902,017 research outputs found

    Genetic Variation of MtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) in Local Swamp Buffaloes in Indonesia

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    The objective of this research was to identify genetic variation of mitochondria DNA especially in cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) among population of Indonesian buffaloes. Samples of swamp buffaloes were collected from Aceh (n= 3), North Sumatra (n= 3), Riau (n= 3), Banten (n= 3), Central Java (n= 3), West Nusa Tenggara (n= 3) and South Sulawesi (n= 3), and riverine buffalo from North Sumatra (n= 1) out of group for comparison. Sequence of COI was analyzed using MEGA 5.10 software with neighbor-joining method kimura 2-parameter model to reconstruct phylogeny tree. The result showed that three haplotypes for swamp buffalo and one haplotype for riverine buffalo in Indonesia resulted from 41 polymorphic sites. This finding showed that the COI gene could be considered as a marker to distinguish among swamp buffaloes in Indonesia

    Genetic Variation for Striga hermonthica Resistance and Yield Among Sorghum Accessions in Nigeria

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    Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth., commonly referred to as witch weed, is a major constraint to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) production in the Northern region of Nigeria because of high yield losses due to infestation. To identify parental lines useful in breeding for S. hermonthica resistant sorghum genotypes adapted to Nigeria, twenty-five sorghum accessions were evaluated in Nigeria across three test environments. Both phenotypic and genetic components influenced the variation observed in the sorghum accessions. The estimates for the genetic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance for the area under Striga number progress curve (ASUNPC), Striga emergence counts, yield and other agronomic traits, obtained in this study revealed that genetic gain for resistance to S. hermonthica could be realized through selection. Based on the performance of the 25 sorghum accessions SRN39, Danyana, Sepon82, and SAMSORG40 were the top four accessions found to be most resistant to S. hermonthica. Assessment of resistance was based on the low Striga emergence counts and the ASUNPC values. These accessions can be used as donor sources of S. hermonthica resistant genes for introgression into cultivars adapted to Nigeria, followed by recombination breeding for pyramiding the different resistance mechanisms

    Genetic Variation of Leafhopper, Nephotettix Virescens Distant Active Transmitters From Endemic and Non Endemic Areas of Rice Tungro Disease Based on RAPD Marker

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    Genetic variation of leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens Distant active transmitters from endemic and non endemic areas of rice tungro disease based on RAPD marker. Leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) plays an important role as a vector of rice tungro virus. However, the characters of N. virescens as a vector from endemic and non-endemic areas of tungro disease in Indonesia have not been well characterized and also available information is limited. The objective of this research was to study the character of N. virescens active transmitter from endemic and non-endemic of areas tungro disease based on RAPD markers. The N. virescens were collected from endemic area of Klaten (Central Java), Sleman (Yogyakarta) and non endemic area of Purwodadi (Central Java) Ngawi (East Java), and Pacitan (East Java). The N. virescens active transmitters were identified by their ability to transmit the virus based on Standard Evaluation System for Rice Tungro Virus, issued by IRRI. The genetic variations of N. virescens active transmitters were determined by using RAPD-PCR marker. Result of the research showed that three primers, OPB01, OPB10 and OPC08 amplified successfully of DNA template of N. virescens through RAPD-PCR technique. Based on the dendrogram, there were initial facts of possible genetic differences between the populations of N. virescens from endemic and non endemic areas of rice tungro disease. The N. virescens from endemic area of Klaten and Sleman are similar genetically but different from the N. virescens non endemic of Purwodadi, Pacitan and Ngawi

    Genetic Variation of Agathis Loranthifolia Salisb. in West Jawa Assessed by RAPD

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    Variasi Genetika Agathis loranthifolia Salisb Jawa Barat Menggunakan Analisis RAPD.Agathis loranthifolia Salisb merupakan salah satu tumbuhan hutan yang menghasilkan hasilhutan bukan berupa kayu yaitu berupa getah. Untuk mengetahui derajad variasi genetika darijenis ini maka dicoba dianalisis menggunakan RAPD. Sampel daun tumbuhan ini di perolehdari Perum Perhutani Cianjur dan Garut. Variasi genetika populasi tumbuhan ini dari Cianjursebesar He = 0.1952 atau lebih tinggi dari populasi asal Garut (He = 0.1125). Namun berdasarkanproduksi copalnya menunjukkan bahwa variasi genetika pohon Lanang paling tinggi He =0.210

    Levels of genetic polymorphism: marker loci versus quantitative traits

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    Species are the units used to measure ecological diversity and alleles are the units of genetic diversity. Genetic variation within and among species has been documented most extensively using allozyme electrophoresis. This reveals wide differences in genetic variability within, and genetic distances among, species, demonstrating that species are not equivalent units of diversity. The extent to which the pattern observed for allozymes can be used to infer patterns of genetic variation in quantitative traits depends on the forces generating and maintaining variability. Allozyme variation is probably not strictly neutral but, nevertheless, heterozygosity is expected to be influenced by population size and genetic distance will be affected by time since divergence. The same is true for quantitative traits influenced by many genes and under weak stabilizing selection. However, the limited data available suggest that allozyme variability is a poor predictor of genetic variation in quantitative traits within populations. It is a better predictor of general phenotypic divergence and of postzygotic isolation between populations or species, but is only weakly correlated with prezygotic isolation. Studies of grasshopper and planthopper mating signal variation and assortative mating illustrate how these characters evolve independently of general genetic and morphological variation. The role of such traits in prezygotic isolation, and hence speciation, means that they will contribute significantly to the diversity of levels of genetic variation within and among species

    Genetic Variation of Dacrycarpus Imbricatus in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java Based on TrnL (UAA) Intron Region

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    The conservation of Jamuju Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub. in Java Island has been considered important. One of the the limitation of such program is related to the viability data on the genetic diversity of species target. The aim of study was to determine genetic variation of D. imbricatus in Bromo Tengger Semeru Park, East Java based on trnL (UAA) intron region. DNA sample was collected from several D. imbricatus seedling population in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (BTSNP) in East Java. DNA was isolated and amplified using PCR. Genetic variation was estimated using trnL (UAA) intron sequences. This study confirm that D. imbricatus in Bromo Tengger Semeru has low genetic diversity. Based on the phylogenetic tree, D. imbricatus population from Bromo Tengger Semeru Park is closely related to D. imbricatus from Sabah-Malaysia and Hainan-China with 100 % similarity value. These data implies that population and habitat management of D. imbricatus in Bromo Tengger Semeru should be designed to enhance the population survival in the future

    Phenotypic robustness can increase phenotypic variability after non-genetic perturbations in gene regulatory circuits

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    Non-genetic perturbations, such as environmental change or developmental noise, can induce novel phenotypes. If an induced phenotype confers a fitness advantage, selection may promote its genetic stabilization. Non-genetic perturbations can thus initiate evolutionary innovation. Genetic variation that is not usually phenotypically visible may play an important role in this process. Populations under stabilizing selection on a phenotype that is robust to mutations can accumulate such variation. After non-genetic perturbations, this variation can become a source of new phenotypes. We here study the relationship between a phenotype's robustness to mutations and a population's potential to generate novel phenotypic variation. To this end, we use a well-studied model of transcriptional regulation circuits. Such circuits are important in many evolutionary innovations. We find that phenotypic robustness promotes phenotypic variability in response to non-genetic perturbations, but not in response to mutation. Our work suggests that non-genetic perturbations may initiate innovation more frequently in mutationally robust gene expression traits.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure
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