134 research outputs found

    Urban occupations in a Siberian city (Tobolsk, 1897)

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    The article was submitted on 27.06.2016.Рассматривается профессиональная структура города Тобольска конца ХIX в. Сибирь была самым масштабным регионом Российской империи со слабо развитой сетью городов, большинство из которых выполняли роль опорных центров для административного управления огромной территорией. В наиболее освоенных и развитых в хозяйственном отношении западных и южных губерниях Сибири города становились не только административными, но и культурными, и экономическими их центрами. Вопрос представляется актуальным для понимания готовности сибирских губерний к тем общественным трансформациям, которые начались спустя два десятилетия после рассматриваемого периода. Особенностью исследования является использование персональных данных Первой всеобщей переписи населения Российской империи 1897 г. На уровне персоналий оно позволяет существенно расширить исследовательский диапазон, ранее ограниченный опубликованными агрегированными материалами. С их помощью дана характеристика занятости городского населения крупных сибирских городов, показана специфика занятости «военных», «аграрных» городов, а также губернских центров Западной и Восточной Сибири. Обработка данных переписи 1897 г. на индивидуальном уровне производилась с помощью базы данных «Население Тобольска в 1897 г.», включающей сведения о 92,5 % горожан, имевших самостоятельные занятия. Персональные данные позволили провести реконструкцию возрастной и гендерной структуры экономически активного населения губернского центра, выявить особенности занятости представителей разных сословных групп, специфику дополнительных занятий городского населения, определить влияние семьи на выбор сферы деятельности человека. Все сведения о занятиях населения городов Сибири, в том числе Тобольска, были закодированы с помощью Historical International Standard Classification of Occupations.The article studies the late 19th-century occupational structure of Tobolsk in the context of other major Siberian cities. Many urban centres were strongholds for governing this huge territory, and Tobolsk was a typical provincial capital in this regard. In the most economically developed Western and Southern Siberian provinces, cities were not only administrative hubs, but also cultural and economic centres. The authors look at how urban populations were distributed among different occupational groups and social classes, and what role gender and family relations played in terms of employment. This is important, as it may help understand whether Russia’s huge eastern provinces were ready for the transformations which started just two decades after the period whence the main source material of the article originates. The research is based on the first general census of the Russian Empire in 1897. The archives have not preserved primary census manuscripts as a unified collection: so far, only scattered manuscripts have emerged. Clearly, the use of the individual-level nominative census data found for Tobolsk considerably broadens the scope of the research, which was previously limited to aggregate data. The aggregate data provide an opportunity to characterise employment in Siberian cities more generally, demonstrating the occupational specificity of the ‘military’ and ‘agrarian’ cities as well as the provincial centres of Western and Eastern Siberia. The authors more closely analyse the nominative 1897 census data using the database ‘Tobolsk Population in 1897’, which contains information about 92.5 % of employed citizens. The individual-level data made it possible to reconstruct the age and gender structure of the economically active population of the provincial centre, to study the occupations of different estate groups, to look into specific features of secondary occupations, and to see the family’s influence on the choice of occupation. All the employment data on the Siberian urban population were coded according to the HISCO standard

    Demographic indicators, models, and testing

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    The use of simple demographic indicators to describe mortality dynamics can obscure important features of the survival curve, particularly during periods of rapid change, such as those caused by internal or external factors, and especially at the oldest or youngest ages. Therefore, instead of the generally accepted Gompertz method, other methods based on demographic indicators are often used. In human populations, chronic phenoptosis, in contrast to age-independent acute phenoptosis, is characterized by rectangularization of the survival curve and an accompanying increase in average life expectancy at birth, which can be attributed to advances in society and technology. Despite the simple geometric interpretation of the phenomenon of rectangularization of the survival curve, it is difficult to notice one, detecting changes in the optimal coefficients in the Gompertz-Makeham law due to high computational complexity and increased calculation errors. This is avoided by calculating demographic indicators such as the Keyfitz entropy, the Gini coefficient, and the coefficient of variation in lifespan. Our analysis of both theoretical models and real demographic data shows that with the same value of the Gini coefficient in the compared cohorts, a larger value of the Keyfitz entropy indicates a greater proportion of centenarians relative to average life expectancy. On the contrary, at the same value of the Keyfitz entropy, a larger value of the Gini coefficient corresponds to a relatively large mortality at a young age. We hypothesize that decreases in the Keyfitz entropy may be attributable to declines in background mortality, reflected in the Makeham term, or to reductions in mortality at lower ages, corresponding to modifications in another coefficient of the Gompertz law. By incorporating dynamic shifts in age into survival analyses, we can deepen our comprehension of mortality patterns and aging mechanisms, ultimately contributing to the development of more reliable methods for evaluating the efficacy of anti-aging and geroprotective interventions used in gerontology

    Подходы к фармацевтическому анализу современных пептидных и олигонуклеотидных препаратов на примере инновационного препарата на основе малой интерферирующей РНК для лечения бронхиальной астмы

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    Methods used to control the quality of peptide products depend on the level of development of analytical and bioorganic chemistry, and the level of instrumentation. Peptide identification is a difficult task and largely depends on the complexity of its structure. There does not exist a comprehensive and simple test, except for NMR, which, however, is rather expensive and time-consuming and involves complex data interpretations. Moreover, it does not allow for unambiguous determination of the peptide purity and formula (amino acid composition, sequence, chirality of amino acid residues). For this reason, a combination of methods is often used, including amino acid analysis, TLC/HPLC and mass spectrometry, and, less frequently, sequencing. Current international practice of peptide analysis is to use HPLC in combination with mass spectrometric, mainly tandem (HPLC-MS/MS), detection. According to literature sources the amino acid sequence of linear peptides can be analysed using various enzymes and subsequent identification of proteolysis products by mass spectrometry. This article presents approaches to the development of test methods for analysis of purity and identification testing of a small interfering RNA-based novel medicinal product, which will help standardise and control the quality of the production process.Используемые методы для контроля качества лекарственных средств пептидной природы зависят от уровня развития аналитической и биоорганической химии и развития приборной базы. Анализ подлинности пептида представляет собой непростую задачу и во многом зависит от сложности его структуры. Не существует однозначного и достаточно простого теста, за исключением ЯМР, который, однако, является дорогостоящим и длительным методом со сложной интерпретацией данных. Причем этот метод не позволяет однозначно установить чистоту и формулу пептида (аминокислотный состав, последовательность, хиральность аминокислотных остатков). По этой причине нередко используется комбинация методов, включая аминокислотный анализ, ТСХ/ВЭЖХ и масс-спектрометрию и, более редко, секвенирование. В мировой практике для исследования пептидов наиболее распространен метод ВЭЖХ в сочетании с масс-спектрометрическим, преимущественно тандемным (ВЭЖХ-МС/МС) детектированием. Для установления аминокислотной последовательности линейных пептидов описано применение различных ферментов с последующей идентификацией продуктов протеолиза масс-спектрометрически. В данной статье представлены подходы к разработке методик определения подлинности и чистоты инновационного лекарственного препарата пептидной природы на основе малой интерферирующей РНК с целью стандартизации и контроля качества на производстве

    Adaptive Redox Reactions Promote Naturalization of Rare Orchid Epipactis atrorubens on Serpentine Dumps Post Asbestos Mining

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    Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Besser. is a regionally rare orchid species with highly ornamental properties due to its very beautiful bright flowers, therefore it is of considerable interest as a horticultural plant for use in botanical gardens and greenhouses. The objective of the research was to assess metal accumulation and some pro-and antioxidant reactions in E. atrorubens, colonizing serpentine dumps post asbestos mining. Additionally, some physicochemical properties of substrates, microbiotic characteristics and water status were investigated in orchids growing on two serpentine dumps and in a natural forest habitat of the Middle Urals, Russia. The dump substrates were characterized by the strong stoniness and the high content of Mg, Ni, Cr and Co (by 1.8 times on average) compared to the natural habitat. In these sites, E. atrorubens was characterized by increased mycorrhization. In the rhizome and roots of E. atrorubens the concentrations of most metals studied were considerably higher (more than 4 times on average) than in the leaves. It was found that orchids colonizing serpentine dumps produced more lipid peroxidation products (by 1.4 times on average) in the leaves which was accompanied by the more active synthesis of such non-enzymatic antioxidants as ascorbate, free proline, soluble phenolic compounds (including flavonoids) and non-protein thiols. The study suggests that non-enzymatic antioxidants increased the adaptive potential of E. atrorubens and contributed to its naturalization on serpentine dumps post asbestos mining. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.20-44-660011; Russian Foundation for Basic Research, РФФИ; Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Minobrnauka; Ural Federal University, UrFU: FEUZ-2020-0057Funding: The reported study was partly funded by RFBR and the Government of Sverdlovsk region, project number 20-44-660011 and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation as part of state task of the Ural Federal University, FEUZ-2020-0057

    An information-driven framework for image mining

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    [Abstract]: Image mining systems that can automatically extract semantically meaningful information (knowledge) from image data are increasingly in demand. The fundamental challenge in image mining is to determine how low-level, pixel representation contained in a raw image or image sequence can be processed to identify high-level spatial objects and relationships. To meet this challenge, we propose an efficient information-driven framework for image mining. We distinguish four levels of information: the Pixel Level, the Object Level, the Semantic Concept Level, and the Pattern and Knowledge Level. High-dimensional indexing schemes and retrieval techniques are also included in the framework to support the flow of information among the levels. We believe this framework represents the first step towards capturing the different levels of information present in image data and addressing the issues and challenges of discovering useful patterns/knowledge from each level

    Approaches to Pharmaceutical Analysis of Modern Peptide and Oligonucleotide Products as Illustrated by a Small Interfering RNA-Based Novel Therapeutic for the Treatment of Bronchial Asthma

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    Methods used to control the quality of peptide products depend on the level of development of analytical and bioorganic chemistry, and the level of instrumentation. Peptide identification is a difficult task and largely depends on the complexity of its structure. There does not exist a comprehensive and simple test, except for NMR, which, however, is rather expensive and time-consuming and involves complex data interpretations. Moreover, it does not allow for unambiguous determination of the peptide purity and formula (amino acid composition, sequence, chirality of amino acid residues). For this reason, a combination of methods is often used, including amino acid analysis, TLC/HPLC and mass spectrometry, and, less frequently, sequencing. Current international practice of peptide analysis is to use HPLC in combination with mass spectrometric, mainly tandem (HPLC-MS/MS), detection. According to literature sources the amino acid sequence of linear peptides can be analysed using various enzymes and subsequent identification of proteolysis products by mass spectrometry. This article presents approaches to the development of test methods for analysis of purity and identification testing of a small interfering RNA-based novel medicinal product, which will help standardise and control the quality of the production process

    Влияние контента на вовлеченность персонала розничной сети в отношения с брендом в социальных сетях (на примере Facebook)

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    В статье представлены результаты исследования влияния контента на вовлеченность персонала розничных сетей в отношения с брендом на примере социальной сети Facebook. Работа посвящена описанию подхода к классификации характеристик контента и изучению влияния данных характеристик на вовлеченность персонала в отношения с брендом в социальных сетях. Показана взаимосвязь вовлеченности покупателей в отношения с брендом в социальных сетях и вовлеченности персонала в отношения с брендом в социальных сетях. Новизна авторского подхода заключается в том, что в процессе проведения исследования учитывалась специфика розничных сетей, включая, как специфику бренд-сообщества, так и специфику контента российских розничных сетей в социальной сети Facebook. Результаты исследования позволят маркетологам розничных сетей повысить вовлеченность потребителей в отношения с брендом в социальных медиа

    О НЕКОТОРЫЕ АСПЕКТАХ СИСТЕМЫ ВОСПИТАТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ ВУЗА

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    The publication identifies the problem that arises in the era of change of values and ideals and the difficulties that young people face in this situation. As an effective factor that solves this rather complex task, one and the established areas of extracurricular educational work with students, based on historical and local history material, are presented. The concept of “social adaptation of students” in the practical development of extracurricular activities, combining various aspects of educational and extracurricular processes, is considered.La publicación identifica el problema que surge en la era del cambio de valores e ideales y las dificultades que enfrentan los jóvenes en esta situación. Como un factor eficaz que resuelve esta tarea bastante compleja, se presentan una y las áreas establecidas de trabajo educativo extracurricular con estudiantes, basadas en material de historia histórica y local. Se considera el concepto de "adaptación social de los estudiantes" en el desarrollo práctico de actividades extracurriculares, que combina varios aspectos de los procesos educativos y extracurriculares.В публикации обозначена проблема, возникающая в эпоху смены ценностных ориентиров и идеалов и трудности, с которыми сталкивается молодежь в данной ситуации. Как эффективный фактор, решающий эту достаточно сложную задачу, представлено одно и сформировавшихся направлений внеучебной воспитательной работы со студентами, основанное на историко–краеведческом материале. Рассмотрено понятие «социальная адаптация студентов» в практическом преломлении мероприятий внеучебной деятельности, объединяющих в себе различные аспекты учебно– воспитательного и внеучебного процессов

    Joshua Aaron Shaw in a Senior Tenor Recital

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    This is the program for the senior tenor recital of Joshua Aaron Shaw. Mr. Shaw was accompanied on the piano by Glenda Aldridge. This recital took place on November 5, 2001, in the McBeth Recital Hall in the Mabee Fine Arts Center

    Novonikolaevsk in the struggle for the right to a district court in the second decade of the 20 century

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    Исследуются обстоятельства изменения сибирского судоустройства; особенное внимание уделяется разработке и реализации городской властью и местным судебным сообществом стратегии, направленной на достижение положительного результата по решению вопроса об образовании в дополнение к существующим в Сибири окружного суда в быстрорастущем Новониколаевске. В годы Первой мировой войны по инициативе городского самоуправления вопрос был поставлен, но создавалось учреждение уже в условиях Гражданской войны
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