39,297 research outputs found

    Conhecimento ecológico local de ecossistemas marinhos vulneráveis na plataforma e talude continental portuguesa

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    Sponges and corals form highly structured and vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) that serve as refuge areas and feeding grounds for many marine species. Knowledge on the distribution of these VMEs is critical to ensure their sustainable management and conservation but is largely lacking in some areas. This study aimed to co-develop a knowledge baseline on the diversity and distribution of VME-indicator species (VMEIs) by assembling Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of professional fishers operating bottom-contacting gears in mainland North and Central Portugal. In total, 70 fishermen of commercial vessels (trawlers, gill- and trammel netters and bottom longliners) were interviewed in three fishing harbours (P√≥voa de Varzim, Matosinhos, Aveiro). We assessed fishers‚Äô LEK, by asking them to identify species from a catalogue, and provide information on their geographical and bathymetric distribution, and abundance. In total, 54 species in the catalogue were recognised by the fishermen, of which 33 are currently classified as indicators of various VME habitat types such as cold-water coral reefs, coral gardens, seapen fields and deep-sea sponge aggregations. The framework-forming scleractinian corals Dendrophyllia cornigera, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia ramea, alongside the soft coral Callogorgia verticillata, the red Corallium rubrum and the hydrocoral Errina dabneyi were the species most commonly recognised. Sponges were only occasionally recognised but among these, rock sponges (Neochrammeniella bowerbankii and Neophrissospongia nolitangere) and other demospongiae (Axinella infundibuliformis and Cliona celata) were the ones fishermen recognised most. The higher average number of species recognised by fishermen using gill-/trammel nets vs trawls reflects the communities associated with the type of seafloor (hard vs soft substrate) over which these two fleets operate. Level of fishing experience and role onboard doesn‚Äôt seem to influence their LEK. This study shows the immense potential of LEK as a tool for the possible precense of vulnerable marine ecosystems and provides a framework that could play an important role in the identification and codevelopment of area-based management tools (e.g., designation of MPAs), and other effective conservation measures (e.g., bottom-fisheries closures and move-on rule protocols). It could also inform potential restoration activities where these habitats may have been impacted. Ensuring that fishing communities are directly involved in these processes is likely to result in better management outcomes.As esponjas e corais formam ecossistemas marinhos vulner√°veis (VMEs) profundamente complexos e estruturantes que servem como √°reas de ref√ļgio e alimenta√ß√£o para muitas esp√©cies marinhas. O conhecimento sobre a distribui√ß√£o destes VME indicadores √© fundamental para garantir uma gest√£o e conserva√ß√£o sustent√°vel, que em algumas √°reas √© praticamente inexistente. Este estudo visa em desenvolver a cocria√ß√£o de uma base de conhecimento sobre a diversidade e distribui√ß√£o destas esp√©cies e habitats marinhos na plataforma e talude portugu√™s, utilizando, desta forma, o conhecimento ecol√≥gico local (CEL) das comunidades piscat√≥rias que operam com redes de pesca de contacto com o fundo. No total, foram entrevistados 70 pescadores (arrast√Ķes, redes de emalhar e tresmalho e de palangre de fundo) em tr√™s portos de pesca (P√≥voa de Varzim, Matosinhos, Aveiro). Investigamos o conhecimento dos pescadores, pedindo-lhes que identificassem as esp√©cies (a partir de um guia de imagens) e fornecessem informa√ß√Ķes sobre sua distribui√ß√£o geogr√°fica, batimetria e ocorr√™ncia. No total, 54 das 67 esp√©cies do cat√°logo foram reconhecidas. Os corais escleract√≠neos formadores de habitats, tais como Dendrophyllia cornigera, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia ramea e as gorg√≥nias Callogorgia verticillata, Corallium rubrum e o hidrocoral Errina dabneyi, foram as esp√©cies mais facilmente reconhecidas pelos pescadores. As Esponjas, foram ocasionalmente reconhecidas, sendo que o grupo das esponjas mais reconhecido pelos pescadores foram as litisitdas (Neochrammeniella bowerbankii e Neophrissospongia nolitangere) seguidas de outras demoesponjas (Axinella infundibuliformis e Cliona celata). A maioria dos pescadores da frota de redes de emalhar e tresmalho reconheceram em m√©dia um maior n√ļmero de esp√©cies em compara√ß√£o √† frota do arrasto devido ao diferente tipo de fundo onde estas frotas operam. Ao n√≠vel da experi√™ncia, o papel a bordo da embarca√ß√£o parece n√£o existir rela√ß√Ķes relevantes com o ECL. Este estudo mostra o imenso potencial que o CEL, pode ter quando aplicado como uma ferramenta na identifica√ß√£o da presen√ßa de ecossistemas marinhos vulner√°veis e √© capaz de fornecer uma estrutura que pode desempenhar um papel fundamental na identifica√ß√£o e desenvolvimento na aplica√ß√£o de medidas de gest√£o sobre √°reas que precisam de ser protegidas (AMPs), como outras medidas de conserva√ß√£o (restri√ß√£o de zonas de pesca). CEL tamb√©m √© capaz ajudar no desenvolvimento de medidas de restaura√ß√£o que permita que as comunidades piscat√≥rias estejam diretamente envolvidas na resolu√ß√£o e aplica√ß√£o de medidas de gest√£o.Mestrado em Biologia Marinha Aplicad

    Evaluation of economic loss caused by Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in agricultural land of district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

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    The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200,and(29.8, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300 annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem

    Contribuição ao sistema de gestão do laboratório de materiais de construção do curso de construção civil do Cefet-RJ

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    A ind√ļstria da constru√ß√£o civil responde por 15 a 50% do consumo de recursos naturais extra√≠dos no planeta (FINESTRA, 2009). Em decorr√™ncia, muitas dessas mat√©rias primas est√£o escasseando atualmente. A produ√ß√£o de materiais de constru√ß√£o tamb√©m contribui significativamente para a polui√ß√£o do planeta, com o lan√ßamento de gases e poeira na atmosfera. Al√©m disso, a constru√ß√£o civil √© a maior produtora de res√≠duos de toda a sociedade. No Brasil, a maior parte desses res√≠duos vai para dep√≥sitos inadequados (muitas vezes clandestinos), o que contribui expressivamente para a degrada√ß√£o do ecossistema (PORTAL COMPET, 2006). Este projeto repensou a utiliza√ß√£o do Laborat√≥rio de Materiais de Constru√ß√£o, caracterizando o espa√ßo √ļtil ‚Äď sua funcionalidade, as atividades ali realizadas, limita√ß√Ķes - bem como os materiais utilizados. A partir de um estudo diagn√≥stico realizado, estabeleceu-se crit√©rios para uma melhor gest√£o do mesmo e estudou-se possibilidades quanto √† redu√ß√£o da quantidade de materiais e insumos utilizados nas aulas, priorizando-se o reaproveitamento e/ou reciclagem do todo ou da maior parte destes.  Al√©m disso, espera-se que a presente pesquisa venha estimular os estudantes dos Cursos T√©cnicos de Constru√ß√£o Civil (Edifica√ß√Ķes e Estradas) a entenderem o papel da Gest√£o Ambiental ‚Äď tanto no ambiente acad√™mico quanto em um canteiro de obras. Assim, quando inseridos no mercado de trabalho, tornem-se multiplicadores e promovam uma mudan√ßa gradativa dos atuais e dispendiosos m√©todos hoje utilizados

    Acoustic activity of bats at power lines correlates with relative humidity: a potential role for corona discharges

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    With the ever-increasing dependency on electric power, electrical grid networks are expanding worldwide. Bats exhibit a wide diversity of foraging and flight behaviours, and their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors suggests this group is very likely to be affected by power lines in a myriad of ways. Yet the effects of power lines on bats remains unknown. Here we assessed the responses of insectivorous bats to very high voltage power lines (VHVPL; greater than 220 kV). We implemented a paired sampling design and monitored bats acoustically at 25 pairs, one pair consisting of one forest edge near to VHVPL matched with one control forest edge. Relative humidity mediates the effects of power lines on bats: we detected bat attraction to VHVPL at high relative humidity levels and avoidance of VHVPL by bats at low relative humidity levels. We argue that the former could be explained by insect attraction to the light emitted by VHVPL owing to corona discharges while the latter may be owing to the physical presence of pylons/cables at foraging height and/or because of electromagnetic fields. Our work highlights the response of bats to power lines at foraging habitats, providing new insight into the interactions between power lines and biodiversity

    Sullivan County Highlights 2022

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    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Educating to Deliver Environmentally Focused Social Innovation

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    The United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals provide clear direction for how we can develop a more sustainable world by 2030 and beyond, with key performance indicators across 17 goals. One of these goals, SDG15 Life on Land, aims to ‚Äėprotect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss‚Äô [1] and this has clear implications in the UK for the management of ancient woodland. In England ancient woodland is identified as those areas of woodland that have existed since the 17th century and they remain crucial areas of natural habitat and biodiversity in the English countryside [2]. However, outside of these ecosystem benefits, they also provide an environment for educating young people about sustainability and for delivering social innovations that support local communities socially and environmentally. This chapter explores how education within an ancient woodland setting can help to promote environmental awareness, as well as supporting the creation of social impact. Utilising the case-study of a social enterprise in England that maintains ancient woodland and educates socially excluded young people, the chapter seeks to argue that the hybrid mission of the organisation combined with its unique environmental location, provides the perfect model for supporting socially disadvantaged individuals to become the ‚Äėchangemakers‚Äô of tomorrow

    A Global Understanding Of The Factors Facilitating Plant Invasions.

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    Globalization has resulted in the anthropogenic movement of plant species, many of which have established and become invasive in their secondary ranges. A fundamental goal in invasion ecology is to understand the factors that contribute to successful establishment and spread of invasive species on a global scale. Given the likelihood of a future with increased international connections leading to introductions of plant species, understanding why some species are successful invaders and which ecosystems are susceptible to invasion continues to be crucial to development of effective preventative policy and management strategies. Although there is a large body of literature on determinants of invasion success, substantial gaps remain in how the effects of evolutionary history, global connectivity, and habitat suitability of native and introduced regions affect the propensity for a species to become invasive and the propensity for a region to be invaded. This dissertation research addresses these uncertainties with three independent but complementary studies using global databases: 1) evaluating the relative likelihood of successful plant invasions by comparing phylogenetic diversity, habitat suitability, and anthropogenic connectivity between native and non-native regions; 2) incorporating the effect of spatial scale on outcomes of those processes; and 3) determining contributing factors of regional invasibility and predicting potential future invasions. A global approach to invasion science is powerful in building a general understanding of factors that influence establishment and spread. Cumulatively, results showed that characteristics of invasive species’ native ranges were more important than characteristics of the invaded range when modeling invasiveness, namely phylogenetic diversity. In addition, this work highlighted the effects scale on factors of invasion success. Finally, we developed a novel method to quantify invasibility of regions and predict which regions have high potential for future invasions. Conclusions from this work suggest that development of effective preventative policy and management strategies should include diversity of invasive species’ native range. Furthermore, prevention of invasive species requires careful consideration of the future potential of invasibility. A global approach to invasion science is powerful in building a general understanding of factors that influence establishment and spread. The outcomes of this work have numerous implications for understanding global dynamics of how and why species invade
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