37,054 research outputs found

    Crime and Prejudice: Ming Criminal Justice as Seen in 16th Century Spanish Sources

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    胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨于1585年出版的 《中华大帝国史》第一次以西班牙语和葡萄 牙语全面整理了有关中国的记述。该书正面 记录了中国明朝司法制度,并探讨了这些司 法制度与当代西班牙和墨西哥司法制度之间 的巨大差别。其中包括对法律和公共框架的 曲解,公众对证人的质疑,多层面不同形式 的惩罚,经济上的惩罚以及死刑的场景。作 者在书中强调通过奖励和惩罚双重方式对各 级官员、下属大臣进行严格控制,以保证对 各级官员的选拔任用标准,这一点也曾在蒙 田对明代官员的评价中得到过体现。此外, 胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨还十分崇敬守护印 第安人的拉斯卡萨斯,他决定从他的文献中 删掉那些为对抗中国而向强硬派提供的所谓 正当权利的论辩,如洛阿尔卡所目睹的邪恶 和杜拉埃尼亚所描述的死刑等。 González de Mendoza’s book on China, published in 1585, compiled all the first narratives about China, both Portuguese and Spanish. It contains a highly positive account of Ming criminal justice in which he emphasizes those elements of Chinese justice that deeply contrasts with Spanish and Mexican practices: the legal and public frame of torture, the public questioning of witnesses, the multilayered revisions of penalties, the public placing of the monetary fines, and the mise en scène of the death penalty. He insistently highlights the strict control upon every layer of officers and inferior ministers through a double procedure of rewards and punishments that guarantees the high standing of Chinese officials, an appraisal that Montaigne would pick up in his extremely rare allusions to China. At the same time, González de Mendoza, a thorough admirer of father Las Casas, the defender of Indians, decided to omit from his sources those elements that could provide the hardliners with arguments, the just title, to confront China, such as the nefandous sin witnessed by Loarca and the death by a thousand cuts described by Dueñas

    Building body identities - exploring the world of female bodybuilders

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    This thesis explores how female bodybuilders seek to develop and maintain a viable sense of self despite being stigmatized by the gendered foundations of what Erving Goffman (1983) refers to as the 'interaction order'; the unavoidable presentational context in which identities are forged during the course of social life. Placed in the context of an overview of the historical treatment of women's bodies, and a concern with the development of bodybuilding as a specific form of body modification, the research draws upon a unique two year ethnographic study based in the South of England, complemented by interviews with twenty-six female bodybuilders, all of whom live in the U.K. By mapping these extraordinary women's lives, the research illuminates the pivotal spaces and essential lived experiences that make up the female bodybuilder. Whilst the women appear to be embarking on an 'empowering' radical body project for themselves, the consequences of their activity remains culturally ambivalent. This research exposes the 'Janus-faced' nature of female bodybuilding, exploring the ways in which the women negotiate, accommodate and resist pressures to engage in more orthodox and feminine activities and appearances

    The temporality of rhetoric: the spatialization of time in modern criticism

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    Every conception of criticism conceals a notion of time which informs the manner in which the critic conceives of history, representation and criticism itself. This thesis reveals the philosophies of time inherent in certain key modern critical concepts: allegory, irony and the sublime. Each concept opens a breach in time, a disruption of chronology. In each case this gap or aporia is emphatically closed, elided or denied. Taking the philosophy of time elaborated by Giorgio Agamben as an introductory proposition, my argument turns in Chapter One to the allegorical temporality which Walter Benjamin sees as the time of photography. The second chapter examines the aesthetics of the sublime as melancholic or mournful untimeliness. In Chapter Three, Paul de Man's conception of irony provides an exemplary instance of the denial of this troubling temporal predicament. In opposition to the foreclosure of the disturbing temporalities of criticism, history and representation, the thesis proposes a fundamental rethinking of the philosophy of time as it relates to these categories of reflection. In a reading of an inaugural meditation on the nature of time, and in examining certain key contemporary philosophical and critical texts, I argue for a critical attendance to that which eludes those modes of thought that attempt to map time as a recognizable and essentially spatial field. The Confessions of Augustine provide, in the fourth chapter, a model for thinking through the problems set up earlier: Augustine affords us, precisely, a means of conceiving of the gap or the interim. In the final chapter, this concept is developed with reference to the criticism of Arnold and Eliot, the fiction of Virginia Woolf and the philosophy of cinema derived from Deleuze and Lyotard. In conclusion, the philosophical implications of the thesis are placed in relation to a conception of the untimeliness of death

    Interactive Sonic Environments: Sonic artwork via gameplay experience

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of video-game technology in the design and implementation of interactive sonic centric artworks, the purpose of which is to create and contribute to the discourse and understanding of its effectiveness in electro-acoustic composition highlighting the creative process. Key research questions include: How can the language of electro-acoustic music be placed in a new framework derived from videogame aesthetics and technology? What new creative processes need to be considered when using this medium? Moreover, what aspects of 'play' should be considered when designing the systems? The findings of this study assert that composers and sonic art practitioners need little or no coding knowledge to create exciting applications and the myriad of options available to the composer when using video-game technology is limited only by imagination. Through a cyclic process of planning, building, testing and playing these applications the project revealed advantages and unique sonic opportunities in comparison to other sonic art installations. A portfolio of selected original compositions, both fixed and open are presented by the author to complement this study. The commentary serves to place the work in context with other practitioners in the field and to provide compositional approaches that have been taken

    The company she keeps : The social and interpersonal construction of girls same sex friendships

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    This thesis begins a critical analysis of girls' 'private' interpersonal and social relations as they are enacted within two school settings. It is the study of these marginal subordinated worlds productivity of forms of femininity which provides the main narrative of this project. I seek to understand these processes of (best) friendship construction through a feminist multi-disciplinary frame, drawing upon cultural studies, psychoanalysis and accounts of gender politics. I argue that the investments girls bring to their homosocial alliances and boundary drawing narry a psychological compulsion which is complexly connected to their own experiences within the mother/daughter bond as well as reflecting positively an immense social debt to the permissions girls have to be nurturant and ; negatively their own reproduction of oppressive exclusionary practices. Best friendship in particular gives girls therefore, the experience of 'monogamy' continuous of maternal/daughter identification, reminiscent of their positioning inside monopolistic forms of heterosexuality. But these subcultures also represent a subversive discontinuity to the public dominance of boys/teachers/adults in schools and to the ideologies and practices of heterosociality and heterosexuality. By taking seriously their transmission of the values of friendship in their chosen form of notes and diaries for example, I was able to access the means whereby they were able to resist their surveillance and control by those in power over them. I conclude by arguing that it is through a recognition of the valency of these indivisiblly positive and negative aspects to girls cultures that Equal Opportunities practitioners must begin if they are serious about their ambitions. Methods have to be made which enable girls to transfer their 'private' solidarities into the 'public' realm, which unquestionably demands contesting with them the causes and consequences of their implication in the divisions which also contaminate their lives and weaken them

    Facile cellulase immobilisation on bioinspired silica

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    Cellulases are enzymes with great potential for converting biomass to biofuels for sustainable energy. However, their commercial use is limited by their costs and low reusability. Therefore, the scientific and industrial sectors are focusing on finding better strategies to reuse enzymes and improve their performance. In this work, cellulase from Aspergillus niger was immobilised through in situ entrapment and adsorption on bio-inspired silica (BIS) supports. To the best of our knowledge, this green effect strategy has never been applied for cellulase into BIS. In situ entrapment was performed during support synthesis, applying a one-pot approach at mild conditions (room temperature, pH 7, and water solvent), while adsorption was performed after support formation. The loading efficiency was investigated on different immobilisation systems by Bradford assay and FTIR. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as a control to optimize cellulase loading. The residual activity of cellulase was analysed by the dinitro salicylic acid (DNS) method. Activity of 90% was observed for the entrapped enzyme, while activity of ~55% was observed for the adsorbed enzyme. Moreover, the supported enzyme systems were recycled five times to evaluate their reuse potential. The thermal and pH stability tests suggested that both entrapment and adsorption strategies can increase enzyme activity. The results highlight that the entrapment in BIS is a potentially useful strategy to easily immobilise enzymes, while preserving their stability and recycle potential

    Botanical Journeys and China's Colonial Frontiers: 1840-1940

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    Over recent years, a body of scholarship has emerged on the topic of European and American travel writing in China. This thesis contributes to this growing field by examining four writers who travelled in China and worked as plant collectors and botanists. Largely forgotten today, these writers were influential and successful in their own day. Despite differences in geographical location and historical period, there are a number of common links that make a comparison of these travel writings productive. As travellers seeking botanical rarity and novelty, these writers explored regions of China unknown in the West, which over a period of one hundred years expanded outwards from the fringes of the treaty port areas to more remote regions of China's southwest. These writers, therefore, were on the frontiers of Western knowledge of China, and an examination of their writing provides important insights into the ways in which racial, geographical, and ecological differences were articulated and understood in the context of colonial and scientific exploration. While discussing how such differences have imperial significance, this study will also call attention to the instability of colonialist discourse in the context of China. Rather than focus exclusively on questions of imperialism, this study will show how representations of China's periphery regions also speak to metropolitan literary and cultural concerns, and a close reading of these travel writings shows that China offered powerful imaginary landscapes for home audiences. This project is organised chronologically and the chapters are divided according to the authors, with the exception of the first chapter where I introduce the historical and theoretical framework of the study and the final concluding chapter where I consider the significance of this study in the context of modern China

    In search of 'The people of La Manche': A comparative study of funerary practices in the Transmanche region during the late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (250BC-1500BC)

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    This research project sets out to discover whether archaeological evidence dating between 2500 BC - 1500 BC from supposed funerary contexts in Kent, flanders and north-eastern Transmanche France is sufficient to make valid comparisons between social and cultural structures on either side of the short-sea Channel region. Evidence from the beginning of the period primarily comes in the form of the widespread Beaker phenomenon. Chapter 5 shows that this class of data is abundant in Kent but quite sparse in the Continental zones - most probably because it has not survived well. This problem also affects the human depositional evidence catalogued in Chapter 6, particularly in Fanders but also in north-eastern Transmanche France. This constricts comparative analysis, however, the abundant data from Kent means that general trends are still discernible. The quality and volume of data relating to the distribution, location, morphology and use of circular monuments in all three zones is far better - as demonstrated in Chapter 7 -mostly due to extensive aerial surveying over several decades. When the datasets are taken as a whole, it becomes possible to successfully apply various forms of comparative analyses. Most remarkably, this has revealed that some monuments apparently have encoded within them a sophisticated and potentially symbolically charged geometric shape. This, along with other less contentious evidence, demonstrates a level of conformity that strongly suggests a stratum of cultural homogeneity existed throughout the Transmanche region during the period 2500 BC - 1500 BC. The fact that such changes as are apparent seem to have developed simultaneously in each of the zones adds additional weight to the theory that contact throughout the Transmanche region was endemic. Even so, it may not have been continuous; there may actually have been times of relative isolation - the data is simply too course to eliminate such a possibility

    Study of models for the nominal power characterization of a photovoltaic generator and the power estimation of different photovoltaic technologies in Lima, Peru

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    This work investigates two main aspects related to photovoltaic: systems and module characterization and performance modeling. The first part aims to characterize a PV generator located in Spain with a nominal power of 109.44 kW under standard test conditions according to the datasheet. An operational photovoltaic system's nominal power is a valid parameter for determining its current operational state. The applicability of a standard procedure to estimate the nominal power of an operating generator, proposed by Martínez-Moreno and based on Osterwald's model, is investigated. However, the standard procedure does not specify how to deal with experimental data when unexpected behavior impedes the nominal power estimation under operating conditions. During the 6-month study, the power-irradiance relation showed a hysteresis effect with varying amplitudes throughout the campaign. Adding a data filter that removes the non-linear part of the data proves necessary to estimate the nominal power, complementing Martinez-Moreno's procedure to enable the generators' characterization. The second part contributes to closing a knowledge gap in the performance behavior and predictability of multiple PV technologies in Peru. The quality of two simple analytical models for estimating the outdoor performance of three different photovoltaic module technologies in Lima was investigated. Osterwald's and the Constant Fill Factor models were applied to estimate the maximum power delivered by an Aluminum Back Surface Field, a Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin-layer, and an amorphous/microcrystalline thin-film tandem PV module. The results point that both models overestimate the expected power compared to the measured one. Implementing a correction factor adjusts the estimated maximum power by both models. This correction factor allows us to estimate losses, calculate an adequate nominal power and minimize the estimated power error. The normalized root mean square error and mean bias error determine the implemented methodology's quality. The two crystalline silicon-based technologies present a similar behavior throughout the year. However, both differ considerably from the tandem one during different months, implying that the ambient variables have other seasonal impacts on their performance

    Factors influencing the ground thermal regime in a mid-latitude glacial cirque (Hoyo Empedrado, Cantabrian Mountains, 2006–2020)

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    .Air and near-surface ground temperatures were measured using dataloggers over 14 years (2006–2020) in 10 locations at 2262 to 2471 m.a.s.l. in a glacial cirque of the Cantabrian Mountains. These sites exhibit relevant differences in terms of substrate, solar radiation, orientation, and geomorphology. Basal temperature of snow (BTS) measurements and electrical resistivity tomography of the talus slope were also performed. The mean annual near-surface ground temperatures ranged from 5.1 °C on the sunny slope to 0.2 °C in the rock glacier furrow, while the mean annual air temperature was 2.5 °C. Snow cover was inferred from near-surface ground temperature (GST) data, estimating between 130 and 275 days per year and 0.5 to 7.1 m snow thickness. Temperature and BTS data show that the lowest part of the talus slope and the rock glacier furrow are the coldest places in this cirque, coinciding with a more persistent and thickest snow cover. The highest temperatures coincide with less snow cover, fine-grained soils, and higher solar radiation. Snow cover has a primary role in controlling GST, as the delayed appearance in autumn or delayed disappearance in spring have a cooling effect, but no correlation with mean annual near-surface ground temperatures exists. Heavy rain-over-snow events have an important influence on the GST. In the talus slope, air circulation during the snow-covered period produces a cooling effect in the lower part, especially during the summer. Significant inter-annual GST differences were observed that exhibited BTS limitations. A slight positive temperature trend was detected but without statistically significance and less prominent than nearby reference official meteorological stations, so topoclimatic conditions reduced the more global positive temperature trend. Probable existence of permafrost in the rock glacier furrow and the lowest part of the talus slope is claimed; however, future work is necessary to confirm this aspect.S
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