3,747 research outputs found

    KEANEKARAGAMAN HERPETOFAUNA PADA BEBERAPA TIPE HABITAT DI TAMAN NASIONAL KUTAI, KALIMANTAN TIMUR

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    Taman Nasional Kutai, Provinsi Kalimantan Timur merupakan salah satu kawasan konservasi dengan habitat yang beragam serta potensi keanekaragaman jenis herpetofauna yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan komposisi jenis herpetofauna, membandingkan keanekaragaman herpetofauna, serta menduga faktor-faktor lingkungan yang menentukan kehadiran herpetofauna pada pada berbagai tipe habitat di Taman Nasional Kutai. Pengamatan dilakukan menggunakan metode Visual Encounter Survey (VES) berdasarkan waktu yang dikombinasikan dengan jalur transek di mangrove, hutan dataran rendah, hutan kerangas, dan hutan rawa. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan 28 jenis reptil dari 9 famili serta 22 jenis amfibi yang berasal dari 6 famili. Hutan dataran rendah memiliki keanekaragaman serta kekayaan tertinggi (H’reptil =2,43; H’amfibi = 2,63). Kesamaan jenis antara empat tipe habitat sangat rendah yang menunjukkan bahwa setiap tipe habitat hanya mendukung jenis tertentu. Faktor lingkungan yang dominan memengaruhi kehadiran jenis-jenis reptil di jalur akuatik adalah kecepatan arus air, pH air, dan intensitas cahaya, sedangkan faktor lingkungan yang memengaruhi di jalur terestrial adalah ketebalan serasah, tutupan tajuk pohon, dan jarak jalur ke sumber air. Untuk amfibi, faktor dominan yang paling berperan dalam kehadiran jenis, yaitu kelembaban relatif (jalur terestrial) dan keberadaan substrat batu (jalur akuatik)

    Exploring species and pests of stingless bee in Bengkaung Village and Buwun Sejati Village, West Lombok

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    Stingless bees are highly diverse insects in Indonesia and play a role in providing ecosystem services by helping to pollinate crops and produce honey. However, pests present as an obstacle that can disrupt and reduce the number of individual bees and can even cause bees to escape from their nests. The aims of this research are to identify the species of stingless bees bred by beekeepers and to identify pests that affect stingless bees in colony boxes. The research was conducted in Bengkaung and Buwun Sejati villages from July to September 2023. The method used in this study was direct observation and survey of stingless beekeepers. Stingless bee and pest samples from boxes containing various species of stingless bees were taken to the Plant Protection Laboratory at University of Mataram for identification. Results show that four species of stingless bees are cultivated, namely Tetragonula fuscobalteata, Tetragonula biori, Tetragonula clypearis and Tetragonula sapiens. The pest species found were lizards (Gekkonidae), ants (Formicidae), spiders (Archidae), wasps (Vespidae), mites (Varroidae), beetles (Histeridae) and Assasin Bug (Reduviidae)

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    Kondisi geografis pada ketinggian wilayah di bawah 100 m di atas permukaan air laut (dpl) seperti di Cilacap dan di atas 1.000 m dpl seperti di Wonosobo, kemungkinan merupakan faktor yang menentukan jenis dan keragaman tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui jenis cicak, tungau dan keragaman tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae di Cilacap dan Wonosobo. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah survai dengan teknik pengambilan sampel acak. Sampel berupa cicak Gekkonidae yang diperoleh diawetkan dalam alkohol 70%, dan disimpan terpisah berdasarkan spesies dan lokasi penangkapan. Selanjutnya cicak di bawa ke laboratorium Entomologi-Parasitologi untuk diidentifikasi dan diisolasi tungau yang menginfestasi menggunakan jarum preparat. Tungau yang diperoleh diidentifikasi setelah melalui serangkaian proses preparasi, maturasi dan mounting. Hasil penelitian baik di Cilacap maupun Wonosobo diperoleh 4 jenis cicak Gekkonidae yaitu Hemidactylus frenatus, H. platyurus, H. garnotii, dan Gehyra mutilate. Tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae meliputi 5 spesies yaitu Geckobia keegani, G. turkestana, G. simplex, G. gleadovania dan G. diversipilis. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa keragaman tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae di Cilacap (H’ = 1,052) lebih tinggi dibandingkan di Wonosobo (H’ = 0,815). Berdasarkan nilai evenness (E) diketahui bahwa tungau yang menginfestasi cicak Gekkonidae di Cilacap lebih mengelompok (E = 0,759) dibandingkan di Wonosobo yang cenderung menyebar secara teratur (E = 0,588)

    Amphibians and Reptiles Diversity in Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park, West Kalimantan

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    Studies related to herpetofauna diversity in the Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park (Tanakaya), West Kalimantan are very limited. Data related to the richness of amphibians and reptiles in this area are important for the management of the area in the future. We conducted amphibian and reptile surveys in Tanakaya in July-August 2019 using Visual Encounter Survey methods at five sites (Belaban Resort: Km 37 & 39; Resort Rantau Malam: Batu Lintang, Sungai Mangan, and Hulu Rabang). We recorded 50 amphibian species from nine families and 25 reptile species from seven different families. Twenty of these species are new records for Tanakaya. The highest diversity (H' = 2.94) was found in Batu Lintang, while the highest evenness (E = 0.55) was in Sungai Mangan, and the highest community similarity index (IS = 0.6) was in Batu Lintang with Km 37. Combined with previous studies, there have been 142 species (78 species of amphibians and 64 species of reptiles) recorded from Tanakaya. Further study is needed to fully understand the herpetofauna in Tanakaya, but our data highlights the importance of the national park for preserving global biodiversity

    Status of urban ecology in Africa: a systematic review

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    Urbanization is an extreme human activity and is expanding worldwide, consequently increasing the attention of scientists across research areas of urban ecology. Recent studies have warned of the lack of information from certain regions, particularly Africa, which is rapidly urbanizing. Thus, we did a detailed literature search to determine the state of knowledge in African urban ecology in the last century. We found 795 relevant papers from where data were collected and tested to understand geographic and ecological mismatches in research effort, allowing us to identify important knowledge gaps (e.g., taxonomy and scientific fields). We also tested the effect of current and future urbanization intensity, human population density, size and conservation status of ecoregions and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on research effort. Our results suggest a low turnout of papers and a dearth of knowledge about African urban ecology. Studies were conducted in 72% of African countries, with South Africa alone accounting for almost 40% of all published papers. The studies were either conducted at the city (55%) or local/country (34%) level, suggesting the lack of transnational research collaboration. Interestingly, only country GDP and the size and conservation status of ecoregions significantly predicted the number of publications, suggesting that research effort is driven by economic reasons and the relevance of conservation in African urban ecology. We need to account for these biases to advance our understanding of the impacts of urbanization on African biodiversity

    ÔĽŅTwo new species of Dixonius from Vietnam and Laos with a discussion of the taxonomy of Dixonius (Squamata, Gekkonidae)

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    Integrated analyses using maximum likelihood (ML), Bayesian inference (BI), principal component analysis (PCA), discriminate analysis of principal components (DAPC), multiple factor analysis (MFA), and analysis of variance (ANOVA) recovered two new diagnosable species of gekkonid lizards in the genus Dixonius, one from the Central Highlands, Gia Lai Province, Vietnam and another from the Vientiane Province, Laos. Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2) and adjacent tRNAs showed that Dixonius gialaiensis sp. nov. is the sister species of D. minhlei from Dong Nai Province, Vietnam and is nested within a clade that also includes the sister species D. siamensis and D. somchanhae. Dixonius muangfuangensis sp. nov. is the sister species to D. lao from Khammouane Province, Laos and is embedded in a clade with D. vietnamensis, D. taoi, and undescribed species from Thailand. Multivariate (PCA, DAPC, and MFA) and univariate (ANOVA) analyses using combinations of 15 meristic (scale counts), six morphometric (measurements), and five categorical (color pattern and morphology) characters from 44 specimens encompassing all eight species of Dixonius from Vietnam and Laos clearly illustrate Dixonius gialaiensis sp. nov. and Dixonius muangfuangensis sp. nov. are statistically different and discretely diagnosable from all closely related species of Dixonius. These integrative analyses also highlight additional taxonomic issues that remain unresolved within Dixonius and the need for additional studies. The discovery of these new species further emphasizes the underappreciated herpetological diversity of the genus Dixonius and illustrates the continued need for field work in these regions

    Efecto de la actividad minera sobre la biodiversidad en un sector del cantón Paquisha, provincia de Zamora Chinchipe-Ecuador

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    The Ecuadorian Amazon region represents 45% of the national territory and constitutes one of the largest ecological reserves of humanity due to its biological wealth. In recent years, the forest area in the Latin American Amazon has been reduced by 4.5% 240,000 km2). Ecuador is one of the countries with the highest deforestation in the region (2.4%). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of mining activity on biodiversity, hence possible changes in the ecosystem, fragmentation, abundance, richness, dominance and diversity of species were estimated. The study area was located in a mining area in the Province of Zamora Chinchipe, Cant√≥n Paquisha-Ecuador. Through point estimators, 123 species of vascular plants divided into 43 families were identified, the highest abundance was presented by Asteraceae with 12%, followed by Araceae with 8.5% and Melastomataceae with 7.5%. Likewise, 42 species of birds were identified, 16 of mammals, 12 of amphibians and reptiles, and 36 macroinvertebrate individuals. It could be inferred that there is a marked deterioration of the ecosystem in the area, however an interesting diversity of species remains, mainly flora. In relation to fauna, the loss of certain species is evident, mainly due to agricultural expansion, hunting and mining activity. According to the Shannon index, the aquatic fauna is low, and according to the BMWP / Col index the water in the area is highly polluted.La regi√≥n amaz√≥nica ecuatoriana representa el 45% del territorio nacional y constituye una de las mayores reservas ecol√≥gicas de la humanidad debido a su riqueza biol√≥gica. En los √ļltimos a√Īos el √°rea de bosque en la amazonia latinoamericana se redujo en un 4,5% (240.000 km2); en este orden, Ecuador es uno de los pa√≠ses con mayor deforestaci√≥n en la regi√≥n (2,4%). Por esta raz√≥n, el objetivo de este estudio es valorar el efecto de la actividad minera sobre la biodiversidad. Para el efecto se estimaron los posibles cambios en el ecosistema, la fragmentaci√≥n, abundancia, riqueza, dominancia y diversidad de especies. El √°rea de estudio se ubic√≥ en una zona de explotaci√≥n minera en la Provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Cant√≥n Paquisha-Ecuador. Mediante estimadores puntuales se identificaron 123 especies de plantas vasculares divididas en 43 familias. Asteraceae present√≥ mayor abundancia con el 12%, Araceae con el 8,5% y Melastomataceae el 7,5%. Asimismo, se identificaron 42 especies de aves, 16 de mam√≠feros, 12 entre anfibios y reptiles y 36 individuos macroinvertebrados. Los resultados permiten inferir que en la zona existe un deterioro marcado del ecosistema, empero se mantiene una diversidad interesante de especies, principalmente de flora. En lo referente a fauna la p√©rdida de ciertas especies es evidente, debido principalmente a la expansi√≥n agr√≠cola, la caza y la actividad minera. La fauna acu√°tica de acuerdo con el √≠ndice de Shannon es baja, y de acuerdo al √≠ndice BMWP/Col el agua en la zona es muy contaminada

    ÔĽŅAnother step through the crux: a new microendemic rock-dwelling Paroedura (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from south-central Madagascar

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    Using an integrative taxonomic approach including genetic and morphological data, we formally describe a new microendemic gecko species belonging to the Paroedura bastardi clade, previously referred to as P. bastardi D. We name this taxon currently known from Anja Reserve and Tsaranoro Valley Forest (south-central Madagascar), as P. manongavato sp. nov. The new species differs from other species of the P. bastardi clade by ‚Č• 12.4% uncorrected p-distance at the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and it forms a monophyletic group in the COI mtDNA phylogenetic tree. It lacks haplotype sharing at the nuclear KIAA1239 and CMOS genes with the other species of the same complex, including the syntopic P. rennerae. Given its limited extent of occurrence and high levels of habitat fragmentation linked to forest clearances and fires, we propose the IUCN Red List Category of Critically Endangered, based on the B1ab(iii) criterion. The conservation value of Anja Reserve and Tsaranoro Valley Forest is remarkable. Preserving the remaining deciduous forest habitat is of paramount importance to protect these narrow-range reptile species

    A new species of torrent-breeding treefrog (Pelodryadidae: Litoria) from the mountains of Papua, Indonesia, with new records and observations of Litoria dorsivena (Tyler, 1968)

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    The mountains of New Guinea are home to species-rich but poorly understood communities of stream or torrent-breeding pelodryadid treefrogs. Here we describe a new species of moderately sized torrent-breeding Litoria from the mountains of Papua Province, Indonesia. The new species is most similar to Litoria dorsivena but differs from that species in aspects of body size, skin texture and especially the shape of the snout. Based on recent collections, we also present new data on the distribution and colour in life of L. dorsivena. Both species show marked sexual size dimorphism when compared to most other pelodryadid treefrogs, and the colour pattern of the new species may also vary between males and females. The torrent-breeding treefrogs of New Guinea remain poorly known and, given declines of ecologically similar pelodryadids in Australia, should be a priority group for taxonomic research and population monitoring

    ÔĽŅUneven species occurrence and richness of lowland snakes (Serpentes, Squamata) in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia, with new locality records

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    This study documents information on the composition, diversity, richness, and temporal occurrence of snakes at Sekayu’s lowland forest (SLF), Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia for the first time. The snakes recorded within the SLF were sampled opportunistically from 2013 to 2019, employing the Visual Encounter Survey method (VES) and L-shape pitfall traps with drift fences. Forty-six snake species from 37 genera belonging to the nine families were recorded, of which 11 were new records to Terengganu. Individual-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves were not reaching asymptote, indicating that additional species can be recorded at the study area. Non-parametric species richness estimators estimated and produced a range between 51 and 57 species. ACE was the best estimator based on the quantitative evaluation. All species showed some variations of occurrence patterns across months. Fourteen species were only encountered once across the sampling years, and interestingly 11 of them were only detected during the rainy season (late October to January). In general, the number of species richness, abundance, and rare species were high during this season. Species richness of snakes is high at SLF but sampling effort should be intensified, especially during these rainy months, to obtain a robust estimated snake species richness in SLF. Terengganu harbor considerably high species richness of snakes with a total of 71 species to date (excluding marine snakes), but snake diversity is still underestimated as only a few localities were surveyed in the past years, primarily at the northern part. Future surveys should be commenced at the central and southern parts of Terengganu to complement the current investigation
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