40,316 research outputs found

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Building body identities - exploring the world of female bodybuilders

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    This thesis explores how female bodybuilders seek to develop and maintain a viable sense of self despite being stigmatized by the gendered foundations of what Erving Goffman (1983) refers to as the 'interaction order'; the unavoidable presentational context in which identities are forged during the course of social life. Placed in the context of an overview of the historical treatment of women's bodies, and a concern with the development of bodybuilding as a specific form of body modification, the research draws upon a unique two year ethnographic study based in the South of England, complemented by interviews with twenty-six female bodybuilders, all of whom live in the U.K. By mapping these extraordinary women's lives, the research illuminates the pivotal spaces and essential lived experiences that make up the female bodybuilder. Whilst the women appear to be embarking on an 'empowering' radical body project for themselves, the consequences of their activity remains culturally ambivalent. This research exposes the 'Janus-faced' nature of female bodybuilding, exploring the ways in which the women negotiate, accommodate and resist pressures to engage in more orthodox and feminine activities and appearances

    Coloniality and the Courtroom: Understanding Pre-trial Judicial Decision Making in Brazil

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    This thesis focuses on judicial decision making during custody hearings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The impetus for the study is that while national and international protocols mandate the use of pre-trial detention only as a last resort, judges continue to detain people pre-trial in large numbers. Custody hearings were introduced in 2015, but the initiative has not produced the reduction in pre-trial detention that was hoped. This study aims to understand what informs judicial decision making at this stage. The research is approached through a decolonial lens to foreground legacies of colonialism, overlooked in mainstream criminological scholarship. This is an interview-based study, where key court actors (judges, prosecutors, and public defenders) and subject matter specialists were asked about influences on judicial decision making. Interview data is complemented by non-participatory observation of custody hearings. The research responds directly to Aliverti et al.'s (2021) call to ‘decolonize the criminal question’ by exposing and explaining how colonialism informs criminal justice practices. Answering the call in relation to judicial decision making, findings provide evidence that colonial-era assumptions, dynamics, and hierarchies were evident in the practice of custody hearings and continue to inform judges’ decisions, thus demonstrating the coloniality of justice. This study is significant for the new empirical data presented and theoretical innovation is also offered via the introduction of the ‘anticitizen’. The concept builds on Souza’s (2007) ‘subcitizen’ to account for the active pursuit of dangerous Others by judges casting themselves as crime fighters in a modern moral crusade. The findings point to the limited utility of human rights discourse – the normative approach to influencing judicial decision making around pre-trial detention – as a plurality of conceptualisations compete for dominance. This study has important implications for all actors aiming to reduce pre-trial detention in Brazil because unless underpinning colonial logics are addressed, every innovation risks becoming the next lei para inglês ver (law [just] for the English to see)

    Desarrollo de materiales bioactivos con potencial aplicación odontológica mediante impregnación asistida por CO2 supercrítico

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    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2021En esta tesis se estudió el proceso de incorporación de eugenol en fibras de poliamida 6 (PA6) mediante la impregnación asistida por CO2 supercrítico para desarrollar un material con propiedades antimicrobianas con una potencial aplicación odontológica. Para este propósito, se construyó un equipo de alta presión en el que se llevaron a cabo múltiples ensayos de impregnación de eugenol y de sorción de CO2 en un hilo dental comercial de PA6 en distintas condiciones de presión y temperatura (40 – 60 °C y 8 – 12 MPa). Con el fin de encontrar las mejores condiciones del proceso de impregnación, se evaluó la influencia de diferentes variables operativas (presión, temperatura, tiempo de contacto y velocidad de despresurización) sobre la cantidad de eugenol impregnada en el material. Además, se estudiaron los principales fenómenos difusivos que ocurren en el proceso de impregnación del eugenol en condiciones supercríticas. Para ello, se hicieron ensayos de cinética de sorción del CO2 y del eugenol en PA6 a diferentes condiciones de presión y temperatura y se determinó el coeficiente de difusión aparente para ambas especies en este polímero. Por otra parte, se evaluaron las propiedades finales del material impregnado, analizando las propiedades mecánicas, térmicas y morfológicas del material original, presurizado con CO2 e impregnado con eugenol. Adicionalmente se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana del material impregnado frente a dos bacterias comunes (Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus). Asimismo, se estudió la migración del compuesto activo impregnado en aire y en saliva artificial, obteniendo datos importantes para el potencial desarrollo de un producto comercial, como la estimación de la vida útil, el tipo de envase, y tipo de aplicación del producto. Finalmente, se hizo un diseño y dimensionamiento de un proceso industrial para la impregnación de eugenol en bobinas de fibras de PA6 en CO2 supercrítico, a partir de los datos de eficiencia de impregnación y parámetros difusivos del hilo impregnado con eugenol previamente obtenidos, realizando el diseño de la bobina, el equipo impregnador y los cálculos de sus principales requerimientos de masa y energía.Fil: Mosquera Ruiz, José Euliser. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales; Argentina.Fil: Mosquera Ruiz, José Euliser. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos y Química Aplicada; Argentina

    Carbon dioxide removal potential from decentralised bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and the relevance of operational choices

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    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology is expected to support net-zero targets by supplying low carbon energy while providing carbon dioxide removal (CDR). BECCS is estimated to deliver 20 to 70 MtCO2 annual negative emissions by 2050 in the UK, despite there are currently no BECCS operating facility. This research is modelling and demonstrating the flexibility, scalability and attainable immediate application of BECCS. The CDR potential for two out of three BECCS pathways considered by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios were quantified (i) modular-scale CHP process with post-combustion CCS utilising wheat straw and (ii) hydrogen production in a small-scale gasifier with pre-combustion CCS utilising locally sourced waste wood. Process modelling and lifecycle assessment were used, including a whole supply chain analysis. The investigated BECCS pathways could annually remove between −0.8 and −1.4 tCO2e tbiomass−1 depending on operational decisions. Using all the available wheat straw and waste wood in the UK, a joint CDR capacity for both systems could reach about 23% of the UK's CDR minimum target set for BECCS. Policy frameworks prioritising carbon efficiencies can shape those operational decisions and strongly impact on the overall energy and CDR performance of a BECCS system, but not necessarily maximising the trade-offs between biomass use, energy performance and CDR. A combination of different BECCS pathways will be necessary to reach net-zero targets. Decentralised BECCS deployment could support flexible approaches allowing to maximise positive system trade-offs, enable regional biomass utilisation and provide local energy supply to remote areas

    The Reputations of Sir Francis Burdett

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    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY-SEAT INTERFACE PRESSURE AND DISCOMFORT DURING ROWING

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    Discomfort and pressure-related tissue injury to the buttocks are common complaints among rowers. The soft tissues of the buttocks are non-uniformly loaded during rowing. The current state of literature on seating discomfort is inconclusive as to a desirable body-seat interface pressure pattern. The purpose of this study was to determine whether localising pressure under bony protuberances or diffusing pressure over soft tissues would result in the least amount of discomfort. Force sensing arrays were used to measure body-seat interface pressures in 11 elite female rowers during rowing. Peak pressure measures were identified and pressure gradients were calculated. Discomfort was quantified using a questionnaire, and pressure data were then correlated with discomfort scores.Discomfort was weakly correlated with each of maximal pressure gradient (r=0.45) and peak pressure (r=0.43). The findings indicate pressure should be redistributed in order to avoid concentrating pressure under the bony protuberances o f the buttocks

    Hybrid Perovskite Thin Film

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    Hybrid perovskite thin film offers diverse advantages like low cost deposition techniques, less material consumption and superior optoelectronic properties. These merits including high voltage and high efficiency performance in a wide range of high light intensity are sufficient to distinguish perovskite thin films/devices from their contenders as a thin film technology with greater potential for industrial applications. Perovskite thin film technology demonstrates potency in a variety of applications in optoelectronic devices especially photovoltaic applications. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the USA categorizes a number of thin films technologies including perovskite thin film, as emerging photovoltaics with the bulk of them yet to be commercially applied but are still in the research or developmental stage. In this chapter, various processing methods and material combinations as well as current trends in this technology are subjects of discussion

    Pharmacological, Biopesticide, and Post-Harvest Loss Management Application of Jimsonweed (<em>Datura stramonium</em>)

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    Datura stramonium is one of the most intriguing, in part because of its well-known therapeutic and psychoactive properties in the treatment of many diseases. Datura species have been found to exhibit a variety of biological activity. Insecticide, fungicide, antioxidant, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, and immune response boosting properties have been linked to the genus’ species. These effects are linked to the existence of secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, flavonoids, with anolides, tannins, phenolic compounds, and tropane alkaloids, which are the most prevalent atropine and scopolamine in the genus Datura. Ingestion of Jimson weed produces the toxidrome of anticholinergic intoxication. Understanding and recognizing the classic signs and symptoms of anticholinergic intoxication can help clinicians evaluate persons presenting with Jimson weed poisoning. Moreover, this review is to identify the most important phytochemical substances extracted from the Jimsonweed and to characterize their biological activity for health effect and biopesticide application. Biopesticides are less harmful than chemical pesticides because they do not leave harmful residues, generally target one specific pest or a small number of related pests rather than broad spectrum chemical pesticides that affect other beneficial insects, birds, mammals, or non-target species, are effective in smaller quantities, decompose quickly and do not cause environmental problems, and are often cheaper. In conclusion, Datura stramonium, beside its medicinal value, can applicable for biopesticide application and for postharvest loss control of insects such as weevil

    Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Potentials of Essential Oils

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    It is a common perspective that medicinal plants have played and continue to perform an undeniably major role in the lives of people worldwide. Essential oils are the key constituents of medicinal herbs and their biological activities have been discovered since ancient times and are enormously utilised in multiple industries. The essential oils possess important biological properties like antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, insecticidal, etc. Because of these unique features they are more acceptable and are utilised in various fields throughout the world. In the cosmetics industry they play an important role in the development of perfumes while in the food industry they have been used as food preservatives. Essential oil components are interestingly utilised for pharmaceutical applications. The most investigated properties are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound-healing, anxiolytic activities etc. The current thrust area is evaluation for aromatherapy and anti-cancer, as it is noted that essential oils reported in plants may prevent, inhibit, or even reverse formation of cancerous cells. The aim of this chapter is to provide a concise and comprehensive overview on the therapeutic and pharmaceutical potential of essential oils in the current scenario
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