470 research outputs found

    Application of Compromise Programming to a semi-detached housing development in order to balance economic and environmental criteria

    Get PDF
    This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Journal of the Operational Research Society. The definitive publisher-authenticated version: Ruá Aguilar, MJ.; Guadalajara Olmeda, MN. (2012). Application of Compromise Programming to a semi-detached housing development in order to balance economic and environmental criteria. Journal of the Operational Research Society. 64(3):459-468, is available online at: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jors/journal/v64/n3/full/jors201276a.html.European Energy Performance of Buildings Directives DE promote energy efficiency in buildings. Under these Directives, the European Union States must apply minimum requirements regarding the energy performance of buildings and ensure the certification of their energy performance. The Directives set only the basic principles and requirements, leaving a significant amount of room for the Member States to establish their specific mechanisms, numeric requirements and ways to implement them, taking into account local conditions. With respect to the Spanish case, the search for buildings that are more energy efficient results in a conflict between users¿ economic objectives and society's environmental objectives. In this paper, Compromise Programming is applied to help in the decision-making process. An appropriate distribution of types of dwellings, according to their energy performance and to the climatic zone considered in Spain, will be suggested. Results provide a compromise solution between both objectives.Ruá Aguilar, MJ.; Guadalajara Olmeda, MN. (2012). Application of Compromise Programming to a semi-detached housing development in order to balance economic and environmental criteria. Journal of the Operational Research Society. 64(3):459-468. doi:10.1057/jors.2012.76S459468643Andaloro, A. P. F., Salomone, R., Ioppolo, G., & Andaloro, L. (2010). Energy certification of buildings: A comparative analysis of progress towards implementation in European countries. Energy Policy, 38(10), 5840-5866. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.05.039André, F. J., Cardenete, M. A., & Romero, C. (2008). Using compromise programming for macroeconomic policy making in a general equilibrium framework: theory and application to the Spanish economy. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 59(7), 875-883. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602415Baja, S., Chapman, D. M., & Dragovich, D. (2006). Spatial based compromise programming for multiple criteria decision making in land use planning. Environmental Modeling & Assessment, 12(3), 171-184. doi:10.1007/s10666-006-9059-1Ballestero, E., & Romero, C. (1991). A theorem connecting utility function optimization and compromise programming. Operations Research Letters, 10(7), 421-427. doi:10.1016/0167-6377(91)90045-qBallestero, E., & Romero, C. (1993). Weighting in compromise programming: A theorem on shadow prices. Operations Research Letters, 13(5), 325-329. doi:10.1016/0167-6377(93)90055-lDavies, H., & Wyatt, D. (2004). Appropriate use of the ISO 15686-1 factor method for durability and service life prediction. Building Research & Information, 32(6), 552-553. doi:10.1080/0961321042000291938Diakaki, C., Grigoroudis, E., Kabelis, N., Kolokotsa, D., Kalaitzakis, K., & Stavrakakis, G. (2010). A multi-objective decision model for the improvement of energy efficiency in buildings. Energy, 35(12), 5483-5496. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2010.05.012Dı́az-Balteiro, L., & Romero, C. (2003). Forest management optimisation models when carbon captured is considered: a goal programming approach. Forest Ecology and Management, 174(1-3), 447-457. doi:10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00075-0Diaz-Balteiro, L., & Rodriguez, L. C. E. (2006). Optimal rotations on Eucalyptus plantations including carbon sequestration—A comparison of results in Brazil and Spain. Forest Ecology and Management, 229(1-3), 247-258. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.04.005Fattahi, P., & Fayyaz, S. (2009). A Compromise Programming Model to Integrated Urban Water Management. Water Resources Management, 24(6), 1211-1227. doi:10.1007/s11269-009-9492-4Hamdy, M., Hasan, A., & Siren, K. (2011). Applying a multi-objective optimization approach for Design of low-emission cost-effective dwellings. Building and Environment, 46(1), 109-123. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.07.006Johnstone, I. M. (2001). Energy and mass flows of housing: a model and example. Building and Environment, 36(1), 27-41. doi:10.1016/s0360-1323(99)00065-7Johnstone, I. M. (2001). Energy and mass flows of housing: estimating mortality. Building and Environment, 36(1), 43-51. doi:10.1016/s0360-1323(99)00066-9Linares, P., & Romero, C. (2000). A multiple criteria decision making approach for electricity planning in Spain: economic versus environmental objectives. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 51(6), 736-743. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2600944Rey, F. J., Velasco, E., & Varela, F. (2007). Building Energy Analysis (BEA): A methodology to assess building energy labelling. Energy and Buildings, 39(6), 709-716. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.07.009Rudbeck, C. (2002). Service life of building envelope components: making it operational in economical assessment. Construction and Building Materials, 16(2), 83-89. doi:10.1016/s0950-0618(02)00003-xSan-José, J. T., Losada, R., Cuadrado, J., & Garrucho, I. (2007). Approach to the quantification of the sustainable value in industrial buildings. Building and Environment, 42(11), 3916-3923. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.11.013Yu, P. L. (1973). A Class of Solutions for Group Decision Problems. Management Science, 19(8), 936-946. doi:10.1287/mnsc.19.8.936Zelany, M. (1974). A concept of compromise solutions and the method of the displaced ideal. Computers & Operations Research, 1(3-4), 479-496. doi:10.1016/0305-0548(74)90064-

    Rural Women and their Information Seeking Behavior

    Get PDF
    This study is focused at exploring the information seeking behavior of the women in rural areas. The study adopted a survey design. Four objectives were laid down for the study and a structured interview and questionnaire was used to bring out information from respondents. The findings showed that among the 294 respondents, 41% of them are 31-40 years of age, 24% of the respondents are below 30 years of age, 18% are between the ages of 41-50 years of age among others. The study also revealed majority of the women have secondary school education with 44% of them admitting that they are secondary school certificate holder. The study shows that the information needs of rural women in the top rank are occupational related with 85% of respondents, child care and family relationship with 64% of respondents. The study clearly indicates that the major source of information for the respondents is friends and family members with 95% of the respondents attesting to that, another 75% of the respondents indicated age groups as their source of information. The study revealed that the major use of information by respondents was to improve their Occupation with 91% of respondents, to care for children and run the family with 78% of respondents. It is clear from the study that no library resources is the major barrier to the access of information by respondents with 98%, illiteracy with 76% of respondents, language barriers with 66% respondents, among others. Recommendations were put forward to enhance access to information by women in the rural areas

    Think Tank Review Issue 12, April 2014

    Get PDF

    Rural Women and their Information Seeking Behavior

    Get PDF
    This study is focused at exploring the information seeking behavior of the women in rural areas. The study adopted a survey design. Four objectives were laid down for the study and a structured interview and questionnaire was used to bring out information from respondents. The findings showed that among the 294 respondents, 41% of them are 31-40 years of age, 24% of the respondents are below 30 years of age, 18% are between the ages of 41-50 years of age among others. The study also revealed majority of the women have secondary school education with 44% of them admitting that they are secondary school certificate holder. The study shows that the information needs of rural women in the top rank are occupational related with 85% of respondents, child care and family relationship with 64% of respondents. The study clearly indicates that the major source of information for the respondents is friends and family members with 95% of the respondents attesting to that, another 75% of the respondents indicated age groups as their source of information. The study revealed that the major use of information by respondents was to improve their Occupation with 91% of respondents, to care for children and run the family with 78% of respondents. It is clear from the study that no library resources is the major barrier to the access of information by respondents with 98%, illiteracy with 76% of respondents, language barriers with 66% respondents, among others. Recommendations were put forward to enhance access to information by women in the rural areas

    Bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries: A case study from Pakistan

    Get PDF
    Our knowledge of the concentrations of bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries is scanty. The present investigation was conducted to assess the culturable concentration and size distribution of bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi in two rural and an urban site in Pakistan. The highest indoor culturable bacteria concentration was found at Rural Site II (14,650 CFU/m 3) while the outdoor maximum occurred at the urban site (16,416 CFU/m 3). With reference to fungi, both indoor and outdoor concentrations were considerably higher at Rural Site I than the other sites. The size distribution of culturable bacteria at all sites showed greater variability than that of culturable fungi. At all sites more than the half (55-93%) of the culturable bacterial and fungal counts were observed in the respirable fraction (<4.7 μm) and so had the potential to penetrate into lower respiratory system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    ESTIMATION AND TESTING OF HOUSEHOLD LABOUR SUPPLY MODELS: EVIDENCE FROM SPAIN

    Get PDF
    This paper provides an empirical contribution to the current debate about the suitability of the collective model proposed by Chiappori (1988, 1992) for analysing intrahousehold behaviour in the labour supply context. We follow Chiappori et al.(2002) and we extend the model considering differences in the education level between the two members of the couple as a potential distribution factor. Moreover, we propose a particular parametric specification for the labour supply system in order to derive the restrictions imposed by the collective setting on observed household behaviour. The empirical results show that neither the unitary model nor the collective one fits the Spanish household labour supply data.Households behaviour, labour supply, collective model, unitary model

    Peasant livelihoods and land degradation: Evidence from a participatory assessment in the Gia-Kajelo community in Northern Ghana

    Get PDF
    The relationships between peasant livelihoods and land degradation in the Gia-Kajelo community were examined in a wider context of the man-environment relations in the African savanna. The relationship has to be looked at in a wider dimension involving conceptual frameworks that incorporate contemporary understanding of rural livelihoods,institutional dynamics, resource diversity, environmental variability and macro level influences on local socio-politicoeconomic landscapes. Investigating these relationship should move from the biased technocratic objective assessment of virgin lands and so-called mapping of human impacts to studies identifying the environment as an arena for synergistic interaction between ‘man’ and ‘nature’. Based on the later approach results showed that all wealth groups experienced land degradation on their fields, reflecting the type of land investments made and mediated by levels of access to resources and opportunities. Being poor reduced the ability of most people to invest in land improvement, but being rich did not automatically lead to good environmental healt

    Carbon mitigation in domains of high consumer lock-in

    Get PDF
    As climate policy needs to address all feasible ways to reduce carbon emissions, there is an increasing focus on demand-side solutions. Studies of household carbon footprints have allocated emissions during production to the consumption of the produced goods, and provided an understanding of what products and consumer actions cause significant emissions. Social scientists have investigated how attitudes, social norms, and structural factors shape salient behavior. Yet, there is often a disconnect as emission reductions through individual actions in the important domains of housing and mobility are challenging to attain due to lock-ins and structural constraints. Furthermore, most behavioral research focuses on actions that are easy to trace but of limited consequence as a share of total emissions. Here we study specific alternative consumption patterns seeking both to understand the behavioral and structural factors that determine those patterns and to quantify their effect on carbon footprints. We do so utilizing a survey on consumer behavioral, attitudinal, contextual and socio-demographic factors in four different regions in the EU. Some differences occur in terms of the driving forces behind behaviors and their carbon intensities. Based on observed differences in mobility carbon footprints across households, we find that the key determining element to reduced emissions is settlement density, while car ownership, rising income and long distances are associated with higher mobility footprints. For housing, our results indicate that changes in dwelling standards and larger household sizes may reduce energy needs and the reliance on fossil fuels. However, there remains a strong need for incentives to reduce the carbon intensity of heating and air travel. We discuss combined effects and the role of policy in overcoming structural barriers in domains where consumers as individuals have limited agency

    Passive solar desing strategies for buildings: A case study on improvement of an existing residential building's thermal performance by passive solar design tools

    Get PDF
    Thesis (Master)--İzmir Institute of Technology, Architecture, İzmir, 2003Includes bibliographical references (leaves: 137-140)Text in English; Abstract: Turkish and Englishxi, 140 leavesThis thesis investigates the potentials of the use of Passive Solar Design strategies in existing low-rise residential buildings in the context of energy-efficient building design. Among the ways of developing energy-efficient building design, there are mainly active and passive systems to consider and the thesis focuses on passive ones which require integration of architectural characteristics and energy-efficiency strategies, which can likely be cost-effective and thermally comfortable as a result of that integration.In order to achieve the objective of the study, a methodology has been developed. Fist a thorough literature survey is conducted. Then examples related to subject are investigated. Finally an existing residential building is selected and analysed as the case study. Current thermal performance and improved thermal performance of this building are analysed by the help of a software called Energy-10. Results of both original and improved projects are interpreted accordingly.In buildings, Passive Solar Design strategies can provide fundamental comfort conditions related to heating, cooling for thermal and natural lighting for visual comfort or help building.s conventional mechanical systems achieve these conditions requiring less amount of energy. Some of the Passive Solar Desgin strategies are seem in traditional architecture from harsh cold to hot humid climate, they have been in harmony with their environment and provide comfort conditions adjusting the outdoor climatic features by climatic design strategies and they are called as climate-responsive buildings. Solar orientation, solar apertures, thermal mass, solar chimneys, wind captures, lattice brise-soleils or mushrabiyas are the Passive Solar Design elements which have been used in traditional buildings, now abandoned, running by means of natural air currents.To achieve a low-energy building, thermal insulation ought to be considered as the main energy-efficiency feature. Turkish thermal insulation standarts .TS 825. is deficient for designing low-energy buildings and there is no regulations that make the designers feel the desire to utilize low-energy concepts for their designs. Besides, the building.s morphological organisation should be involved with respect to climatic and environmental data. One of the most important criterion in designing an energy-efficient building is incoprating properties of microclimate of the site that the building is to be placed. Using environmental (climatic, geographic, etc.) data well in building designs can lead to energy efficiency. Solar geometry, latitude, altitude, wind patterns, vegetation, hills and neighbor buildings are the determinants of microclimate of a site.The findings of the study indicate that with the energy-efficiency design strategies by passive solar components having the additional cost of about 9% of the total building cost, it is possible to save the total annual energy used in this specific residential building by 18%. There are three types of energy need for the space conditioning and visual comfort (i. e., heating, cooling and lighting), the maximum energy saving is achieved in heating energy use by 61% decrease, lighting energy use is also decreased by 40%. However, in cooling energy need, there is an increase of 34%. This amount is overshadowed by passive solar gains in other energy savings (i. e., heating and lighting) and when the cooling strategies of the building (i. e., natural ventilation and stack effect ventilation) are considered, the building might be said to perform well in terms of thermaly in annual operation

    Evaluate the Socio-Economic Impact of the International Coastal Road (ICR) on Burg Elburullus City

    Get PDF
    Communities are grappling with environmental, social, and economic challenges due to rapid urbanization and physical changes, with coastal slums bearing the brunt of the impact. Unplanned urban development worsens pollution, inequality, and disaster risk for low-income households. Specific sustainable development plans are vital for tailored solutions based on each community's distinct needs and views. This study examines the socio-economic impacts of the establishment of the International Coastal Road (ICR) in the city of BURJ AL-BURULLUS in Northern Egypt, which marked the beginning of major urbanization efforts in the region in 2002. The physical landscape of the city has undergone significant changes due to urban expansion, with the extension of the city having grown to almost twice the size of the original city. The expansion of the city due to the ICR has caused significant changes to the area's environment, communities, and economies. In particular, the separation of the city from the nearby lake, which was its primary source of income, has had diverse impacts on various aspects of people's lives. This study employed a narrative method to assess ICR's impacts on the area's environments, communities, and economies. Nine villagers with diverse incomes were selected and encouraged to freely share their detailed views. The study focused on the socioeconomic impacts of the changes on the city, but it had significant impacts on all economic, social, and environmental levels. Community participation enhances research outcomes regarding the challenges experienced by impoverished communities due to urbanization. It also assists in the creation of improvement strategies responsive to the distinct requirements of each community by incorporating important perspectives and first-hand experiences of those affected by urbanization
    corecore