1,314,825 research outputs found

    Emergence of skew distributions in controlled growth processes

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    Starting from a master equation, we derive the evolution equation for the size distribution of elements in an evolving system, where each element can grow, divide into two, and produce new elements. We then probe general solutions of the evolution quation, to obtain such skew distributions as power-law, log-normal, and Weibull distributions, depending on the growth or division and production. Specifically, repeated production of elements of uniform size leads to power-law distributions, whereas production of elements with the size distributed according to the current distribution as well as no production of new elements results in log-normal distributions. Finally, division into two, or binary fission, bears Weibull distributions. Numerical simulations are also carried out, confirming the validity of the obtained solutions.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    2023 Judge Horace J. Johnson, Jr. Lecture on Race, Law and Policy with Vanita Gupta

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    School of Law Dean Peter Bo Rutledge gave introductory remarks, while law faculty members Clare Norins and John Meixner co-moderated, and SPIA Dean Matthew Auer provided closing remarks. Vanita Gupta is the 19thUnited States Associate Attorney General and serves as the third-ranking official at the Department of Justice. Associate Attorney General Gupta supervises multiple litigating divisions within the Department of Justice, including the Civil Division, Civil Rights Division, Antitrust Division, Tax Division, and Environmental and Natural Resources Division. She also oversees the grant making components of the Department, including the Office of Justice Programs, the Office on Violence Against Women, and the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; and supervises the Office for Access to Justice, Office of Information Policy, the Community Relations Service, the Executive Office for United States Trustees, the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, and the Service members and Veterans Initiative. Associate Attorney General Gupta previously served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, the nation’s oldest and largest coalition of non-partisan civil rights organizations in the United States. Before serving in that capacity, from October 15, 2014, to January 20, 2017, Associate Attorney General Gupta served as Acting Assistant Attorney General and Head of the Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division. Appointed by President Barack Obama as the chief civil rights prosecutor for the United States, Associate Attorney General Gupta advanced a wide range of civil rights enforcement matters. Prior to her tenure leading the Civil Rights Division, Associate Attorney General Gupta served as Deputy Legal Director and the Director of the Center for Justice at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). In addition to managing litigation, Associate Attorney General Gupta created and led the ACLU’s Smart Justice Campaign aimed at promoting bipartisan justice reform while keeping communities safe. She began her legal career as an attorney at the NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund. Associate Attorney General Gupta graduated magna cum laude from Yale University and received her law degree from New York University School of Law, where later she taught a civil rights litigation clinic for several year

    THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES REGARDING DIVISION OF JOINT PROPERTY AFTER A DIVORCE IN THE CENTRAL ACEH REGENCY

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    This resarch reviews disputes revolving around the division of joint property after a divorce in the Central Aceh Regency using the methods; discussion with family, discussion by involving the customary institution Sarak Opat, and filing a claim to the Takengon Syar’iyah Tribunal. In general, division of joint property in the Central Aceh Regency is done by discussion through the customary institution Sarak Opat. The division of joint property after a divorce in the Central Aceh Regency that is done through discussion takes into account which household the child grew up in and how much money that household makes. Although this is not in accordance with the provisions of Indonesia’s Marriage Law and the Islamic Law Compilation, it may be in accordance with Article 37 of Indonesia’s Marriage Law and that this would not violate the rules within Islamic Law nor Customary Law, since in its core within Islamic Law and Customary Law there are specific rules regarding percentage of division of joint property following a divorc

    Estonia: a model for interwar Europe?

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    While Estonia’s 1925 Law on Cultural Self-Government for National Minorities is often cited as a rare functioning example of Renner and Bauer’s non-territorial autonomy scheme, there has until recently been comparatively little research on how the law operated in practice. This article analyses the institutions of German and Jewish minority self-government established in inter-war Estonia, arguing that (prior to the eclipse of democracy in 1934, at least) these possessed considerable depth and authoritative competence in the area of cultural and educational policy. Cultural autonomy did not resolve all outstanding points of division between state, majority and (in particular) Baltic German minority; nevertheless, it played a positive role in the regulation of ethnonational tensions. Even less well-known is the international resonance of this unique law, which transnational minority activists argued should serve as a general model for the regulation of minority disputes. The League of Nations rightly questioned this claim, and the non-territorial autonomy model was scarcely applied beyond the Baltic region during the 1920s. However, it is still instructive to revisit the 1925 law today, at a time when several post-communist states have adopted minority rights legislation based on similar principles

    July 3, 2013 Reflection: A Chance Encounter

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    In a July 4 letter to his father-in-law, General Alexander Hays expressed reserve. “Yesterday was a warm one for us,” he wrote. “The fight of my division was a perfect success […] We are all sanguine of ridding our soil of the invaders.” The “perfect success” for Hays was his command’s role in the repulse of Pettigrew’s division in what has become known as Pickett’s Charge. It was an unquestionable victory for his division and the Army of the Potomac. Yet Alex Hays’s matter-of-fact letter was not buoyant with the egoism so easily ascribed to generals after their victories. Hays does not mention, in any detail, his actions of July 3, where he remained in the saddle under artillery fire, inspiring his troops with his personal bravery so that his example would assuage their own fears of the looming Confederate assault. Nor does he detail the fight itself – the laying down of a wall of brutal fire by his men against their attackers – the melting away of enemy brigades to his front, the rebels falling dead and wounded as his men cheered for their destruction. Perhaps the greatest moment of Alex Hays’s life, certainly the pinnacle of his career as a soldier, his famed dragging of a Confederate battle standard in the dirt in front of his cheering men (and also in front of dying enemy soldiers) is also unmentioned, though, to do so in a after-action letter to his father-in-law would have been viewed, perhaps, as gauche. [excerpt

    Energy conservation for dynamical black holes

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    An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. For a growing black hole, this first law of black-hole dynamics is equivalent to an equation of Ashtekar & Krishnan, but the new integral and differential forms are regular in the limit where the black hole ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures of both ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal gravitational radiation on and near a black hole. Corresponding energy-tensor forms of the first law involve a preferred time vector which plays the role for dynamical black holes which the stationary Killing vector plays for stationary black holes. Identifying an energy flux, vanishing if and only if the horizon is null, allows a division into energy-supply and work terms, as in the first law of thermodynamics. The energy supply can be expressed in terms of area increase and a newly defined surface gravity, yielding a Gibbs-like equation, with a similar form to the so-called first law for stationary black holes.Comment: 4 revtex4 pages. Many (mostly presentational) changes; emphasizes the definition of gravitational radiation in the strong-field regim

    CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING SYSTEMIC INTERACTION OF LAW WITH OTHER SOCIAL NORMATIVE SUBSYSTEMS

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    This article tackles the issue of systemic interaction between various normative systems. As such, it addresses and analyses the system of law from the perspective the general systems theory. More than that, the paper analyses the links and interactions between various normative systems, called sub-systems in the paper, and the division of law, namely public law and private law

    Optimizing a Law School’s Course Schedule

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    [Excerpt] “Just like other educational institutions, law schools must schedule courses by taking into consideration student needs, faculty resources, and logistical support such as classroom size and equipment needs. Course scheduling is an administrative function, typically handled by an Assistant Dean or an Associate Dean, who works with the faculty and the registrar to balance these considerations in advance of the registration process. Usually, the entire academic year is scheduled in advance, although the spring semester may be labeled tentative until registration begins for that semester. It’s hard to imagine, but some schools even publish a two-year schedule of upper-division courses so that students can plan their entire law school career in advance. In order to give assistance to those academics involved for the first time in the scheduling process, this article discusses the law school scheduling process and how a scheduling software package has worked to successfully automate what has been seen as one of the most abysmal administrative tasks of an Associate Dean. We first provide a background to course scheduling at a typical law school. We then present a review of the tools for, and literature on, course scheduling, followed by a discussion of how technology can be applied to course scheduling in general, and our outcomes of applying this technology in a law school environment. We close with a brief summary.

    Two Universality Properties Associated with the Monkey Model of Zipf's Law

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    The distribution of word probabilities in the monkey model of Zipf's law is associated with two universality properties: (1) the power law exponent converges strongly to 1-1 as the alphabet size increases and the letter probabilities are specified as the spacings from a random division of the unit interval for any distribution with a bounded density function on [0,1][0,1]; and (2), on a logarithmic scale the version of the model with a finite word length cutoff and unequal letter probabilities is approximately normally distributed in the part of the distribution away from the tails. The first property is proved using a remarkably general limit theorem for the logarithm of sample spacings from Shao and Hahn, and the second property follows from Anscombe's central limit theorem for a random number of i.i.d. random variables. The finite word length model leads to a hybrid Zipf-lognormal mixture distribution closely related to work in other areas.Comment: 14 pages, 3 figure

    Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues

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    This report provides a general discussion of legislative provisions and proposals relating to the military benefits for former spouses. It is not designed to answer detailed questions about specific issues arising in individual cases. Thus, it does not deal with case law nor does it apply legal or judicial interpretations of enacted statutes to specific situations. Questions that this report seeks to answer include the following: What benefits can former spouses of members or retirees of the uniformed services receive under law? What role do the services play in facilitating delivery of those benefits? What practical problems arise in the implementation of and service involvement in claims on those benefits? How does the current system for a divorce-related division of military retired pay work? These frequently asked questions reflect confusion and controversy over social policy and economic equity issues. The administrative and legal implementation has proven complex, due to the large number of couples affected and the variety of circumstances surrounding their military service and divorce
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