17,102 research outputs found

    A mutation in caspase-9 decreases the expression of BAFFR and ICOS in patients with immunodeficiency and lymphoproliferation

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    Lymphocyte apoptosis is mainly induced by either death receptor-dependent activation of caspase-8 or mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase-9. Mutations in caspase-8 lead to autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation and immunodeficiency. This work describes a heterozygous H237P mutation in caspase-9 that can lead to similar disorders. H237P mutation was detected in two patients: Pt1 with autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation, severe hypogammaglobulinemia and Pt2 with mild hypogammaglobulinemia and Burkitt lymphoma. Their lymphocytes displayed defective caspase-9 activity and decreased apoptotic and activation responses. Transfection experiments showed that mutant caspase-9 display defective enzyme and proapoptotic activities and a dominant-negative effect on wild-type caspase-9. Ex vivo analysis of the patients' lymphocytes and in vitro transfection experiments showed that the expression of mutant caspase-9 correlated with a downregulation of BAFFR (B-cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) receptor) in B cells and ICOS (inducible T-cell costimulator) in T cells. Both patients carried a second inherited heterozygous mutation missing in the relatives carrying H237P: Pt1 in the transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) gene (S144X) and Pt2 in the perforin (PRF1) gene (N252S). Both mutations have been previously associated with immunodeficiencies in homozygosis or compound heterozygosis. Taken together, these data suggest that caspase-9 mutations may predispose to immunodeficiency by cooperating with other genetic factors, possibly by downregulating the expression of BAFFR and ICO

    Prion diseases are efficiently transmitted by blood transfusion in sheep

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    The emergence of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, following on from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, led to concerns about the potential risk of iatrogenic transmission of disease by blood transfusion and the introduction of costly control measures to protect blood supplies. We previously reported preliminary data demonstrating the transmission of BSE and natural scrapie by blood transfusion in sheep. The final results of this experiment, reported here, give unexpectedly high transmission rates by transfusion of 36% for BSE and 43% for scrapie. A proportion of BSE-infected tranfusion recipients (3 of 8) survived for up to 7 years without showing clinical signs of disease. The majority of transmissions resulted from blood collected from donors at more than 50% of the estimated incubation period. The high transmission rates and relatively short and consistent incubation periods in clinically positive recipients suggest that infectivity titers in blood were substantial and/or that blood transfusion is an efficient method of transmission. This experiment has established the value of using sheep as a model for studying transmission of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease by blood products in humans. (Blood. 2008; 112: 4739-4745

    Progress toward curing HIV infection with hematopoietic cell transplantation.

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    HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-‚ąÜ32/‚ąÜ32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV/AIDS using HCT in patients with HIV-1 and malignancy have yielded mixed results, as encouraging evidence for virus eradication in a few cases has been offset by poor clinical outcomes due to the underlying cancer or other complications. Such clinical strategies have relied on HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that harbor the natural CCR5-‚ąÜ32/‚ąÜ32 mutation or that have been genetically modified for HIV-resistance. Nevertheless, HCT with HIV-resistant cord blood remains a promising option, particularly with inventories of CCR5-‚ąÜ32/‚ąÜ32 units or with genetically modified, human leukocyte antigen-matched cord blood

    An allelic variant in the intergenic region between ERAP1 and ERAP2 correlates with an inverse expression of the two genes

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    The Endoplasmatic Reticulum Aminopeptidases ERAP1 and ERAP2 are implicated in a variety of immune and non-immune functions. Most studies however have focused on their role in shaping the HLA class I peptidome by trimming peptides to the optimal size. Genome Wide Association Studies highlighted non-synonymous polymorphisms in their coding regions as associated with several immune mediated diseases. The two genes lie contiguous and oppositely oriented on the 5q15 chromosomal region. Very little is known about the transcriptional regulation and the quantitative variations of these enzymes. Here, we correlated the level of transcripts and proteins of the two aminopeptidases in B-lymphoblastoid cell lines from 44 donors harbouring allelic variants in the intergenic region between ERAP1 and ERAP2. We found that the presence of a G instead of an A at SNP rs75862629 in the ERAP2 gene promoter strongly influences the expression of the two ERAPs with a down-modulation of ERAP2 coupled with a significant higher expression of ERAP1. We therefore show here for the first time a coordinated quantitative regulation of the two ERAP genes, which can be relevant for the setting of specific therapeutic approaches

    Polymorphism in TGFB1 is associated with worse non-relapse mortality and overall survival after stem cell transplantation with unrelated donors.

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    Transforming growth factor beta-1, encoded by the TGFB1 gene, is a cytokine that plays a central role in many physiological and pathogenic processes. We have sequenced TGFB1 regulatory region and assigned allelic genotypes in a large cohort of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients and donors. In this study, we analyzed 522 unrelated donor-patient pairs and examined the combined effect of all the common polymorphisms in this genomic region. In univariate analysis, we found that patients carrying a specific allele, 'p001', showed significantly reduced overall survival (5-year overall survival 30.7% for p001/ p001 patients vs. 41.6% others; P=0.032) and increased non-relapse mortality (1-year nonrelapse mortality: 39.0% vs. 25.4%; P=0.039) after transplantation. In multivariate analysis, the presence of a p001/ p001 genotype in patients was confirmed as an independent factor for reduced overall survival [hazard ratio=1.53 (1.04-2.24); P=0.031], and increased non-relapse mortality [hazard ratio=1.73 (1.06-2.83); P=0.030]. In functional experiments we found a trend towards a higher percentage of surface transforming growth factor beta-1-positive regulatory T cells after activation when the cells had a p001 allele (P=0.07). Higher or lower production of transforming growth factor beta-1 in the inflammatory context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may influence the development of complications in these patients. Findings indicate that TGFB1 genotype could potentially be of use as a prognostic factor in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation risk assessment algorithms

    Liver Transplantation for Advanced Liver Disease with Alpha-1antitrypsin Deficiency

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    ALPHA-1-antitrypsin deficiency associated with chronic obstructive airway disease was recognized in 1963 by Laurell and Ericksson.1 In 1969, Sharp2 described the first cases of alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency disease in children with cirrhosis. Since then, this inborn error has been recognized as one of the more common factors in cirrhosis of infancy and childhood,3 including ‚Äúneonatal hepatitis.‚ÄĚ4 Alpha-1-antitrypsin is a glycoprotein that accounts for a major portion of the alpha-1 globulin fraction of the serum.5 It is responsible for approximately 90 per cent of the antitrypsin activity6 of the serum, and it also inhibits several other plasma enzymes, including plasmin,7 elastase,8 collagenase,9 and. ¬© 1980, Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved
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