43,446 research outputs found

    Hydropower Plants and Their Problems

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    Approximately 23% of the world electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants (HPP). This kind of power stations convert the kinetic energy of the falling water into the mechanical energy of the turbine's rotation, and the turbine drives the electric machine current generator. The construction of hydroelectric power plants is usually more capital intensive than thermal power plants. Reservoirs make the climate more moderate. There can be two main factors for effective power generation at HPPs: guaranteed availability of water throughout the year and possibly large deviations of the rive

    “Landscape and Heritage of Hydroelectricity in Portugal”

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    Hydroelectric power plants provided countries with scarcity of coal, such as Portugal, with a vital source of energy for the production of electricity in large quantities. Therefore, since the late 19th century the use of waterfalls as producers of electric power was a topic of study and interest among engineers and the matter was regularly discussed at the Association of Portuguese Civilian Engineers. The great hydroelectric power plants, considered by many as the cathedrals of the second industrial revolution are an important industrial heritage which is important to value and appreciate. Hydroelectricity also gave origin to new landscapes and the problem today regards the management of this new landscape and the construction of new patrimonial values

    SAVING RESOURCES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

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    The article describes run-of-the-river hydroelectric power plants. The authors specify the importance of performing technical and economic calculations in justifying the large-sized units of the water-supplying channel of a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power plant: turbine pits and suction (discharge) pipes. The study shows that the amount of construction work and the total cost of building a hydroelectric power plant depend on the size of these water supply units. The research objective is to analyze the validity of establishing the main dimensions of the suction pipes for modern technical and economic conditions. The researchers use the discounted income method. The calculations are performed for a hydroelectric power plant with an elbow suction pipe. The analysis of how the operating conditions of a hydroelectric power plant influence the savings of construction resources is carried out. The analysis shows that saving construction resources by reducing the length of the suction pipe is justified if the hydroelectric power plamt is designed to work only at peak power loads. For hydroelectric power plants operating at semi-peak or base power loads, the additional construction costs would be appropriate if leading to the decrease in pressure loss and to the increase in electricity generation

    Monitoring performance of hydroelectric power plants

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    This study develops a methodology to provide insights regarding the efficiency and productivity of the hydroelectric power plants of an European player in the energy sector throughout the operation stage. DEA is used to measure the efficiency of utilities in generating electrical energy from the resources available and exogenous variables. This analysis enables the identification of the best practices of power plants which lead to improved performance. The Malmquist index, complemented with bootstrapping, is used to measure the changes in plants productivity between in the last years

    How Will Hydroelectric Power Generation Develop under Climate Change Scenarios?

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    Climate change has a large impact on water resources and thus on hydropower. Hydroelectric power generation is closely linked to the regional hydrological situation of a watershed and reacts sensitively to changes in water quantity and seasonality. The development of hydroelectric power generation in the Upper Danube basin was modelled for two future decades, namely 2021-2030 and 2051-2060, using a special hydropower module coupled with the physically-based hydrological model PROMET. To cover a possible range of uncertainties, 16 climate scenarios were taken as meteorological drivers which were defined from different ensemble outputs of a stochastic climate generator, based on the IPCC-SRES-A1B emission scenario and four regional climate trends. Depending on the trends, the results show a slight to severe decline in hydroelectric power generation. Whilst the mean summer values indicate a decrease, the mean winter values display an increase. To show past and future regional differences within the Upper Danube basin, three hydropower plants at individual locations were selected. Inter-annual differences originate predominately from unequal contributions of the runoff compartments rain, snow-and ice-melt

    Environmental and Economic Impacts of Hydropower Plants

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    The generating of electricity is the primary application of hydroelectric energy. The major components of hydroelectric power plants are dams, rivers, and turbines. Plants use dams to construct reservoirs that store water. The Importance of Hydropower In contrast to wind and solar, hydropower offers dispatch able electricity using low-risk methods. Hydropower is the most dependable and well-established source of clean, renewable energy. The potential energy of the water turbine and generator generates the vast bulk of hydroelectric power. One advantage of hydroelectric power is that it allows you to control the river flow downstream. Every country has difficulties due to how much of the total energy consumption it makes up. Encountered in the development of hydropower are noted. Connected to hydropower plants have the potential to offer additional advantages including flood control, irrigation, and water supply. Furthermore, hydropower is seen as a potential and sustainable source of energy, with a global economic influence.&nbsp

    Satellite Power System (SPS) environmental impacts, preliminary assessment

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    Present power plant assessment factors are used to present satellite power system (SPS) impacts. In contrast to oil, gas, nuclear and coal fueled power plants, the SPS and hydroelectric power plants produce air, water, and solid waste emissions only during the construction phase. Land use impacts result from the placement of rectennas used for microwave receiving and rectifying. Air quality impacts of the SPS resulting from the construction phase amount to 0.405 metric tons per megawatt year. Solid wastes impacts are 0.108 metric tons per year of operation. Other impacts such as those caused by heavy lift launch vehicle sites are also discussed

    The role of geodesy in hydropower plant engineering

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    The paper presents the role of geodesy in the hydroelectric power plant construction and management. Relevant procedures during various phases of design, construction, operation and maintenance of hydroelectric power plants including geodesy procedures required for the purpose of refurbishment of hydroelectric power plants are described. The paper also lists applicable legislation that has to be observed during the whole process of designing, construction and operation of hydroelectric power plants

    Hydroelectric Power Plants ’ Re Servoirs And Their Impact On The Environment

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    The paper presents the analysis of different types of impact the hydroelectric power plants’ reservoirs could make on the environment. Hydroelectric power plants (HPP) produce ecologically safe energy and correspond to the modern striving for sustainability because they are operated on renewable energy sources. At the same time they can provoke various potential dangers for the environment. The objective of the investigation is to demonstrate the interrelation between the type and structure of a hydroelectric power plant and the way its reservoir may impact on the nature surrounding the plant. These effects may be direct and indirect, positive and negative and vary from insignificant that can be easily fixed to those that are irreversible and catastrophic. The latter should be taken into account during the design of HPP
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