromatic and total neutral amino acids. The endophytic strains promoted quinoa seedling growth mainly by improving nutrient efficiency. This improvement could not be explained by their ability to induce the production of amino acids, showing that complex interactions might be associated with enhancement of quinoa seedling performance by endophytic bacteria. The endophytic bacterial strains were able to reduce the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease by 30, 40, and 50% in quinoa genotypes G1, G2, and G3, respectively, recording significant differences compared to the negative control. The results indicated that, G1 genotype was superior in different performance indicators (pathogen tolerance index, yield injury %, superiority measure and relative performance) for grain weight/plant under pathogen infection condition when treated with endophyte bacteria. Based on this study, these bacterial strains can be used as a biotechnology tool in quinoa seedling production and biocontrol to diminish the severity of bacterial leaf spot disease

    Reduced C9orf72 expression exacerbates polyGR toxicity in patient iPSC-derived motor neurons and a Type I protein arginine methyltransferase inhibitor reduces that toxicity

    Get PDF
    IntroductionIntronic repeat expansions in the C9orf72 gene are the most frequent known single genetic causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). These repeat expansions are believed to result in both loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function. Gain-of-function results in the production of toxic arginine-rich dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs), namely polyGR and polyPR. Small-molecule inhibition of Type I protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has been shown to protect against toxicity resulting from polyGR and polyPR challenge in NSC-34 cells and primary mouse-derived spinal neurons, but the effect in human motor neurons (MNs) has not yet been explored.MethodsTo study this, we generated a panel of C9orf72 homozygous and hemizygous knockout iPSCs to examine the contribution of C9orf72 loss-of-function toward disease pathogenesis. We differentiated these iPSCs into spinal motor neurons (sMNs).ResultsWe found that reduced levels of C9orf72 exacerbate polyGR15 toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Type I PRMT inhibition was able to partially rescue polyGR15 toxicity in both wild-type and C9orf72-expanded sMNs.DiscussionThis study explores the interplay of loss-of-function and gain-of-function toxicity in C9orf72 ALS. It also implicates type I PRMT inhibitors as a possible modulator of polyGR toxicity

    Small newborns in post-conflict Northern Uganda: Burden and interventions for improved outcomes

    Get PDF
    Introduction: A small newborn can be the result of either a low birthweight (LBW), or a preterm birth (PB), or both. LBW can be due to either a preterm appropriate-for gestational-age (preterm-AGA), or a term small-for-gestational age (term-SGA) or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). An IUGR is a limited in-utero foetal growth rates or foetal weight < 10th percentile. Small newborns have an increased risk of dying, particularly in low-resource settings. We set out to assess the burden, the modifiable risk factors and health outcomes of small newborns in the post-conflict Northern Ugandan district of Lira. In addition, we studied the use of video-debriefing when training health staff in Helping Babies Breathe. Subjects and methods: In 2018-19, we conducted a community-based cohort study on 1556 mother-infant dyads, nested within a cluster randomized trial. In our cohort study, we estimated the incidence and risk factors for LBW and PB and the association of LBW with severe outcomes. We explored the prevalence of and factors associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia, as well as any association between neonatal death and hypoglycaemia. In addition, we conducted a cluster randomized trial to compare Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) training in combination with video debriefing to the traditional HBB training alone on the attainment and retention of health worker neonatal resuscitation competency. Results: The incidence of LBW and PB in our cohort was lower than the global estimates, 7.3% and 5.0%, respectively. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria was associated with a reduced risk of LBW. HIV infection was associated with an increased risk of both LBW and PB, while maternal formal education (schooling) of ≥7 years was associated with a reduced risk of LBW and PB. The proportions of neonatal deaths were many-folds higher among LBW infants compared to their non-LBW counterparts. The proportion of neonatal deaths among LBW was 103/1000 live births compared to 5/1000 among the non-LBW. The prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia in our cohort was 2.5%. LBW and PB each independently were associated with an increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Neonatal hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation and severe outcomes. We demonstrated that neonatal resuscitation training with video debriefing, improved competence attainment and retention among health workers, compared to traditional HBB training alone. Conclusion: In northern Uganda, small infants still have a many-fold higher risk of dying compared to normal infants. In addition, small infants are also at more risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia compared to normal infants. Efforts are needed to secure essential newborn care, should we reach the target of Sustainable Development Goal number 3.2 of reducing infant mortality to less than 12/1000 live births by 2030
    • …
    corecore