30,847 research outputs found

    Вдосконалення робочого процесу гідротурбін та систем їх регулювання

    Get PDF
    The paper provides the detail analysis of the causes of various types of the vortex motion of the turbulent flow in the inlet parts of the turbine and in the inter-blade channels of the runner. The causes of the appearance of large-scale vortex structures in the meridional sections of the spiral case of radial-axial hydraulic turbines with the heads of 400–500 m are shown. As a result of this phenomenon, in the section of the spiral case the flow is directed in the region of the walls to the runner. In the central part it is directed from the runner, i. e. the spiral case executing its functions of supplying the flow functions only with part of its section – the near-wall zone – where the vortex near-wall flow with increased velocity and energy losses enters to the channels of the runner. These conclusions in the work are argued by extensive experimental data. Energy losses in the spiral case reaches 3–5 % and a complex vortex structure, which enters to the runner, leads to a decrease of the energy characteristics. The flow inlet to the runner using nozzle devices located on the ring in front of the runner is considered in the paper. These nozzle devices increase the velocity by five or more times and provide low losses in the inlet (about 0,5 %) and almost uniform flow in front of the runner with a moment of quantity of motion, which provides an optimal operation of the hydraulic turbine. The improvement of the working flow and control systems is presented in this paper using new design solutions, for which more than ten patents of Ukraine for the invention were obtained. In particular, as a result of this study of the working processes of Francis-Deriaz hydraulic turbines, which allowed the use of blade turbines for the heads of more than 400–500 m up to 800–1000 m with high energy and cavitation characteristics with wide operating areas in terms of rates (powers) and heads, with an increase of 2–7 % average operating efficiency. The working process of a new type of diagonal-axial hydraulic turbine with a very wide operation range in terms of flow and pressure with a significantly increased average operating efficiency, increased operation reliability, which is illustrated by the predictive universal characteristic, is also considered. This characteristic allows the use of rotary-blade hydraulic turbines for heads up to 230–250 m. Therefore, the carried out improvement of the working process of hydraulic turbines and their control systems convincingly proves the advantage of the new scientific and technical solutions in comparison with previously used ones.В роботі проведено детальний аналіз причин виникнення різних видів завихреності турбулентного потоку в підвідних органах гідротурбіни і в міжлопатевих каналах робочого колеса. Показано причини виникнення великомасштабних вихрових структур в меридіональних перетинах спіральних камер радіально-осьових гідротурбін на напори 400–500 м. Внаслідок цього явища в перерізі спіральної камери потік спрямований в області стінок до робочого колеса, а в центральній частині від робочого колеса, тобто спіральна камера виконуючи свої функції підведення потоку функціонує лише частиною перетину – пристіночної зони, в якій завихрений пристінковий потік зі збільшеною швидкістю і втратами енергії надходить в канали робочого колеса. Ці висновки в роботі аргументовані чисельними експериментальними даними. Втрати енергії в спіральній камері досягають 3–5 % і складна вихрова структура, що надходить в робоче колесо приводить до зниження енергетичних показників. В роботі розглядається підвід потоку до робочого колеса за допомогою розташованих по кільцю перед робочим колесом соплових апаратів, що збільшують швидкість в п'ять і більше разів і забезпечують низькі втрати в підвідних органах (близько 0,5 %) практично рівномірний потік перед робочим колесом з моментом кількості руху, що забезпечує оптимальну роботу гідротурбіни. Удосконалення робочого процесу і систем регулювання представлено в цій роботі з використанням нових конструктивних рішень, на які отримані більш десяти патентів України на винахід. У тому числі в результаті дослідження робочих процесів радіально-діагональних гідротурбін, що дозволили застосовувати лопатеві турбіни на напори понад 400–500 м аж до 800–1000 м з високими енергокавітаційними показниками з широкими зонами експлуатації по витратам (потужностям) і напору, зі збільшеним на 2–7 % середньоексплуатаційним ККД. Розглянуто також робочий процес нового типу діагонально-осьової гідротурбіни з досить широким діапазоном експлуатації по витратам та напору з істотно підвищеним середньоексплуатаційним ККД, підвищеною надійністю експлуатації, що ілюструється прогнозною універсальною характеристикою, що дозволяє застосувати поворотно-лопатеві гідротурбіни на напори до 230–250 м. Таким чином, проведене вдосконалення робочого процесу гідротурбін і систем їх регулювання переконливо доводить перевагу нових науково-технічних рішень в порівнянні з раніше застосовуваними

    Detection of hydraulic phenomena in francis turbines with different sensors

    Get PDF
    Nowadays, hydropower is demanded to provide flexibility and fast response into the electrical grid in order to compensate the non-constant electricity generation of other renewable sources. Hydraulic turbines are therefore demanded to work under o -design conditions more frequently, where di erent complex hydraulic phenomena appear, a ecting the machine stability as well as reducing the useful life of its components. Hence, it is desirable to detect in real-time these hydraulic phenomena to assess the operation of the machine. In this paper, a large medium-head Francis turbine was selected for this purpose. This prototype is instrumented with several sensors such as accelerometers, proximity probes, strain gauges, pressure sensors and a microphone. Results presented in this paper permit knowing which hydraulic phenomenon is detected with every sensor and which signal analysis technique is necessary to use. With this information, monitoring systems can be optimized with the most convenient sensors, locations and signal analysis techniquesPostprint (published version

    Trade-off analysis and design of a Hydraulic Energy Scavenger

    Get PDF
    In the last years there has been a growing interest in intelligent, autonomous devices for household applications. In the near future this technology will be part of our society; sensing and actuating will be integrated in the environment of our houses by means of energy scavengers and wireless microsystems. These systems will be capable of monitoring the environment, communicating with people and among each other, actuating and supplying themselves independently. This concept is now possible thanks to the low power consumption of electronic devices and accurate design of energy scavengers to harvest energy from the surrounding environment. In principle, an autonomous device comprises three main subsystems: an energy scavenger, an energy storage unit and an operational stage. The energy scavenger is capable of harvesting very small amounts of energy from the surroundings and converting it into electrical energy. This energy can be stored in a small storage unit like a small battery or capacitor, thus being available as a power supply. The operational stage can perform a variety of tasks depending on the application. Inside its application range, this kind of system presents several advantages with respect to regular devices using external energy supplies. They can be simpler to apply as no external connections are needed; they are environmentally friendly and might be economically advantageous in the long term. Furthermore, their autonomous nature permits the application in locations where the local energy grid is not present and allows them to be ‘hidden' in the environment, being independent from interaction with humans. In the present paper an energy-harvesting system used to supply a hydraulic control valve of a heating system for a typical residential application is studied. The system converts the kinetic energy from the water flow inside the pipes of the heating system to power the energy scavenger. The harvesting unit is composed of a hydraulic turbine that converts the kinetic energy of the water flow into rotational motion to drive a small electric generator. The design phases comprise a trade-off analysis to define the most suitable hydraulic turbine and electric generator for the energy scavenger, and an optimization of the components to satisfy the systems specification

    Sensor-based optimized control of the full load instability in large hydraulic turbines

    Get PDF
    Hydropower plants are of paramount importance for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the power grid. In order to match the energy generated and consumed, Large hydraulic turbines have to work under off-design conditions, which may lead to dangerous unstable operating points involving the hydraulic, mechanical and electrical system. Under these conditions, the stability of the grid and the safety of the power plant itself can be compromised. For many Francis Turbines one of these critical points, that usually limits the maximum output power, is the full load instability. Therefore, these machines usually work far away from this unstable point, reducing the effective operating range of the unit. In order to extend the operating range of the machine, working closer to this point with a reasonable safety margin, it is of paramount importance to monitor and to control relevant parameters of the unit, which have to be obtained with an accurate sensor acquisition strategy. Within the framework of a large EU project, field tests in a large Francis Turbine located in Canada (rated power of 444 MW) have been performed. Many different sensors were used to monitor several working parameters of the unit for all its operating range. Particularly for these tests, more than 80 signals, including ten type of different sensors and several operating signals that define the operating point of the unit, were simultaneously acquired. The present study, focuses on the optimization of the acquisition strategy, which includes type, number, location, acquisition frequency of the sensors and corresponding signal analysis to detect the full load instability and to prevent the unit from reaching this point. A systematic approach to determine this strategy has been followed. It has been found that some indicators obtained with different types of sensors are linearly correlated with the oscillating power. The optimized strategy has been determined based on the correlation characteristics (linearity, sensitivity and reactivity), the simplicity of the installation and the acquisition frequency necessary. Finally, an economic and easy implementable protection system based on the resulting optimized acquisition strategy is proposed. This system, which can be used in a generic Francis turbine with a similar full load instability, permits one to extend the operating range of the unit by working close to the instability with a reasonable safety margin.Postprint (published version

    Adjustable speed operation of a hydropower plant associated to an irrigation reservoir

    Get PDF
    This paper deals with the issue of adjustable speed operation (ASO) of hydropower plants. The main idea of this technique is to allow the turbine speed to change in accordance with hydraulic conditions, thus improving the overall unit efficiency. General technical aspects of ASO are further discussed with special emphasis on the energy and operational benefits that may potentially result from its application. In order to assess these benefits, annual operation of a hydropower plant associated to an irrigation reservoir has been simulated under different scenarios, with both adjustable and fixed speed. Turbine operating range proved to be wider with ASO. In addition, simulation results confirm that considerable energy gains are expected to be obtained

    Feasibility studies of a converter-free grid-connected offshore hydrostatic wind turbine

    Get PDF
    Owing to the increasing penetration of renewable power generation, the modern power system faces great challenges in frequency regulations and reduced system inertia. Hence, renewable energy is expected to take over part of the frequency regulation responsibilities from the gas or hydro plants and contribute to the system inertia. In this article, we investigate the feasibility of frequency regulation by the offshore hydrostatic wind turbine (HWT). The simulation model is transformed from NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 5-MW gearbox-equipped wind turbine model within FAST (fatigue, aerodynamics, structures, and turbulence) code. With proposed coordinated control scheme and the hydrostatic transmission configuration of the HWT, the `continuously variable gearbox ratio' in turbulent wind conditions can be realised to maintain the constant generator speed, so that the HWT can be connected to the grid without power converters in-between. To test the performances of the control scheme, the HWT is connected to a 5-bus grid model and operates with different frequency events. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control scheme is a promising solution for offshore HWT to participated in frequency response in the modern power system

    Quantification of over-speed risk in wind turbine fleets

    Get PDF
    The effective life management of large and diverse fleets of wind turbines is a new problem facing power system utilities. More specifically, the minimization of over-speed risk is of high importance due to the related impacts of possible loss of life and economic implications of over-speed, such as a loss of containment event. Meeting the goal of risk minimization is complicated by the large range of turbine types present in a typical fleet. These turbines may have different pitch systems, over-speed detection systems and also different levels of functional redundancy, implying different levels of risk. The purpose of this work is to carry out a quantitative comparison of over-speed risk in different turbine configurations, using a Markov process to model detection of faults and repair actions. In the medium-long term, the risk associated with different assets can used as a decision making aid. For example if the operator is a utility, it may want to avoid purchasing high risk sites in the future, or may need to develop mitigation strategies for turbines at high risk of over speed

    CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation: An Introduction to Published Reviews

    Get PDF
    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been firmly established as a fundamental discipline to advancing research on energy engineering. The major progresses achieved during the last two decades both on software modelling capabilities and hardware computing power have resulted in considerable and widespread CFD interest among scientist and engineers. Numerical modelling and simulation developments are increasingly contributing to the current state of the art in many energy engineering aspects, such as power generation, combustion, wind energy, concentrated solar power, hydro power, gas and steam turbines, fuel cells, and many others. This review intends to provide an overview of the CFD applications in energy and thermal engineering, as a presentation and background for the Special Issue “CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation” published by Processes in 2020. A brief introduction to the most significant reviews that have been published on the particular topics is provided. The objective is to provide an overview of the CFD applications in energy and thermal engineering, highlighting the review papers published on the different topics, so that readers can refer to the different review papers for a thorough revision of the state of the art and contributions into the particular field of interest

    Failure mode identification and end of life scenarios of offshore wind turbines: a review

    Get PDF
    In 2007, the EU established challenging goals for all Member States with the aim of obtaining 20% of their energy consumption from renewables, and offshore wind is expected to be among the renewable energy sources contributing highly towards achieving this target. Currently wind turbines are designed for a 25-year service life with the possibility of operational extension. Extending their efficient operation and increasing the overall electricity production will significantly increase the return on investment (ROI) and decrease the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), considering that Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) will be distributed over a larger production output. The aim of this paper is to perform a detailed failure mode identification throughout the service life of offshore wind turbines and review the three most relevant end of life (EOL) scenarios: life extension, repowering and decommissioning. Life extension is considered the most desirable EOL scenario due to its profitability. It is believed that combining good inspection, operations and maintenance (O&M) strategies with the most up to date structural health monitoring and condition monitoring systems for detecting previously identified failure modes, will make life extension feasible. Nevertheless, for the cases where it is not feasible, other options such as repowering or decommissioning must be explored

    Output characteristics of tidal current power stations

    Get PDF
    With increasing targets being set for renewable-derived electricity generation, wind power is currently the preferred technology. It is widely accepted that due to the stochastic nature of wind, there is an upper limit to the capacity that can be accommodated within the electricity network before power quality is impeded. This paper demonstrates the potential of tidal energy as a predictable renewable technologies that can be developed for base load power generation and thus minimise the risk of compromising future power quality
    corecore