20,243 research outputs found

    Revisão taxonómica do género Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) na Península Ibérica e Marrocos

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    The genus Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) includes, depending on the author, 10 to 25 species, distributed mainly in the Mediterranean basin. The taxonomy of this genus is considered to be extremely difficult, due to a great morphological variability, doubtfull relevance of some of the characters used to distinguish its species (e.g. the life form: annual or perennial; the habit: erect or diffuse, shape of the leaves, indumentum, relative size of the capitula and colour of disc or ray florets, achene morphology), but also due to the hybridization and polyploidization. Despite the numerous studies that have been published, no agreement on the classification and characters used to discriminate between taxa has been reached. A taxonomic study of the genus Calendula was conducted for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, aiming at (1) access the morphological variability between and within taxa, (2) confirm the chromosome numbers, (3) increase the nuclear DNA content estimations, (4) re-evaluate taxa delimitations and circumscription, and (5) reassess, and redefine, the descriptions and characters useful to distinguish taxa. In order to achieve a satisfying taxonomic core, extensive fieldwork, detailed morphometric analysis, chorological, karyological and genome size studies were conducted. For the Iberian Peninsula, four species were recognized, including nine subspecies (between these two new subspecies were described). For Morocco, including some taxa from Algeria and Tunisia 13 species were recognized (two new species and a nomenclatural change), including 15 subspecies (among these eight new subspecies were described). To corroborate the results obtained and to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among taxa, phylogenetic studies using molecular methods, such as ITS, microsatellites or other molecular markers, should be used.O g√©nero Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) inclui, dependendo do autor, 10 a 25 esp√©cies, distribu√≠das essencialmente na bacia do Mediterr√Ęneo. A taxonomia deste g√©nero √© considerada extremamente dif√≠cil, devido √† grande variabilidade morfol√≥gica, discutivel relev√Ęncia de alguns dos caracteres utilizados para distinguir suas esp√©cies (por exemplo, a forma de vida: anual ou perene, o h√°bito: erecto ou difuso, a forma das folhas, o indumento, o tamanho e a cor dos cap√≠tulos e a morfologia dos aqu√©nios), mas tamb√©m devido √† hibridiza√ß√£o e poliploidiza√ß√£o. Apesar dos in√ļmeros estudos que foram publicados, n√£o foi alcan√ßado um acordo sobre a classifica√ß√£o e os caracteres utilizados para discriminar as suas esp√©cies. Um estudo taxon√≥mico do g√©nero Calendula foi realizado para a Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica e Marrocos, com o objectivo de (1) verificar a variabilidade morfol√≥gica, (2) confirmar o n√ļmero de cromossomas, (3) aumentar as estimativas de conte√ļdo em ADN, (4) reavaliar a delimita√ß√£o e a circunscri√ß√£o dos taxa, e (5) reavaliar e redefinir as descri√ß√Ķes e caracteres √ļteis para os distinguir. Para alcan√ßar uma robust√™s taxon√≥mica satisfat√≥ria, foram realizados extensos trabalhos de campo, an√°lise morfom√©trica detalhada, abordagens corol√≥gicas, cariol√≥gicas e quanto ao conte√ļdo em ADN. Para a Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica, quatro esp√©cies foram reconhecidas, incluindo nove subesp√©cies (entre essas duas novas subesp√©cies foram descritas). Para Marrocos, incluindo alguns taxa da Argelia e Tunisia, foram reconhecidas 13 esp√©cies (duas novas e uma mudan√ßa nomenclatural), incluindo 15 subesp√©cies (entre essas oito novas subesp√©cies foram descritas). Para corroborar os resultados obtidos e avaliar as rela√ß√Ķes evolutivas e filogen√©ticas entre os taxa, estudos que utilizem diferentes m√©todos moleculares, tais como ITS, microsat√©lites ou outros marcadores moleculares, devem ser utilizados.Apoio financeiro do Laborat√≥rio Associado CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (AMB/50017) financiado por fundos nacionais atrav√©s da FCT/MCTES e cofinanciado pelo FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), no √Ęmbito do Acordo de Parceria PT2020, e Compete 2020Programa Doutoral em Biologi

    Chinese Open Instruction Generalist: A Preliminary Release

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    Instruction tuning is widely recognized as a key technique for building generalist language models, which has attracted the attention of researchers and the public with the release of InstructGPT~\citep{ouyang2022training} and ChatGPT\footnote{\url{https://chat.openai.com/}}. Despite impressive progress in English-oriented large-scale language models (LLMs), it is still under-explored whether English-based foundation LLMs can perform similarly on multilingual tasks compared to English tasks with well-designed instruction tuning and how we can construct the corpora needed for the tuning. To remedy this gap, we propose the project as an attempt to create a Chinese instruction dataset by various methods adapted to the intrinsic characteristics of 4 sub-tasks. We collect around 200k Chinese instruction tuning samples, which have been manually checked to guarantee high quality. We also summarize the existing English and Chinese instruction corpora and briefly describe some potential applications of the newly constructed Chinese instruction corpora. The resulting \textbf{C}hinese \textbf{O}pen \textbf{I}nstruction \textbf{G}eneralist (\textbf{COIG}) corpora are available in Huggingface\footnote{\url{https://huggingface.co/datasets/BAAI/COIG}} and Github\footnote{\url{https://github.com/FlagOpen/FlagInstruct}}, and will be continuously updated

    Ecological successions throughout the desiccation of Tirez lagoon (Spain) as an astrobiological time-analog for wet-to-dry transitions on Mars

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    Tirez was a small and seasonal endorheic athalassohaline lagoon that was located in central Spain. In recent years, the lagoon has totally dried out, offering for the first time the opportunity to analyze its desiccation process as a ‚Äútime-analog‚ÄĚ to similar events occurred in paleolakes with varying salinity during the wet-to-dry transition on early Mars. On the martian cratered highlands, an early period of water ponding within enclosed basins evolved to a complete desiccation of the lakes, leading to deposition of evaporitic sequences during the Noachian and into the Late Hesperian. As Tirez also underwent a process of desiccation, here we describe (i) the microbial ecology of Tirez when the lagoon was still active 20 years ago, with prokaryotes adapted to extreme saline conditions; (ii) the composition of the microbial community in the dried lake sediments today, in many case groups that thrive in sediments of extreme environments; and (iii) the molecular and isotopic analysis of the lipid biomarkers that can be recovered from the sediments today. We discuss the implications of these results to better understanding the ecology of possible Martian microbial communities during the wet-to-dry transition at the end of the Hesperian, and how they may inform about research strategies to search for possible biomarkers in Mars after all the water was los

    Construction of radon chamber to expose active and passive detectors

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    In this research and development, we present the design and manufacture of a radon chamber (PUCP radon chamber), a necessary tool for the calibration of passive detectors, verification of the operation of active radon monitors as well as diffusion chamber calibration used in radon measurements in air, and soils. The first chapter is an introduction to describe radon gas and national levels of radon concentration given by many organizations. Parameters that influence the calibration factor of the LR 115 type 2 film detector are studied, such as the energy window, critical angle, and effective volumes. Those are strongly related to the etching processes and counting of tracks all seen from a semi-empirical approach studied in the second chapter. The third chapter presents a review of some radon chambers that have been reported in the literature, based on their size and mode of operation as well as the radon source they use. The design and construction of the radon chamber are presented, use of uranium ore (autunite) as a chamber source is also discussed. In chapter fourth, radon chamber characterization is presented through leakage lambda, homogeneity of radon concentration, regimes-operation modes, and the saturation concentrations that can be reached. Procedures and methodology used in this work are contained in the fifth chapter and also some uses and applications of the PUCP radon chamber are presented; the calibration of cylindrical metallic diffusion chamber based on CR-39 chips detectors taking into account overlapping effect; transmission factors of gaps and pinhole for the same diffusion chambers are determined; permeability of glass fiber filter for 222Rn is obtained after reach equilibrium through Ramachandran model and taking into account a partition function as the rate of track density. The results of this research have been published in indexed journals. Finally, the conclusion and recommendations that reflect the fulfillment aims of this thesis are presented

    Teen Appeal, Memphis, 09.05, 2005

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    Issue 9.2 of the Teen Appeal published by the University of Memphis Journalism Department and Commercial Appeal, Memphis, Tennessee, on October 4, 2005.https://digitalcommons.memphis.edu/speccoll-mss-teenappeal1/1058/thumbnail.jp

    Factors that affect English proficiency in students of advanced English courses of the undergraduate program in English at Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia (UNAD)

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    Se anexan tablas de an√°lisis de datos, graficas de encuestas y cuestionarios, consentimiento informado, cuestionario sociodemogr√°fica y encuesta de caracterizaci√≥n.El prop√≥sito de este estudio de investigaci√≥n se centr√≥ en establecer y analizar la relaci√≥n entre diferentes variables en cuanto a la adquisici√≥n del ingl√©s como lengua extranjera para los estudiantes de pregrado en lenguas extranjeras de los cursos avanzados de ingl√©s de la UNAD. Este estudio de investigaci√≥n reuni√≥ como participantes a estudiantes activos de los cursos de ingl√©s del √ļltimo periodo acad√©mico que voluntariamente formaron parte del mismo, el an√°lisis de datos de este estudio se bas√≥ en informaci√≥n cuantitativa y cualitativa obtenida a trav√©s de dos instrumentos creados espec√≠ficamente para la poblaci√≥n objeto, e implementados durante el desarrollo de este estudio de investigaci√≥n, los datos cuantitativos fueron recolectados mediante el instrumento "Cuestionario Socioecon√≥mico" y se utiliz√≥ el Cambridge English Placement test (CEPTO) para analizar el nivel de ingl√©s de los estudiantes, mientras que los datos cualitativos se obtuvieron a trav√©s de una encuesta de caracterizaci√≥n, como resultado del an√°lisis de datos mencionado anteriormente se identificaron tres (3) categor√≠as, estratificaci√≥n socioecon√≥mica, estudios de Pregrado en l√≠nea y antecedentes econ√≥micos del hogar, las observaciones y conclusiones logradas durante este proceso abren un espacio de reflexi√≥n frente a la posibilidad de implementar estrategias de cara a las necesidades de la poblaci√≥n especifica de la UNAD concerniente al aprendizaje del ingl√©s como lengua extranjera.This paper establishes and analyzes the relationship between different variables related to English as a foreign language learning for undergraduate students of the Bachelor in English program from the advanced English courses at UNAD. It has been observed that for some students of the undergraduate program the low language performance is related to their socioeconomic context, as well as engagement. This research study invited students enrolled in the advanced English courses at UNAD to participate, the data analysis of this study is based on quantitative and qualitative information obtained through means of two instruments specifically created for the target population, and implemented during the development of this research study, quantitative data was gathered by the instrument ‚ÄúSocioeconomic Questionnaire‚ÄĚ and the Cambridge English Placement test (CEPTO) was used to analyze the English level of the students, while qualitative data was obtained through a characterization survey, after thorough analysis it was found that the learners¬ī socioeconomic status is a fundamental factor that contributes to English acquisition in the target population and has correlation with their language performance, it was also found that although their level of engagement was high the majority did not obtain the B2 English level expected to graduate in the program. The angles explored were: students‚Äô financial status, parents‚Äô background, English language performance, and engagement towards the language. It is expected that the findings of this study can pave the way for other researchers to undertake further investigations and find solutions on the basis of the discerned results

    The development of the Kent coalfield 1896-1946

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    One of the unique features of the Kent Coalfield is that it is entirely concealed by newer rocks. The existence of a coalfield under southern England, being a direct link between those of South Wales, Somerset and Bristol in the west and the Ruhr, Belgium. and northern France in the east, was predicted by the geologist R. A. C. Godwin-Austen as early as 1856. It was, however, only the rapid increase in demand for Britain's coal in the last quarter of the nineteenth century that made it worth considering testing this hypothesis. The first boring was made in the years 1886-90, and although it discovered coal, this did not in itself prove the existence of a viable coalfield. This could be done only by incurring the heavy cost of boring systematically over a wide area. As the financial returns from such an undertaking were uncertain, it was not surprising that in the early years, around the turn of the century, a dominant role was played by speculators, who were able to induce numerous small investors to risk some of their savings in the expectation of high profits. As minerals in Britain were privately owned, the early pioneer companies not only had to meet the cost of the exploratory borines, but also, if they were not to see the benefit of their work accrue to others, lease beforehand the right to mine coal from local landowners in as much of the surrounding area as possible. This policy was pursued most vigorously by Arthur Burr, a Surrey land specula tor, who raised capital by creating the Kent Coal Conoessions Ltd. and then floating a series of companies allied to it. Burr's enterprise would probably have been. successful had it not been for the water problems encountered at depth in -v- the coalfield. As a result, the Concessions group found itself in control of most of the coalfield, but without the necessary capital to sink and adequately equip its 01ffi collieries. By 1910, however, the discovery of iron ore deposits in east Kent, coupled with the fact that Kent coal was excellent for coking purposes, began to attract the large steel firms of Bolckow, Vaughan Ltd. and Dorman, Long & Co. Ltd. in to the area. The First World War intervened, however, to delay their plans, and to provide an extended lease of life to the Concessions group, which, by the summer of 1914, was facing financial collapse. By the time Dorman, Lone & Co, in alliance with Weetman Pearson (Lord Cowdray), had acquired control over the greater part of the coalfield from the Concessions group, not only was the country's coal industry declining, but so was its steel industry, which suffered an even more severe rate of contraction during the inter-war years. As a result, Pearson and Dorman Long Ltd. was forced to concentrate just on coal production, and this in turn was hampered not only by the water problems, but also by labour shortages and the schemes introduced by the government in 1930 to restrict the country's coal output, in an attempt to maintain prices and revenue in the industry. Nevertheless, production did show a substantial increase between 1927 and 1935, after which it declined as miners left the coalfield to return to their former districts, where employment opportunities were improving in the late thirties. Supporting roles were played in the inter-war years by Richard Tilden Smith, a share underwriter turned industrialist with long standing interests in the coalfield, who acquired one of the Concessions group's two collieries, and by the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Co. Ltd., which through subsidiary companies, took over the only colliery to be developed by a pioneer company outside the Concessions group. The impossibility of Kent coal, because of its nature, ever gaining more than token access to the more lucrative household market, and then the failure of the local steel industry to materialise meant that the -vi- companies had to develop alternative outlets for their growing outputs. Although nearness to industrial markets in the south-east of England did confer certain advantages were poor consolation for the hoped for developments of either the early pioneers or the later industrialists. Instead of the expected profits, the companies mostly incurred losses, and only the company acquired by Powell Duffryn ever paid a dividend to its shareholders in the years before nationalisation. From the point of view of the Kent miners, the shortage of labour in the coalfield, particularly in the years 1914-20 and 1927-35, was to an important extent responsible for their being amongst the highest paid in the industry. At the same time the more favourable employment opportunities prevailing in Kent compared with other mining districts enabled the Kent Nine Workers Association to develop into a well organised union, which on the whole was able to look after the interests of its members fairly successfully. Throughout the period 1896 to 1946 the Kent Coalfield existed very much at the margin of the British coal industry. Its failure to develop substantially along the lines envisaged by either the early pioneers or by the later industrialists meant that its importance in national terms always remained small

    Elite perceptions of the Victorian and Edwardian past in inter-war England

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    It is often argued by historians that members of the cultivated Elite after 1918 rejected the pre-war past. or at least subjected it to severe denigration. This thesis sets out to challenge such a view. Above all, it argues that inter-war critics of the Victorian and Edwardian past were unable to reject it even if that was what they felt inclined to do. This was because they were tied to those periods by the affective links of memory, family, and the continually unfolding consequences of the past in the present. Even the severest critics of the pre-war world, such as Lytton Strachey, were less frequently dismissive of history than ambivalent towards it. This ambivalence, it is argued, helped to keep the past alive and often to humanise it. The thesis also explores more positive estimation of Victorian and Edwardian history between the wars. It examines nostalgia for the past, as well as instances of continuity of practice and attitude. It explores the way in which inter-war society drew upon aspects of Victorian and Edwardian history both as illuminating parallels to contemporary affairs and to understand directly why the present was shaped as it was. Again, this testifies to the enduring power of the past after 1918. There are three parts to this thesis. Part One outlines the cultural context in which writers contemplated the Victorian and Edwardian past. Part Two explores some of the ways in which history was written about and used by inter-war society. Part Three examines the ways in which biographical depictions of eminent Victorians after 1918 encouraged emotional negotiation with the pas

    Assessing the Effects of Instream Large Wood on Floodplain Aquifer Recharge and Storage at Indian Creek, Kittitas County, Washington, USA

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    Numerous stream restoration projects in the Yakima River Basin in Washington have placed large wood (LW) into tributary channels. One intended effect is to divert water onto floodplains to increase groundwater (GW) recharge and seasonal storage in shallow alluvial aquifers during spring high flows with the intention of releasing GW into streams during the drier summer months. Large wood was emplaced in the Indian Creek tributary of the Teanaway River in Kittitas County, Washington beginning in 2016. Potential changes in the groundwater recharge in the adjacent floodplain before and after the LW installation were investigated through stratigraphic analysis, stream-flow modeling, and GW levels in six piezometers installed in 2014 and 2018. Stratigraphic descriptions of the stream banks reveal a ubiquitous silt/clay dominant layer (60-90 cm thick) at a depth of 1 meter or less, overlying a sand and gravel layer (15-50 cm thick), a clay/silt layer (~30 cm thick), and another sand and gravel layer. These relatively continuous clay layers extend at least 2.2 km upstream from the mouth of Indian Creek on both sides of the channel. Similar clay units have been mapped in the region as glacial drift or lacustrine deposits. The measured stream flow and GW levels in the monitoring wells before and after the LW emplacement show no detectable effect of the LW on seasonal or longer-term GW levels. Data loggers show that GW levels return to baseflow within days of monthly precipitation exceeding 70 mm, suggesting GW flow within the permeable sand and gravel layers beneath or between the clay/silt layers. Available data show that the highest spring GW elevations precede peak stream discharge, indicating that the peak streamflow is not a significant source of GW recharge. A 1-dimensional hydraulic model run with and without channel obstructions at spring monthly average discharge and peak discharge suggests that the water surface elevation may increase ~10-50 cm within and upstream of LW. This assessment of stratigraphy coupled with GW data and stream-flow model can provide insight into the effectiveness of GW recharge from LW restoration projects in similar settings within the region
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