377,520 research outputs found

    Priorities for Reducing Phosphorus Loadings and Abating Algal Blooms in the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River Basin: Opportunities and Challenges for Improving Great Lakes Aquatic Ecosystems

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    The impact of phosphorus loadings to the Great Lakes is once again threatening the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River ecosystem. These impacts are especially pronounced in nearshore areas and embayments, which are often the most ecologically productive and diverse areas of the system. Algal blooms fed by excessive phosphorus from various nonpoint and point sources are occurring in each of the Great Lakes, but especially Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron, Green Bay on Lake Michigan and nearshore areas of Lake Ontario. In western Lake Erie the re-emergence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in recent years has been especially troubling, coming after nearly two decades of little or no occurrence of these blooms. As a result of this alarming trend, the Great Lakes Commission adopted a resolution, Nutrient Management in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin, on October 12, 2011. This resolution, included as Appendix A, underscored the seriousness of the problem and called for the establishment of a Phosphorus Reduction Task Force consisting of members from each state and province in the Great Lakes region. The states and provinces appointed members to the Task Force in November 2011. The Task Force included representatives from environmental protection, natural resource and agricultural agencies; a list of Task Force members is included as Appendix B. The Task Force’s charge was to develop phosphorus reduction recommendations to guide the Commission’s work in this critically important area. The specific charge to the Task Force included: 1. Developing a suite of recommendations for federal, state and provincial actions to reduce phosphorus loadings to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, focused on priorities for clean water infrastructure, research, technical assistance, and outreach and education; 2. Reviewing opportunities for expanding and enhancing programs under the 2012 Farm Bill to reduce phosphorus and improve nutrient management for water quality improvement; and 3. Investigating opportunities to address critical nutrient management issues by working more closely with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and its technical committees in each state. This report addresses the first two of these charges. Task three is ongoing and will be informed by the recommendations in this report. When received by the Commission at its 2012 Annual Meeting, this report will guide interactions with the state technical committees and similar bodies in Ontario and Québec. While completing the programs report, the Task Force considered how to best present the priority issues facing the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin related to phosphorus loadings and impacts. Ultimately, it decided to prepare in-depth summaries describing emerging issues, unmet needs and unanswered questions on the following topics: 1. Phosphorus issues related to nonpoint source pollution; 2. Phosphorus issues related to point source pollution; and 3. Phosphorus issues related to product formulation, innovation, research and regulation. This report is presented as a product of the Phosphorus Reduction Task Force of the Great Lakes Commission. The Commission appreciates the valuable contributions from the Task Force members, their expertise and the time they devoted to reviewing this report as it was prepared

    Great Lakes Airline Accident Investigation Report

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    A Douglas C-54-G, N 30070, operated by Great Lakes Airlines, Inc., made an emergency landing off the runway at the Gage Oklahoma Airport, at 0320 on June 15, 1954. The emergency landing was made because of an uncontrollable fire in the number 3 engine nacelle. There were no injuries to passengers or crew. The aircraft was destroyed by fire

    Great Lakes Research Review 2001

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    Several years ago, staff from the Great Lakes Program, the Great Lakes Research Consortium, and New York Sea Grant realized an information gap existed between peer reviewed journal articles and newsletter type information related to Great Lakes research. The Great Lakes Research Review was created to fill that gap by providing a substantive overview of research being conducted throughout the basin. It is designed to inform researchers, policy-makers, educators, managers and stakeholders about Great Lakes research efforts, particularly but not exclusively being conducted by scientists affilliated with the Consortium and its member institutions. Each issue has a special theme. Past issues have focused on the fate and transport of toxic substances, the effects of toxics, fisheries issues, and exotic species. The most recent volumes have focused on the Lake Ontario, St. Lawrence River and Lake Erie Ecosystems. The present issue is the second of two describing work related to Lake Erie. We gratefully acknowledge all of the contributing authors who willingly share their research efforts for this publication

    Great Lakes Research Review 2002

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    Eight years ago, staff from the Great Lakes Program, the Great Lakes Research Consortium, and New York Sea Grant realized an information gap existed between peer reviewed journal articles and newsletter type information related to Great Lakes research. The Great Lakes Research Review was created to fill that gap by providing a substantive overview of research being conducted throughout the basin. It is designed to inform researchers, policymakers, educators, managers and stakeholders about Great Lakes research efforts, particularly but not exclusively being conducted by scientists affiliated with the Consortium and its member institutions. Each issue has a special theme. Past issues have focused on the fate and transport of toxic substances, the effects of toxics, fisheries issues, and exotic species. The most recent volumes have focused on the Lake Ontario, St. Lawrence River and Lake Erie Ecosystems. The present issue is the first of two describing projects funded through the New York State Great Lakes Protection Fund. We gratefully acknowledge all of the contributing authors who willingly share their efforts for this publication

    Great Lakes Research Review 1999

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    The present issue is the second of two volumes describing some of the work related to the Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River ecosystem. These issues have been prepared in conjunction with our St. Lawrence River-Lake Ontario (SLRLO) Research Initiative which is organizing research teams to improve understanding of these linked systems and their relationships and to support the Lake Ontario Lakewide Management Plan and the restoration and protection of the St. Lawrence River. For more information about SLRLO, contact Jack Manno at [email protected] or David Lean at [email protected]

    Great Lakes Research Review 2000

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    Several years ago, staff from the Great Lakes Program, the Great Lakes Research Consortium, and New York Sea Grant realized an information gap existed between peer reviewed journal articles and newsletter type information related to Great Lakes research. The Great Lakes Research Review was created to fill that gap by offering a substantive overview of research being conducted throughout the basin. This publication is designed to inform researchers, policy-makers, educators, managers, and stakeholders about Great Lakes research efforts

    A Synthesis of Ecological and Fish-Community Changes in Lake Ontario, 1970-2000

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    We assessed stressors associated with ecological and fishcommunity changes in Lake Ontario since 1970, when the first symposium on Salmonid Communities in Oligotrophic Lakes (SCOL I) was held (J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 613-616). Phosphorus controls implemented in the early 1970s were undeniably successful; lower food-web studies showed declines in algal abundance and epilimnetic zooplankton production and a shift in pelagic primary productivity toward smaller organisms. Stressors on the fish community prior to 1970 such as exploitation, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, and effects of nuisance populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) were largely ameliorated by the 1990s. The alewife became a pivotal species supporting a multi-million-dollar salmonid sport fishery, but alewife-induced thiamine deficiency continued to hamper restoration and sustainability of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Expanding salmonine populations dependent on alewife raised concerns about predator demand and prey supply, leading to reductions in salmonine stocking in the early 1990s. Relaxation of the predation impact by alewives and their shift to deeper water allowed recovery of native fishes such as threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides). The return of the Lake Ontario ecosystem to historical conditions has been impeded by unplanned introductions. Establishment of Dreissena spp. led to increased water clarity and increased vectoring of lower trophic-level production to benthic habitats and contributed to the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, behavioral modifications of key fish species, and the decline of native lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Despite reduced productivity, exotic-species introductions, and changes in the fish community, offshore Mysis relicta populations remained relatively stable. The effects of climate and climate change on the population abundance and dynamics of Lake Ontario fish were unknown at the time of SCOL I, but a temperature-time series begun in the late 1950s in the Kingston Basin has since provided evidence of climate warming and associated fishcommunity changes. We should expect ecological surprises in the coming decades that will challenge scientists and fishery managers especially as they face new exotic species, climate warming, and escalating stakeholder demands on the resource. Continuous long-term ecological studies were critical for interpreting changes in Lake Ontario’s fish community over the past three decades and will be essential in the future for both scientific understanding and management of the fishery

    Great Lakes Research Review 2004

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    Several years ago, staff from the Great Lakes Program, the Great Lakes Research Consortium, and New York Sea Grant realized an information gap existed between peer reviewed journal articles and newsletter type information related to Great Lakes research. The Great Lakes Research Review was created to fill that gap by providing a substantive overview of research being conducted throughout the basin. It is designed to inform researchers, policymakers, educators, managers and stakeholders about Great Lakes research efforts, particularly but not exclusively being conducted by scientists affilliated with the Consortium and its member institutions. Each issue has a special theme. Past issues have focused on the fate and transport of toxic substances, the effects of toxics, fisheries issues, and exotic species. The most recent volumes have focused on the Lake Ontario, St. Lawrence River and Lake Erie ecosystems, and the research of the New York Great Lakes Protection Fund. The present issue describes some of the research by the MERHAB Project. We gratefully acknowledge all of the contributing authors who willingly shared their research efforts for this publication, especially Greg Boyer for his assistancewith editing and organizing authors. We also wish to thank the SUNY ESF Office of News and Publications for assistance

    6. ECAP School Review Report (SRR)

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