34,335 research outputs found

    Host Adaptation of a Bacterial Toxin from the Human Pathogen Salmonella Typhi

    Get PDF
    SummarySalmonella Typhi is an exclusive human pathogen that causes typhoid fever. Typhoid toxin is a S. Typhi virulence factor that can reproduce most of the typhoid fever symptoms in experimental animals. Toxicity depends on toxin binding to terminally sialylated glycans on surface glycoproteins. Human glycans are unusual because of the lack of CMAH, which in other mammals converts N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Here, we report that typhoid toxin binds to and is toxic toward cells expressing glycans terminated in Neu5Ac (expressed by humans) over glycans terminated in Neu5Gc (expressed by other mammals). Mice constitutively expressing CMAH thus displaying Neu5Gc in all tissues are resistant to typhoid toxin. The atomic structure of typhoid toxin bound to Neu5Ac reveals the structural bases for its binding specificity. These findings provide insight into the molecular bases for Salmonella Typhi’s host specificity and may help the development of therapies for typhoid fever

    National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance annual summary, 2013

    Get PDF
    National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance DataJurisdictions reporting at least one typhoid or paratyphoid fever2 case to the NTPFS during 2014 are shown in Figures 1 and 2.\ue2\u20ac\ua2 37 jurisdictions reported 284 typhoid fever cases (Figure 1)\ue2\u20ac\ua2 27 jurisdictions reported 73paratyphoid fever cases (Figure 2).Recommended Citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance Annual Summary, 2013. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2015.CS 260721-Atyphi-annual-summary-2013-508c.pd

    (T.T) Tracking Typhoid: Is Typhoid Eradication Possible?

    Get PDF
    More than two billion individuals do not have access to basic sanitation. These people are susceptible to typhoid fever, an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. Spread through the contamination of food and water and human-to-human contact, eleven to twenty million individuals fall ill to typhoid each year, and between one hundred and two hundred thousand individuals pass away. Recorded as early as 430 BCE, the disease is predominant in low-income countries that have insufficient medical facilities, surveillance systems, and sanitation services. These numbers are merely approximations as the countries most directly impacted by typhoid do not have the proper equipment to test, track, and report the virus. The disease remains a threat that has yet to be adequately addressed by global medical communities. Although organizations such as WHO and UNICEF work to campaign against typhoid fever, with numbers so high, it appears not enough is being done. Is it feasible to eradicate typhoid fever globally, and what more can be done? This is the question I aim to address. In my research, I examine different studies published by epidemiologists and other medical experts on typhoid trends, impacted communities, and first-hand accounts to assess past and current typhoid eradication efforts. I anticipate finding evidence supporting the low possibility of typhoid eradication. My objective is to not only educate individuals on typhoid fever but also propose possible short-term and long-term solutions to mitigate typhoid numbers.https://orb.binghamton.edu/research_days_posters_2022/1101/thumbnail.jp

    National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance annual summary, 2014

    Get PDF
    National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance DataJurisdictions1 reporting at least one typhoid or paratyphoid fever2 case to the NTPFS during 2014 are shown in Figures 1 and 2.\ue2\u20ac\ua2 38 jurisdictions reported 329 typhoid fever cases (Figure 1)\ue2\u20ac\ua2 27 jurisdictions reported 93 paratyphoid fever cases (Figure 2). Of these cases, 92 were Paratyphi A and 1 was Paratyphi C.Recommended Citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance Annual Summary, 2014. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2016.CS 272391-Atyphi-annual-summary-2014-508c.pd

    National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance annual summary, 2011

    Get PDF
    States reporting at least one typhoid or paratyphoid fever case to the NTPFS during 2011 are shown in Figures 1 and 2.\u2022 37 states reported 347 typhoid fever cases (Figure 1)\u2022 21 states reported 107 paratyphoid fever cases (106 Paratyphi A; 1 Paratyphi C) (Figure 2)Recommended citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance Annual Summary, 2011. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2013.CS237579-G201

    Typhoid and paratyphoid fever surveillance overview

    Get PDF
    Surveillance system overview: national typhoid and paratyphoid fever surveillance.Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (the causative agent of typhoid fever) causes an estimated 20 million cases of typhoid fever and 200,000 deaths annually worldwide. In the United States, typhoid fever is now a rare disease, with about 400 laboratory- confirmed cases reported per year. Not all cases are diagnosed; however, the total annual number of Salmonella serotype Typhi infections is estimated at 5,750 cases per year, 1,900 of them acquired in the United States. Dramatic declines in incidence of and mortality from typhoid fever occurred in the United States after widespread implementation of municipal water and sewage treatment systems in the first half of the 20th century. In recent years, most cases in the United States have been associated with foreign travel.Since 1975, using a standard report form, state and local health officials have reported detailed epidemiologic information, including patient demographic and clinical information, typhoid vaccination status, and travel history, on laboratory-confirmed cases of typhoid fever to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A case of typhoid fever is defined as an acute illness compatible with typhoid fever in which Salmonella serotype Typhi is isolated from a normally sterile site or from stool or urine. Travel-associated typhoid fever is defined as illness in a person who traveled outside of the United States in the 30 days before illness onset, and domestically acquired typhoid fever is defined as illness in a person without such a travel history.Paratyphoid fever, which is caused by Salmonella serotypes Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B1, and Paratyphi C, is not nationally notifiable. However, in 2008 the surveillance system was expanded, becoming National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance, to allow state and local health departments to also report information on cases of paratyphoid fever.The national typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever surveillance data are dynamic; data from previous years may change as surveillance case reports are added or corrected.Reference citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance Overview. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2011.2011Surveillance and Investigation820

    National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance annual summary, 2009

    Get PDF
    States reporting at least one typhoid or paratyphoid fever1 case to the NTPFS during 2009 are shown in Figures 1 and 2.\uf0b7 37 states reported 347 typhoid fever cases (Figure 1)\uf0b7 22 states reported 78 paratyphoid fever cases (78 Paratyphi A) (Figure 2)Reference citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance Annual Summary, 2009. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2012.201

    National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance annual summary, 2008

    Get PDF
    States reporting at least one typhoid or paratyphoid fever1 case to the NTPFS during 2008 are shown in Figures 1 and 2.\uf0b7 44 states reported 439 typhoid fever cases (Figure 1)\uf0b7 25 states reported 85 paratyphoid fever cases (84 Paratyphi A, 1 Paratyphi C) (Figure 2)Reference citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance Annual Summary, 2008. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2012.201

    Typhoid Perforation Associated With Rectal Bleeding in HIV- Infected Patient

    Get PDF
    Typhoid (enteric) fever is a common worldwide water-borne disease generally transmitted via the faecal-oral route, the causative organism being the bacterium salmonella typhi. Intestinal perforation is a serious complication but the preoperative diagnosis of typhoid ulcer perforation can be difficult. The high incidence ofperforation has been attributed to late diagnosis and the emergence of multi-drug resistant and virulent strains of salmonella typhii. We report the simultaneous occurrence of intestinal perforation and bleeding complicating typhoid fever in a 42- year old Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patient.Both complications were simultaneouslytreated by an emergency ileo-caecal resection alongside antibiotic treatment of typhoid
    • …
    corecore