41,839 research outputs found

    Functionalisation of Ti6Al4V and hydroxyapatite surfaces with combined peptides based on KKLPDA and EEEEEEEE peptides

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    Surface modifications are usually performed on titanium alloys to improve osteo-integration and surface bioactivity. Modifications such as alkaline and acid etching, or coating with bioactive materials such as hydroxyapatite, have previously been demonstrated. The aim of this work is to develop a peptide with combined titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite binders in order to achieve a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating on titanium surfaces. The technology would also be applicable for the functionalisation of titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces for selective protein adsorption, conjugation of antimicrobial peptides, and adsorption of specialised drugs for drug delivery. In this work, functionalisation of Ti6Al4V and hydroxyapatite surfaces was achieved using combined titanium-hydroxyapatite (Ti-Hap) peptides based on titanium binder (RKLPDA) and hydroxyapatite binder (EEEEEEEE) peptides. Homogeneous peptide coatings on Ti6Al4V surfaces were obtained after surface chemical treatments with a 30 wt % aqueous solution of H2O2 for 24 and 48 hours. The treated titanium surfaces presented an average roughness of Sa=197 nm (24 h) and Sa=128 nm (48 h); an untreated mirror polished sample exhibited an Sa of 13 nm. The advancing water contact angle of the titanium oxide layer after 1 hour of exposure to 30 wt % aqueous solution of H2O2 was around 65°, decreasing gradually with time until it reached 35° after a 48 hour exposure, suggesting that the surface hydrophilicity increased over etching time. The presence of a lysine (L) amino acid in the sequence of the titanium binder resulted in fluorescence intensity roughly 16 % higher compared with the arginine (R) amino acid analogue and therefore the lysine containing titanium binder was used in this work. The Ti-Hap peptide KKLPDAEEEEEEEE (Ti-Hap1) was not adsorbed by the treated Ti6Al4V surfaces and therefore was modified. The modifications involved the inclusion of a glycine spacer between the binding terminals (Ti-Hap2) and the addition of a second titanium binder (KKLPDA) (Ti-Hap3 and Ti-Hap4). The Ti-Hap peptide aptamer which exhibited the strongest intensity after the titanium dip coating was KKLPDAKKLPDAEEEEEEEE (Ti-Hap4). On the other hand, hydroxyapatite surfaces, exhibiting an average roughness of Sa=1.42 µm, showed a higher fluorescence for all peptides compared with titanium surfaces

    In-situ solvothermal processing of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and biological performance for bone tissue engineering

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    The interest in biodegradable polymer-matrix nanocomposites with bone regeneration potential has been increasing in recent years. In the present work, a solvothermal process is introduced to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorod-reinforced polycaprolactone in-situ. A non-aqueous polymer solution containing calcium and phosphorous precursors is prepared and processed in a closed autoclave at different temperatures in the range of 60–150 °C. Hydroxyapatite nanorods with varying aspect ratios are formed depending on the processing temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicate that the HA nanorods are semi-crystalline. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry determine that the ratio of calcium to phosphorous increases as the processing temperature increases. To evaluate the effect of in-situ processing on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites, highly porous scaffolds (>90%) containing HA nanorods are prepared by employing freeze drying and salt leaching techniques. It is shown that the elastic modulus and strength of the nanocomposites prepared by the in-situ method is superior (∼15%) to those of the ex-situ samples (blended HA nanorods with the polymer solution). The enhanced bone regeneration potential of the nanocomposites is shown via an in vitro bioactivity assay in a saturated simulated body fluid. An improved cell viability and proliferation is also shown by employing (3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay in human osteosarcoma cell lines. The prepared scaffolds with in vitro regeneration capacity could be potentially useful for orthopaedic applications and maxillofacial surgery

    A structural and functional model for human bone sialoprotein

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    Human bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix of bone. It is thought to be the primary nucleator of hydroxyapatite crystallization, and is known to bind to hydroxyapatite, collagen, and cells. Mature BSP shows extensive post-translational modifications, including attachment of glycans, sulfation, and phosphorylation, and is highly flexible with no specific 2D or 3D structure in solution or the solid state. These features have severely limited the experimental characterization of the structure of this protein. We have therefore developed a 3D structural model for BSP, based on the available literature data, using molecular modelling techniques. The complete model consists of 301 amino acids, including six phosphorylated serines and two sulfated tyrosines, plus 92 N- and O-linked glycan residues. A notable feature of the model is a large acidic patch that provides a surface for binding Ca2+ions. Density functional theory quantum calculations with an implicit solvent model indicate that Ca2+ ions are bound most strongly by the phosphorylated serines within BSP, along with reasonably strong binding to Asp and Glu, but weak binding to His and sulfated tyrosine. The process of early hydroxyapatite nucleation has been studied by molecular dynamics on an acidic surface loop of the protein; the results suggest that the cationic nature of the loop promotes nucleation by attracting Ca2+ ions, while its flexibility allows for their rapid self-assembly with PO43- ions, rather than providing a regular template for crystallization. The binding of a hydroxyapatite crystal at the protein’s acidic patch has also been modelled. The relationships between hydroxyapatite, collagen and BSP are discussed

    Characterization of a calcium phospho-silicated apatite with iron oxide inclusions

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    An iron oxide containing calcium phosphate–silicate hydroxyapatite was synthesized by calcination at 900 °C of a sample obtained by precipitation in basic aqueous solution of Ca, P, Si, Fe and Mg containing acidic solution made from dissolution of natural minerals. XRD and FTIR were used for crystallographic characterization of the main apatitic phase. Its composition was determined using ICP-AES. EDX coupled with SEM and TEM evidenced the heterogeneity of this compound and the existence of iron–magnesium oxide. Magnetic analyses highlighted that this phase was non-stoichiometric magnesioferrite (Mg1.2Fe1.8O3.9) spherical nanoparticles. Those analyses also put into evidence the role of calcination in synthesis. Carbonates detected by FTIR and estimated by SEM-EDX in non-calcinated sample were removed from apatitic structure, and crystallization of apatite was enhanced during heating. Moreover, there was phase segregation that led to magnesioferrite formation