13,856 research outputs found

    К палеоантропологии средневекового населения Поволжья

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    Physical appearance of the population of the Golden Horde resulted from interbreeding of representatives of two big races, i.e. the Mongoloid and the Caucasoid. The presence of the Mongoloid component is to some extent manifested in the appearance of inhabitants of all the Golden Horde towns. Nevertheless, it is the Caucasoid features that prevailed in urban population

    К палеоантропологии средневекового населения Поволжья

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    Physical appearance of the population of the Golden Horde resulted from interbreeding of representatives of two big races, i.e. the Mongoloid and the Caucasoid. The presence of the Mongoloid component is to some extent manifested in the appearance of inhabitants of all the Golden Horde towns. Nevertheless, it is the Caucasoid features that prevailed in urban population

    Written heritage of the golden horde

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    © 2018, Universidad del Zulia. All rights reserved. The article aims to consider the written heritage of the Golden Horde. This study’s methodological basis is the dialectical method of cognition of social and historical literature. Having analyzed the works by leading Turkic and Tatar poets of the Golden Horde such as Qutb, Kyatib, and many others, the authors stress that the Golden Horde created favorable opportunities for the development of literature, and the latter indeed flourished in that period. As a conclusion, the Golden Horde had a great impact on the formation of statehood and the spiritual life of the peoples living in Eurasia and partially North Africa

    Монетное обращение золотоордынского города Маджар

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    Majar, one of the largest towns of the Golden Horde, was located on the left bank of the middle Kuma river. The written sources contain no information about the time of its foundation whereas its destruction is connected with the capture of the town by Timur’s troops in 1395. Sporadic studies of different degree of preservation of Majar ruins located on the territory of modern Budyonnovsk town and its outskirts have been conducted for 3 centuries. However, the results of these investigations are much more modest than those of ancient hillforts of other Golden Horde towns of the same status, such as Bulghar, Saray, and Gulistan. The paper is targeted at detailed studying of one of the most important sides of a medieval town life, i.e. its monetary circulation

    EGY ELFELEDETT MAGYAR FERENCES PASSIÓJÁRÓL : VALLÁSI PROBLÉMÁK AZ ARANY HORDÁBAN

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    In the last decades of the 13th and in the first half of 14th century, Hungarian Franciscans played an important role in the Christian proselytization conversion of the Golden Horde. Some of them achieved a great career in the court of the Golden Horde’s Khans. For example, Elias of Hungary was not only a trusted friend of Özbek and also of his son, but he was entrusted with a mission to the Pope; others, like the protagonist of my paper, died as a martyr in the 14th century. The Hungarian Franciscan friar, Stephan (Stephanus de Hungaria) was executed in Sarai, the centre of the Golden Horde in April of 1334. There are a lot of references to his martyrdom in the sources of the Franciscan Order and some of them contain details of the events leading to his execution and about his death. The most important is the Chronicle of the Twenty-Four Generals of the Order of Friars Minor (Chronica viginti quattuor generalium ordinis minorum) written by Arnald of Sarrant in 1360–1370s. Although, Stephan’s passio is characterized by general characteristics of its genre, it contains a lot of useful information on the history of the Golden Horde and the history of the Christian missions on its territory. Some information of the passio can contribute to refining and clarifying other disputed data concerning the history of the region. This paper introduces the passio and analyses its historical data

    Periodization of Urban Development in the Golden Horde State

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    The paper attempts to find regularities in the process of formation, development and disappearance of the towns of the Golden Horde State. The emergence of a large number of big and medium-sized towns in the Eastern European steppe in a short period by historical standards and their equally rapid disappearance is probably the most striking phenomenon in the history of the Golden Horde. This process largely depended on the evolution and well-being of the still understudied sedentary rural settlements. Seven periods in the history of urban development of the Golden Horde are defined, each having its characteristic features and regularities. On the whole, the process of foundation, development and disappearance of Golden Horde cities covered a chronological range of under two centuries from the 1240s to the 1420s

    Livonian source information about Tatars

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    Relevance of the issue under study is caused by the necessity to expand the source of study database of the history and culture of Tatars of the 13th - 16th cent. The purpose of the article lies in revealing the data about Tatars in the Livonian written sources of the XIII – XVI cent. The main approach to the study of this issue is the problematic chronological approach. Main results of the study lay in the expansion and addition of the information on history and culture of the Ulus of Jochi (The Golden Horde) and of Tatar states – her heirs. There are selected main groups of Livonian written sources. Materials may be useful for researchers of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde, the Tatar khanates of Eastern Europe.peer-reviewe

    Agriculture, cattle breeding and trade in the Golden Horde based on data from written sources

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    This article examines data available from written sources on agriculture, cattle breeding and trade in Ulus Jochi. According to archaeological data, in the Golden Horde, millet was the most widely cultivated crop, followed by rye, wheat, barley, oat and peas. Besides agriculture and cattle breeding, special attention is devoted to examining characteristic features of hunting and fishing. Such trades as salt extraction and the gathering of honey, nuts, grasses and roots are also briefly characterised. Medieval authors clearly noted millet cultivation in the Golden Horde state. Italian and Byzantine merchants bought different kinds of grains from the Golden Horde: namely, wheat, millet and barley, in order of preference. Along with agriculture, cattle breeding was one of the economic bases of the Golden Horde state. It was developed not only in the nomadic economy, in which it served as way of life, but also amongst the settled population. Cattle breeding was carried out for the purpose of obtaining not only meat, but also milk, wool and leather. The Golden Horde exported cattle in large quantities. Hunting was mostly carried out for the purpose of obtaining furs, and had little significance as a source of meat. The furs (which mainly came from the northern regions of the territory) were one of the most important items actively exported by the Golden Horde. Italian merchants imported dried and salted whole fish, as well as cured fillets of fish (primarily sturgeon), and caviar from the Golden Horde. Salt extraction was closely connected with the salting and drying of fish. Wild hive beekeeping was also of some importance. Honey and beeswax were exported by Ulus Jochi, while honey, grasses and roots were gathered for food by the local population. This study will be significant for historians, archaeologists and linguists whose research is in medieval studies

    The Lotus-Shape Applique with a Dragon Image from Nerevsky Site in Veliky Novgorod

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    The material culture of Veliky Novgorod of XIII–XIV centuries shows a pronounced influence of Eastern fine art, brought by new contacts with the vast art world of the Golden Horde. Along with mass-scale artefacts distinguished artistic objects come across. One of them is the horn lotus-shaped applique with a dragon image from the Nerevsky site in Veliky Novgorod. This image has a number of stylistic analogies among archaeological artefacts of Golden Horde cities. The main problem of the article deals with the analysis of the origin of this image. The Golden Horde art was formed by strong influence of China. This process was reflected in some artistic objects, which were decorated with dragon images with typical style and iconography. Veliky Novgorod dragon, like other similar images, doesn’t find absolute analogies among the Golden Horde items, inspired by the Yuan Dynasty. These features demonstrate the hybrid nature of the artistic image from Veliky Novgorod

    “Рядовое” позднекочевническое погребение с нерядовым обрядом из кургана 2 группы Токовские Могилы на Правобережье Днепра

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    The paper gives a detailed analysis of a burial of a female nomad of the Golden Horde time unusual by its ceremonial attributes which has been found near Tokovskoie settlement on the right bank of the Dnieper
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