942 research outputs found

    Intertextual irony : between relevance theory and Umberto Eco

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    This article discusses the advantages deriving from the interaction of pragmatics and literary theory in the study of literary irony. The first section argues that the current (mis)understanding of irony is the result of a centuries-long intertwinement between rhetorical and philosophical discourses. The paper then shows how the echoic theory of irony, devised by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson within the broader framework of their Relevance Theory, provides literary scholars with a different and potentially useful notion of irony and its functions. The third section compares echoic irony to Umberto Eco’s definition of irony. Intertextual irony is then defined, and identified as a fourth type of irony, in addition to verbal, situational or dramatic ironies. Literary examples and implications of intertextual irony are also analysed. In the fourth and final section expressions of a diffuse sense of rejection of irony in contemporary culture are briefly discussed. By applying an innovative methodology to the study of figurative language, this article aims to introduce the concept of intertextual irony as a reader-oriented tool for literary analysis, as well as to emphasize the role that pragmatics can play in the refinement of the vocabulary of literary criticism and theory

    El “núcleo racional” de la teleología natural: la interacción dialéctica como forma de desarrollo de lo concreto-universal

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    It is often believed that the only alternative to an idealist conception of natural phenomena excludes both the presence of objective universal forms and their progression towards higher forms as the finality of processes in the natural world. Realism regarding the universal and teleological approaches regarding processes are signs of idealism. Therefore, materialism, it would seem, must conform to a nominalist and mechanical view of nature. However, an intelligent materialist reading of idealism’s classics reveals a more complex scenario. A real fact is expressed in a mystical fashion in idealism’s conceptions of objective universals and teleology. This article attempts to show such a real fact in its authentic (materialist) form. With that goal in mind, the present article discusses the notion of nature’s alienation, the distinction between abstract and concrete universals, and the concept of dialectical interaction. The natural-historical emergence of a higher form of matter’s organization assimilates, as its organs, the conditions that preceded it in time, transforming itself into an active producer of such conditions. That is the secret glimpsed but not correctly understood by idealism that a consistent materialist should not ignore.A menudo se cree que la única alternativa a una concepción idealista de los fenómenos naturales excluye tanto la presencia de formas universales objetivas como su progresión hacia formas superiores como finalidad de los procesos en el mundo natural. El realismo con respecto a lo universal y los enfoques teleológicos en los procesos son signos de idealismo. Por lo tanto, el materialismo, al parecer, debe ajustarse a una visión nominalista y mecanicista de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, una lectura inteligentemente materialista de los clásicos del idealismo revela un escenario más complejo. Un hecho real se expresa de manera mística en las concepciones idealistas de los universales objetivos y la teleología. Este artículo intenta mostrar tal hecho real en su forma auténtica (materialista). Con ese objetivo en mente, el presente artículo discute la noción de alienación de la naturaleza, la distinción entre universales abstractos y concretos, y el concepto de interacción dialéctica. El surgimiento histórico-natural de una forma superior de organización de la materia asimila, como sus órganos, las condiciones que le precedieron en el tiempo, transformándose en productor activo de tales condiciones. Ese es el secreto vislumbrado pero no correctamente comprendido por el idealismo que un materialista consecuente no debe ignorar

    Resilience in a troubled world : proceedings of the Malta international theological conference III

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    Over the last decade, Seligman’s Positive psychology movement has underpinned an increase in government-level interest in the subjective wellbeing of populations; specifically in the potential health benefits (physical and mental), of complex cognitive-emotional states such as happiness, subjective wellbeing, and related constructs such as resilience. (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Diener, 2000). The focus on resilience, reflected across society, is in part fueled by an explosion in the academic resilience research literature (Bonnanno, Romero and Klein, 2015), aided and abetted by numerous articles, podcasts or similar in the less than rigorous popular media, and mirrored in a tsunami of references to resilience at every level of society and in both private and public sectors.peer-reviewe

    AKAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION AND CATHOLICISM IN DIALOGUE: ENVISAGING A PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE THEOLOGY OF MARRIAGE IN POSTMODERN GHANA

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    The changing phases of religions, cultures, and world history in postmodernity call on the Catholic tradition to be religiously and culturally interreligious. The identity and mission of the Church can no longer be defined in a Eurocentric, triumphalist, or exclusivist term as in colonial times. As the Church expands to new religio-cultural and socio-political territories, the theological principles of dialogue, interculturality, listening, and inculturation must guide her mission. This dissertation, tracing the historical, cultural, and theological development of interreligious and cultural dialogue in the Catholic Church, argues that the Catholic Church of Ghana must engage religious and cultural diversity with a new outlook of dialogue and collaboration to promote national harmony in Ghana. Interculturality, this dissertation contends that the Ghana Catholic Church needs to adopt a paradigm shift in the theology of marriage instead of assuming as normative the canonical form of the Council of Trent, which does not resonate with the culture of the Akans. The consequence of the ‘imposition’ of this tradition on the church of Ghana has resulted in the multiplicity of marriage ceremonies before an Akan married spouse can participate at the eucharistic table. This has resulted in eucharistic famine and ecclesial apathy in most parishes. This dissertation explores a new context that integrates the Catholic Holy Matrimony into the culture of the Akan marriage rite. Two models of Akan-Catholic marriage are proposed considering the theological, canonical, civil, and cultural requirements for the validity and celebration of marriage that is truly Akan and truly Catholic

    IMAGES OF THE SUBALTERN: REPRESENTATIONS OF CONTEMPORARY PORTUGUESE IDENTITY IN THE NOVELS OF VALTER HUGO MÃE

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    This thesis is unique in two ways; it is redeploying Gramsci’s notion of the subaltern to Europe, and it is the first in the English language to examine the work of contemporary Portuguese author valter hugo mãe. It examines how valter hugo mãe is altering the literary discourse of Portuguese national identity by constructing characters that subvert generally accepted notions of portugalidade by representing aspects of subalternity, thereby contributing to the development of post-nationalist thought within Portugal. This entails a re-application of Gramscian subaltern theory to the European arena after its appropriation by postcolonial theorists, and a detailed analysis of post-national, postcolonial and identity theories within a Gramscian framework, and how these have come to inform the author’s work and what this means in terms of the cultural construction of Portuguese identity. Bakhtin’s chronotope theory deepens the analysis of subalternity as it allows for a deeper understanding of how spatio-temporal literary constructions condition narratives, thereby perpetuating both hegemonic and subaltern status. The social status of the characters within valter hugo mãe’s novels is examined through an analysis of how their personal identities represent questions surrounding collective national identity in contemporary Portugal. The existing hegemonic structure is also challenged through an analysis of the representation of Portuguese religiosity and the supernatural in the tetralogy. The imposition of a certain identity upon the characters by Portuguese society, and how their acceptance or rejection of these identities affects both themselves and society as a whole allows the author to explore how meanings of identity have changed as a result of increasing globalization and the impact this has made upon collective Portuguese identity. The four novels were published between 2004 and 2010, meaning that they truly reflect anxieties that have arisen in recent times surrounding Portuguese perceptions of itself and its global status, making a study of these hugely valuable for understanding contemporary Portuguese identity

    The “Rational Kernel” of Natural Teleology: Dialectical Interaction as the Concrete-Universal’s Form of Development

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    It is often believed that the only alternative to an idealist conception of natural phenomena excludes both the presence of objective universal forms and their progression towards higher forms as the finality of processes in the natural world. Realism regarding the universal and teleological approaches regarding processes are signs of idealism. Therefore, materialism, it would seem, must conform to a nominalist and mechanical view of nature. However, an intelligent materialist reading of idealism’s classics reveals a more complex scenario. A real fact is expressed in a mystical fashion in idealism’s conceptions of objective universals and teleology. This article attempts to show such a real fact in its authentic (materialist) form. With that goal in mind, the present article discusses the notion of nature’s alienation, the distinction between abstract and concrete universals, and the concept of dialectical interaction. The natural-historical emergence of a higher form of matter’s organization assimilates, as its organs, the conditions that preceded it in time, transforming itself into an active producer of such conditions. That is the secret glimpsed but not correctly understood by idealism that a consistent materialist should not ignore
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