60,963 research outputs found

    Design and development of an equipment and its software for vibration measurement and analysis on machinery

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    En este trabajo, se desarrolla un instrumento electrónico conectable mediante USB a un PC dedicado a la medición y análisis de vibraciones en partes no rotativas de máquinas mediante el software también desarrollado en este proyecto. El software (compatible con Windows 7, Windows 8 y Windows 10 de 64 bits), es capaz de analizar vibraciones en un rango de 0 a 1100Hz en los tres ejes ortogonales, mostrando los niveles característicos de amplitud vibratoria en términos de aceleración, velocidad y desplazamiento: Valores RMS, pico, pico-pico y medio. También dispone de la capacidad de análisis de vibraciones en el dominio de frecuencias, pudiendo de este modo encontrar posibles fallos o averías en equipos de forma anticipada, gracias a las funciones de análisis de determinación de los valores de amplitud, en términos RMS o pico que este software incluye, lo que permite identificar picos en frecuencias específicas, así como la determinación de armónicos con exactitud. Además, incluye un filtro de frecuencias, que permite analizar en un determinado rango de las mismas, obteniendo los valores anteriormente citados, en el rango de frecuencias deseado. Asimismo, dispone de la opción de determinación del estado del equipo de acuerdo a la norma ISO 10816 y su nivel de vibración. Finalmente, el software es capaz de guardar los datos en forma de reporte en formato Word y/o en Excel para su posterior reprocesamiento, así como del guardado de gráficas.This project shows the development of an electronic instrument that can be connected via USB to a PC dedicated to the measurement and analysis of vibrations in non-rotating parts of machines using the developed software. The software (compatible with Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10 x64), is capable of analyzing vibrations in a range from 0 to 1100Hz in the three orthogonal axes, showing the characteristic levels of vibration amplitude in terms of acceleration, speed and displacement: RMS, peak, peak-peak and mean values. It also has the ability to analyze vibrations in the frequency domain, thus being able to find possible failures or breakdowns in equipment in advance, working with the analysis functions for determining amplitude values, in terms of RMS or peak that this software includes, allowing to identify peaks in specific frequencies, as well as the determination of harmonics with precision. In addition, it includes a frequency filter, which allows analyzing in a certain range of them, obtaining the aforementioned values, in the desired frequency range. It also has the option of determining the state of the equipment according to ISO 10816 and its level of vibration. Finally, the software is capable of saving the data in a report in Word format, and/or in Excel for subsequent reprocessing, as well as saving graphsGrado en Ingeniería Marítim

    Rail power conditioners based on modular multilevel converter in AC railway networks

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    Programa doutoral em Engenharia Electrónica e de ComputadoresRailway systems have progressively been developed since James Watt presented a technique of converting steam power into a circular movement back in 1763. With the novelty of steam engines at that time and the increasing of railway networks, railway industry quickly became an economic catalyst throughout the world due to the advantages of passenger and freight transport. In 1879, Siemens & Halske company introduced the world’s first electric train in the city of Berlin, consisting of a locomotive and three wagons, and supplied via an insulated third rail with 150 V direct current (DC). From that time, the world has begun to recognize the important transition from steam power to electric power, and the potential of the electrified railway as a mode of mass transport. Due to the plenty of fuel in the last century, Diesel trains were not only common, but they also dominated the railway sector for a few decades. Consequently, the development in the infrastructures of electric trains decelerated, and the path to having fully electrified trains was long enough. In this context, electric trains have introduced progressively, in which Diesel and electric power have been combined to create hybrid locomotives. However, and with the increased demand for transportation and the higher fuel prices in the last decades, electric trains can substantially offer lower operating costs and lower emissions compared with the Diesel-powered trains. Nowadays, most of the high-speed electric trains use alternating current (AC) power supply for their traction power systems, which provide better performance under long-distance power transmission than DC power supply. However, as the need for railway transportation increases due to more passengers and higher mobility requirements, more flexible and efficient traction systems are always needed. In Europe, AC traction power systems are mainly classified according to the voltage and frequency parameters (15 kV, 16.7 Hz) or (1×25 kV or 2×25 kV, 50 Hz). In all cases, railway operators have an absolute interest to run the electrified trains with the lowest possible operation and maintenance costs. In this context, power quality improvement at the three-phase power grid, associated with the AC electrified railway has drawn more attention in the last decades, especially after the evolution in the Power Electronics field. Subsequently, various solutions based on Power Electronics converters have been proposed to improve power quality in the electrified railway, e.g., the flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS). The rail power conditioner (RPC) is one of the FACTS devices that can be used to improve power quality by compensating harmonic contents, reactive power and negative sequence components of currents generated by the railway system. Among the other possible multilevel power converters, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an attractive solution for medium-voltage applications due to harmonics reduction, lower switching losses, and higher flexibility, scalability and reliability. Therefore, the MMC has been enhanced to be combined with the FACTS family. Taking into consideration the existing opportunities in the railway industry, not only in the development of the electric train itself, but also on the power quality improvement in the electrified railway, there is a strong investment in technological development for electrified railway systems. Therefore, this work presents a new topology of Power Electronics converter (RPC based on MMC) that compensates power quality problems associated with traction power systems, thus, reducing the operating costs of the electrified trains and increasing the power capacity of the electric traction grid. The main innovations of the RPC based on MMC are the integration of the MMC topology to operate as a railway power quality conditioner, benefiting from the advantages of the MMC in the traction power supply system. In this context, the research work proposed and developed in this Ph.D. thesis aimed to design, develop and validate a reduced-scale laboratory prototype of the RPC based on MMC, including all the necessary control algorithms and simulation models that are important to support the correct operation of the proposed system. Under simulation conditions, this work developed control algorithms for different RPC topologies, (full-bridge, half-bridge, three-wire, etc.) for demonstrating the general capabilities of the RPC system, and also for two different transformers connections (V/V and Scott). The most favorable RPC based on MMC topology (based on half-bridge MMC) was deeply and extensively simulated, namely employing predictive control approach. The experimental results obtained from a developed reduced-scale prototype confirm the validity of the presented control theory, as well as the power quality improvement capability of the proposed solution.Os sistemas ferrovias foram progressivamente desenvolvidos desde que James Watt apresentou uma técnica de conversão da energia a vapor para um movimento circular em 1763. Com a novidade dos motores a vapor e a sua implementação nas redes ferroviárias, a indústria ferroviária rapidamente se tornou um catalisador econômico em todo o mundo devido às vantagens no transporte de passageiros e mercadorias. Em 1879, a empresa Siemens & Halske introduziu o primeiro comboio elétrico do mundo na cidade de Berlim, consistindo numa locomotiva com três vagões, alimentado por um terceiro trilho isolado alimentado com corrente contínua em 150 V (CC). A partir desse momento, o mundo começou a reconhecer a importante transição da energia a vapor para a energia elétrica e o potencial na ferrovia eletrificada como um meio de transporte de massa. Devido à abundância de combustível fóssil no século passado, os comboios a Diesel não eram apenas comuns, mas também dominaram o setor ferroviário. Consequentemente, o desenvolvimento das infraestruturas dos comboios elétricos desacelerou, e o caminho para haver comboios totalmente eletrificados tornou-se bastante longo. Nesse contexto, os comboios elétricos começaram a impor-se progressivamente, inicialmente pela combinação do motor Diesel e do motor elétrico, resultando numa locomotiva híbrida. No entanto, com o aumento da demanda pelo transporte, e com o aumento do preço dos combustíveis nas últimas décadas, os comboios elétricos afirmaram-se por poderem oferecer custos operacionais mais baixos, assim como melhor desempenho ambiental. Atualmente, a maioria dos comboios elétricos de alta velocidade utilizam sistema de tração em corrente alternada (CA), que oferece melhor desempenho na transmissão de energia a longa distância do que sistema de tração em corrente contínua CC. No entanto, o aumento do transporte ferroviário requer a melhoria da eficiência energética devido a haver mais passageiros e maiores requisitos de mobilidade. Na Europa, os sistemas de tração elétrica são classificados principalmente de acordo com os parâmetros de tensão e frequência (15 kV, 16,7 Hz) ou (1×25 kV ou 2×25 kV, 50 Hz). Em ambos os casos, os operadores ferroviários têm interesse absoluto em otimizar os custos. Nesse contexto, a melhoria da qualidade de energia elétrica na ferrovia suscitou mais atenção nas últimas décadas, principalmente pela introdução da eletrônica de potência. Posteriormente, várias soluções baseadas em conversores de eletrônica de potência foram propostas para melhorar a qualidade de energia elétrica na ferrovia, como por exemplo, os sistemas flexíveis de transmissão CA (FACTS – Flexible AC Transmission Systems). O condicionador ativo de potência ferroviário (RPC – Rail Power Conditioner) é um dos dispositivos FACTS que pode ser usado para melhorar a qualidade da energia elétrica, compensando o conteúdo harmônico, a potência reativa e os componentes de sequência negativa das correntes. Por outro lado, o conversor multinível modular (MMC – Modular Multilevel Converter) é uma solução atraente para aplicações de média tensão, devido à redução dos harmónicos e das perdas de comutação, e ao aumento da flexibilidade, confiabilidade e escalabilidade. Deste modo, o MMC foi aprimorado para ser integrado na família FACTS. Levando em consideração as oportunidades existentes no setor ferroviário, não apenas no desenvolvimento do próprio comboio elétrico, mas também na melhoria da qualidade de energia elétrica na ferrovia, existe um forte investimento no desenvolvimento tecnológico para os sistemas ferroviários eletrificados. Assim sendo, este trabalho apresenta uma nova topologia de conversor de eletrônica de potência (RPC baseado em MMC) que compensa os problemas de qualidade de energia elétrica associados aos sistemas de tração, reduzindo os custos operacionais dos comboios elétricos e otimizando a qualidade de energia da rede elétrica. As inovações principais do RPC baseado em MMC são a integração da topologia do MMC para operar como condicionador de qualidade de energia elétrica na ferrovia, beneficiando das vantagens do MMC. Neste contexto, o trabalho de investigação proposto e desenvolvido nesta tese apontou como objetivo projetar, desenvolver e validar um protótipo laboratorial em escala reduzida do RPC baseado em MMC, incluindo todos os algoritmos de controlo necessários e os modelos de simulação que são importantes para suportar a operação correta do sistema. Sob condições de simulação, este trabalho desenvolveu algoritmos de controlo para diferentes topologias do RPC (ponte completa, meia ponte, três fios, etc.), para demonstrar as capacidades gerais do sistema do RPC, e também para dois transformadores diferentes (V/V e Scott). O RPC mais favorável baseado na topologia do MMC (baseado no MMC de meia ponte) foi profunda e extensivamente simulado, nomeadamente utilizando uma abordagem de controlo preditivo. As simulações e os resultados experimentais confirmam a validade da teoria de controlo apresentada, bem como a capacidade de melhoria da qualidade de energia elétrica na solução proposta.Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia – FCT), which allowed me to continue my studies with the PD/BD/127815/2016 Ph.D. scholarship under the Innovation in Railway Systems and Technologies Doctoral Program – iRail

    MAS: A versatile Landau-fluid eigenvalue code for plasma stability analysis in general geometry

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    We have developed a new global eigenvalue code, Multiscale Analysis for plasma Stabilities (MAS), for studying plasma problems with wave toroidal mode number n and frequency omega in a broad range of interest in general tokamak geometry, based on a five-field Landau-fluid description of thermal plasmas. Beyond keeping the necessary plasma fluid response, we further retain the important kinetic effects including diamagnetic drift, ion finite Larmor radius, finite parallel electric field, ion and electron Landau resonances in a self-consistent and non-perturbative manner without sacrificing the attractive efficiency in computation. The physical capabilities of the code are evaluated and examined in the aspects of both theory and simulation. In theory, the comprehensive Landau-fluid model implemented in MAS can be reduced to the well-known ideal MHD model, electrostatic ion-fluid model, and drift-kinetic model in various limits, which clearly delineates the physics validity regime. In simulation, MAS has been well benchmarked with theory and other gyrokinetic and kinetic-MHD hybrid codes in a manner of adopting the unified physical and numerical framework, which covers the kinetic Alfven wave, ion sound wave, low-n kink, high-n ion temperature gradient mode and kinetic ballooning mode. Moreover, MAS is successfully applied to model the Alfven eigenmode (AE) activities in DIII-D discharge #159243, which faithfully captures the frequency sweeping of RSAE, the tunneling damping of TAE, as well as the polarization characteristics of KBAE and BAAE being consistent with former gyrokinetic theory and simulation. With respect to the key progress contributed to the community, MAS has the advantage of combining rich physics ingredients, realistic global geometry and high computation efficiency together for plasma stability analysis in linear regime.Comment: 40 pages, 21 figure

    Security and Privacy Problems in Voice Assistant Applications: A Survey

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    Voice assistant applications have become omniscient nowadays. Two models that provide the two most important functions for real-life applications (i.e., Google Home, Amazon Alexa, Siri, etc.) are Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) models and Speaker Identification (SI) models. According to recent studies, security and privacy threats have also emerged with the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT). The security issues researched include attack techniques toward machine learning models and other hardware components widely used in voice assistant applications. The privacy issues include technical-wise information stealing and policy-wise privacy breaches. The voice assistant application takes a steadily growing market share every year, but their privacy and security issues never stopped causing huge economic losses and endangering users' personal sensitive information. Thus, it is important to have a comprehensive survey to outline the categorization of the current research regarding the security and privacy problems of voice assistant applications. This paper concludes and assesses five kinds of security attacks and three types of privacy threats in the papers published in the top-tier conferences of cyber security and voice domain.Comment: 5 figure

    Quantum Mechanics Lecture Notes. Selected Chapters

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    These are extended lecture notes of the quantum mechanics course which I am teaching in the Weizmann Institute of Science graduate physics program. They cover the topics listed below. The first four chapter are posted here. Their content is detailed on the next page. The other chapters are planned to be added in the coming months. 1. Motion in External Electromagnetic Field. Gauge Fields in Quantum Mechanics. 2. Quantum Mechanics of Electromagnetic Field 3. Photon-Matter Interactions 4. Quantization of the Schr\"odinger Field (The Second Quantization) 5. Open Systems. Density Matrix 6. Adiabatic Theory. The Berry Phase. The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation 7. Mean Field Approaches for Many Body Systems -- Fermions and Boson

    An iterative warping and clustering algorithm to estimate multiple wave-shape functions from a nonstationary oscillatory signal

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    Nonsinusoidal oscillatory signals are everywhere. In practice, the nonsinusoidal oscillatory pattern, modeled as a 1-periodic wave-shape function (WSF), might vary from cycle to cycle. When there are finite different WSFs, s1,…,sKs_1,\ldots,s_K, so that the WSF jumps from one to another suddenly, the different WSFs and jumps encode useful information. We present an iterative warping and clustering algorithm to estimate s1,…,sKs_1,\ldots,s_K from a nonstationary oscillatory signal with time-varying amplitude and frequency, and hence the change points of the WSFs. The algorithm is a novel combination of time-frequency analysis, singular value decomposition entropy and vector spectral clustering. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm with simulated and real signals, including the voice signal, arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram and accelerometer signal. Moreover, we provide a mathematical justification of the algorithm under the assumption that the amplitude and frequency of the signal are slowly time-varying and there are finite change points that model sudden changes from one wave-shape function to another one.Comment: 39 pages, 11 figure

    Excitation and voltage-gated modulation of single-mode dynamics in a planar nano-gap spin Hall nano-oscillator

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    We experimentally study the dynamical modes excited by current-induced spin-orbit torque and its electrostatic gating effect in a 3-terminal planar nano-gap spin Hall nano-oscillator (SHNO) with a moderate interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (IPMA). Both quasilinear propagating spin-wave and localized "bullet" modes are achieved and controlled by varying the applied in-plane magnetic field and driving current. The minimum linewidth shows a linear dependence on the actual temperature of the active area, confirming single-mode dynamics based on the nonlinear theory of spin-torque nano-oscillation with a single mode. The observed electrostatic gating tuning oscillation frequency arises from voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy and threshold current of SHNO via modification of the nonlinear damping and/or the interfacial spin-orbit coupling of the magnetic multilayer. In contrast to previously observed two-mode coexistence degrading the spectral purity in Py/Pt-based SHNOs with a negligible IPMA, a single coherent spin-wave mode with a low driven current can be achieved by selecting the ferromagnet layer with a suitable IPMA because the nonlinear mode coupling can be diminished by bringing in the PMA field to compensate the easy-plane shape anisotropy. Moreover, the simulations demonstrate that the experimentally observed current and gate-voltage modulation of auto-oscillation modes are also closely associated with the nonlinear damping and mode coupling, which are determined by the ellipticity of magnetization precession. The demonstrated nonlinear mode coupling mechanism and electrical control approach of spin-wave modes could provide the clue to facilitate the implementation of the mutual synchronization map for neuromorphic computing applications in SHNO array networks.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figure

    Wav2code: Restore Clean Speech Representations via Codebook Lookup for Noise-Robust ASR

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    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) has gained a remarkable success thanks to recent advances of deep learning, but it usually degrades significantly under real-world noisy conditions. Recent works introduce speech enhancement (SE) as front-end to improve speech quality, which is proved effective but may not be optimal for downstream ASR due to speech distortion problem. Based on that, latest works combine SE and currently popular self-supervised learning (SSL) to alleviate distortion and improve noise robustness. Despite the effectiveness, the speech distortion caused by conventional SE still cannot be completely eliminated. In this paper, we propose a self-supervised framework named Wav2code to implement a generalized SE without distortions for noise-robust ASR. First, in pre-training stage the clean speech representations from SSL model are sent to lookup a discrete codebook via nearest-neighbor feature matching, the resulted code sequence are then exploited to reconstruct the original clean representations, in order to store them in codebook as prior. Second, during finetuning we propose a Transformer-based code predictor to accurately predict clean codes by modeling the global dependency of input noisy representations, which enables discovery and restoration of high-quality clean representations without distortions. Furthermore, we propose an interactive feature fusion network to combine original noisy and the restored clean representations to consider both fidelity and quality, resulting in even more informative features for downstream ASR. Finally, experiments on both synthetic and real noisy datasets demonstrate that Wav2code can solve the speech distortion and improve ASR performance under various noisy conditions, resulting in stronger robustness.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, Submitted to IEEE/ACM TASL

    Improved Surge Predictions for a Turbocharger Compression System

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    To address the growing concerns of greenhouse gas emissions, automotive manufacturers are improving the fuel conversion efficiency of their engines by downsizing and turbocharging them. However, the low flow instability phenomenon known as surge, exhibited by the compression system of a turbocharger, limits the fuel economy benefits of a turbocharged engine. A computational model of the unsteady surge behavior, characterized by self-excited oscillations of pressure and flow rate, has been developed for a one-dimensional engine simulation code to predict varying degrees of surge and help the design and development of engines. A compressor map preprocessor extrapolates and interpolates experimental bench measurements to facilitate the predictions of mild and deep surge. The model has been improved by adjusting the compressor map generation algorithm to account for nonuniformities in the flow field of the compressor inlet duct at low velocities. The level of improvement the new model provides is determined by comparing predictions of the stable operating limit and the transition from mild to deep surge with the earlier model and experimental data. The predicted amplitude and time-averaged values of flow rate and pressure in deep and especially mild surge are closer to the experimental observations using the new model. The flow rates at which mild surge oscillations begin, and where they are greatest, are distinctly lower in the new model, locating the operating points closer to the true surge line of the experimental compressor map. While the improvement to deep surge predictions is less pronounced, the time-averaged flow rate and pressure fluctuations still are closer to the experimental results. Hence, demonstrated by a comparison to an earlier model and experimental measurements, the improved predictions of surge from the new model captures better the underlying physics of the undesired and detrimental instability modes. The new model will be incorporated into engine simulation codes to improve their accuracy, thereby facilitating more efficient energy conversion devices to better suit the needs of society.No embargoAcademic Major: Mechanical Engineerin

    Harmonic structure of the nonlinear force on a fixed ship-shaped floating production, storage and offloading vessel under dispersive phase-focused wave groups

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    This paper presents a numerical investigation on the harmonic structure of hydrodynamic forces on a fixed and simplified representative floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel hull under dispersive phase-focused wave groups. The high-fidelity numerical model utilizes the two-phase flow solver in the open-source toolbox OpenFOAM. A series of cases were computed using the numerical model, where the effects of wave steepness, bow diameter, and length of the FPSO are investigated. It is found that given an FPSO under different wave steepness, the non-dimensional inline force exhibits remarkable similarity in terms of the temporal development. The harmonic structure of the inline force is only weakly dependent on the steepness of the incident wave group and the bow diameter, but strongly dependent on the FPSO length. When [Formula: see text], where L is the length of the FPSO and kp is the wave number at peak frequency, the incident wave group is diffracted significantly by the FPSO. The entire wave–structure interaction process is largely linear, where transfer between different harmonics is rarely seen. However, when kpL is further reduced to 0.57, globally the disturbance of the FPSO on the far field incident wave group is reduced, but locally a strongly nonlinear flow occurs at the rear of the FPSO, where severe run-up occurs at the downstream stagnation point. Higher-order harmonics of inline forces are excited, and the interaction process becomes much more nonlinear
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