2 research outputs found

    The making of a modern art world : The institutionalisation of Guohua in Shanghai, 1929-1937.

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    Using guohua, the indigenous art form of China, as the point of entry, this thesis seeks to explore and interrogate the discourse both of guohua itself, and the wider discourse of Chinese modernism in the visual arts. It does this through examining newly adopted modem artistic practices of the Republican period, namely; art associations, journals, exhibitions, and the art market. Guohua, literally 'national painting', was a new term and new concept which has long been associated in the standard narrative of modern Chinese art history with tradition, backwardness, and conservatism. It is the aim of this thesis to correct the mistaken reading of guohua as essentially 'traditional', by closely analyzing primary source materials, mainly newspapers and magazines, published in the Republican period. Adopting the concept of 'artistic field' postulated by Pierre Bourdieu, this thesis will reconstruct the 'logic of the field' in the Shanghai art world of the Republican era. In the light of the sociological definition of 'art world', the thesis attempt to contextualize the visual arts through concentrating on the modes of production and consumption of painting in Shanghai. Focusing on the years 1929 to 1937, this research demonstrates how the young generation of guohua artists appropriated new practices and embraced new attitudes towards the artistic profession, and in doing so professionalized and institutionalized guohua. The chapters are thematically organized to deal with modem artistic practices from the art society to the art market, aiming to unpack the discursive practices of guohua, and to redefine and redefine the discourse of modern China and Chinese modernity

    Changing Tastes: Purchase Choice in Urban China.

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    Food purchase options have expanded greatly in urban areas in the People\u27s Republic of China as a result of recent market reforms. Still, given the influences sociocultural factors, the restructuring of food consumption in China need not be expected to follow patterns observed in the West. This investigation of food purchase behavior was based on a ten-month period of field study in Nanjing, China. The adoption of time related food purchase behaviors was studied, including use of processed food, restaurant use, and frequency of food shopping trips. Food consumption habits were investigated in the context of how these patterns contribute to the economic efficiency of the household, as well as the definition, maintenance, and enhancement of social identities and relationships. Methods used to investigate food consumption patterns included participant observation, structured observations of food shopping, household inventories, focus groups of primary food shoppers, food retailer interviews, and study of the popular media. Following a pretest of the measures, a representative sample of 330 primary food purchasers in the 11 zip code areas of Nanjing were surveyed via household interviews. These data were used to test a structural equation model linking sociocultural and economic factors to time reduction food purchase behaviors. The results of the study indicate that the availability of both time and money are important predictors of use of time related products of many types, but that attitudes toward change in general are also important influences. In addition, the findings from this study reinforce a growing stream of research that finds that consumption choices are linked to self definition and the maintenance of relationships. Food consumption patterns are rooted in a cultural ideology, influenced by material needs, but relying more on history, habit, inertia, and an aesthetic sensibility to shape consumption patterns. For urban Chinese food shoppers, maintaining traditional patterns of food consumption serves to reinforce the importance of family stability and ritual amidst the whirlwind of change