18,491 research outputs found

    INTEGRATION OF DYNAMIC INFORMATION ON ENERGY PARAMETERS IN HBIM MODELS

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    The conservation of cultural heritage can be affected by different changes in temperature and humidity within architectural spaces, so energy performance and interior microclimate of historic buildings require adaptation to new maintenance and prevention studies. The search for these new investigations brings cultural heritage closer to new digital technologies such as Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM). In this work, a new interdisciplinary methodology is developed between energy operators and BIM operators, so that a new framework is created to monitor energy parameters through intelligent sensors that measure temperature and humidity in the fully interoperable and semantically enriched 3D model itself. The study's commitment involves solving the interoperability workflow between sensors and the BIM platform, taking advantage of this new interconnectivity. For the study, a methodology applied to the Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Seville was carried out, where from a survey through a georeferenced terrestrial laser scanner with topographic equipment, it is modelled from the point cloud, incorporating the sensors in the HBIM Project. In the workflow, it has been shown that the integration of microclimate data inside churches can be managed directly in the environment of an HBIM-based model and transfer a reverse flow in the process

    YIELD TO PEDESTRIANS? EXAMINING INFRASTRUCTURE AND DEFENSIVE-MINDED METHODOLOGIES IN SECURING PEDESTRIAN-RICH ENVIRONMENTS

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    Urban municipalities feature pedestrian-rich environments with limited mitigation measures to prevent vehicle-caused pedestrian fatalities. Limited pedestrian protections represent an attractive target for nefarious actors to commit vehicle ramming attacks (VRA). There are defensive-minded methodologies that afford greater mitigation against deadly vehicle-versus-pedestrian collisions and VRAs in urban pedestrian-rich environments. This thesis examines the vulnerability of pedestrian-rich environments to vehicle-caused pedestrian fatalities and provide recommendations for stakeholders to better secure the environments. It also examines both the target hardening and protective security methodologies using a theoretical analysis model. By analyzing these defensive-minded methodologies, this thesis explores a homogenous framework for securing urban pedestrian-rich environments: the target hardening/protective security spectrum (THPSS). This thesis concludes with recommendations for urban municipalities to implement to better protect their respective pedestrian-rich environments from deadly vehicle-versus-pedestrian collisions and VRAs. This thesis provides recommendations to better secure outdoor dining establishments, street fairs, road races, and urban public parks from vehicle-caused fatalities.Civilian, New York City Police DepartmentApproved for public release. Distribution is unlimited

    Erfassung, Aufbereitung und Integration von Crowd-sourced Innenraumkartendaten für die Realisierung von Innenraumnavigation

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    Digitale Navigationsdienste, insbesondere in Kombination mit Lokalisierungssystemen wie dem Global Positioning System (GPS) oder Galileo, sind aus unserem Alltag nicht mehr wegzudenken. In Form von Navigationssystemen zeigen sie uns zum Beispiel den Weg bei der nĂ€chsten GeschĂ€ftsreise oder helfen uns bei der Reiseplanung im Urlaub. In den letzten Jahren gewinnt speziell die Navigation in InnenrĂ€umen mehr und mehr an Bedeutung. Innenraumkarten und -navigation sind vor allem für komplexe GebĂ€ude, wie FlughĂ€fen, Bahnhöfe, KrankenhĂ€user, ParkhĂ€user oder Einkaufszentren, relevant, da in solchen Umgebungen die Orientierung besonders schwer fĂ€llt. Google Maps bietet bereits Innenraumkarten für viele der genannten GebĂ€udetypen. Viele grĂ¶ĂŸere UniversitĂ€ten und Hochschulen haben ihren eigenen sogenannten „Campus Navigator“. Weitere Beispiele für die Nutzung von Kartendiensten sind Museen, wo Indoor-Karten und Positionierung mit Museumsführern kombiniert werden, so dass zusĂ€tzliche Informationen, wie Videos zu den Exponaten, über die Karte abgespielt werden können. In vielen der vorgestellten Indoor-Anwendungen greifen verschiedene interdisziplinĂ€re Bereiche ineinander. Dazu gehört der bereits erwĂ€hnte Bereich der Lokalisierung, aber auch die Erfassung und Bereitstellung von Geodaten. Dies geschieht meist kommerzialisiert durch Unternehmen. Solche Verfahren und Dienstleistungen sind komplex und mit Kosten verbunden, sodass diese Daten typischerweise nicht frei verfügbar gemacht werden. Demnach fehlen Innenraumkartendaten in der Breite. Eine Alternative zu kommerziellen Navigationssystemen ist das von der Community verwaltete OpenStreetMap (OSM). In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein auf OSM-Daten basiertes Innenraum-Kartendatenschema erschaffen, welches in den heutzutage verwendetem Simple Indoor Tagging-Standard mündete. Diese Arbeit ermöglicht somit eine flĂ€chendeckende Kartierung von InnenrĂ€umen durch die OSM-Community und einen freien und offenen Datensatz an Innenraumdaten. Für die Darstellung von Innenraumkartendaten wird die Erweiterung einer bestehenden Rendering-Bibliothek vorgestellt. Für Navigationsanwendungen in InnenrĂ€umen existierten darüber hinaus bisher nur hochpreisige Positionierungsverfahren, die eine flĂ€chendeckende Verbreitung von Innnenraumnavigation verhindern. Daher widmet sich die Arbeit der Untersuchung von Positionierungstechnologien. Speziell für Inertialsensorik und Ultrabreitband wurde untersucht, wie die Positionierungsgenauigkeit in Verbindung mit Kartendaten verbessert werden kann. Hierbei wurden wahrscheinlichkeits- und graphenbasierte AnsĂ€tze erforscht, welche jeweils auf Kartendaten basieren. Zum Erstellen der benötigten Routinggraphen wurde die Graphenextraktion automatisiert. Zur finalen Realisierung von Navigationsanwendungen müssen das Rendering, die Positionierung und das Routing integriert werden. Hierfür wurde in dieser Arbeit ein modulares Navigationsframework aufgebaut und am Beispiel eines Use Cases angewandt und erprobt. Dieses Frameswork erlaubt es, weitere Navigationsanwendungen, beispielsweise Systeme mit anderer Hardware oder anderer Positionierungsalgorithmik, modular umzusetzen.Digital navigation services, especially in combination with localisation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or Galileo, have become an integral part of our everyday lives. In the form of navigation systems, they show us the way on our next business trip, for example, or help us plan our holidays. In recent years, indoor navigation in particular has become increasingly important. Indoor maps and navigation are especially relevant for complex buildings, such as airports, train stations, hospitals, parking garages or shopping centres, as orientation is particularly difficult in such environments. Google Maps already offers interior maps for many of the aforementioned building types. Many larger universities and colleges have their own so-called 'Campus Navigator'. Other examples of the use of map services are museums, where indoor maps and positioning are combined with museum guides so that additional information such as videos about the exhibits can be played via the map. In many of the indoor applications presented, different interdisciplinary areas intertwine. This includes the already mentioned area of localisation, but also the collection and provision of geodata. This is usually done commercially by companies. Such processes and services are complex and associated with costs, so that such data is typically not made freely available. Accordingly, indoor map data is lacking on a broad scale. An alternative to commercial navigation systems is the community-managed OpenStreetMap (OSM). In the present work, an indoor map data scheme based on OSM data was created, which resulted in the Simple Indoor Tagging standard used today. This work thus enables an area-wide mapping of indoor spaces by the OSM community and a free and open indoor data set. For the rendering of indoor map data, the extension of an existing rendering library is presented. Furthermore, for indoor navigation applications, only high-priced positioning methods have existed so far, which prevents a widespread distribution of indoor navigation. Therefore, the work is dedicated to the investigation of positioning technologies. Especially for inertial sensors and ultra-wideband, it was investigated how the positioning accuracy can be improved in connection with map data. Probability-based and graph-based approaches were explored, each based on map data. Graph extraction was automated to create the required routing graphs. For the final realisation of navigation applications, the rendering, positioning and routing must be integrated. For this purpose, a modular navigation framework was built in this thesis and applied and tested on the example of a use case. This framework allows the modular implementation of further navigation applications, for example systems with other hardware or other positioning algorithms

    Development of tobacco and nicotine policy : Proposals for action by the working group 2023

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    Development of tobacco and nicotine policy : Proposals for action by the working group 2023On 7 February 2022, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health appointed a working group tasked with making proposals for legislative amendments and other measures that support and promote the end of the use of tobacco and nicotine products by 2030. The working group had three specific tasks related to preventing the use of all nicotine products (including nicotine replacement therapy products), improving the smoke-free environment of housing corporations and raising the purchasing age limit from 18 years of age. Achieving the objective of the Tobacco Act requires the continuation and development of the current systematic and determined implementation of measures and the introduction of new measures. In order to achieve this objective, the proposals presented by the working group will need to be implemented already at the beginning of the next government term. The measures proposed in the report create the conditions for eliminating the use of tobacco and other nicotine products. Further efforts are needed every few years to achieve this goal. The working group considers that the implementation of the new proposals should always be included in the next government programme. The working group's proposals concern taxation, prevention of starting the use of tobacco and nicotine products by young people, smoke-free environments, sales and marketing, support for quitting, passenger imports, regulation of new nicotine products, enhanced enforcement, and resourcing, monitoring and evaluation

    A review of urban rainwater harvesting in China

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from IWA Publishing via the DOI in this recordData availability statement: All relevant data are included in the paper or its Supplementary Information.Over the past 30 years, water security issue in Chinese cities has become increasingly serious, largely due to rapid urbanization, population growth and disproportionate investment in water infrastructure. Urban rainwater harvesting (URWH), a household and community-level rainwater management measure, has been widely used during this period. This study provides a critical review of the policies, methods, technology, construction, implementation and benefits related to URWH in China. We show that URWH in China has gone through three phases over the past 30 years: an initial development phase, a rapid development phase and a sponge city construction phase. URWH research has focused mainly on rainwater harvesting, storage, utilization, management and other technologies, with limited attention to policy and benefit analysis. However, the scale of URWH construction and implementation in China remains small and needs further development. Currently, while URWH assessments cover social, ecological and environmental benefits, the economic benefits need to be further strengthened. The next step in URWH implementation should be to strengthen research and development of policy, legal and design standards. This study provides guidance for the implementation of URWH in Chinese cities and other cities alike in developing countries.Beijing Municipal Natural Science FoundationNatural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)Beijing Postdoctoral Research FoundationOpen Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower ResearchChina Postdoctoral Science Foundation Projec

    Assessing the effectiveness of reduced parking requirements in facilitating transit-oriented development: a case study of ‘pt areas’ in cape town

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    In Cape Town a mechanism, referred to as ‘public transport areas’ (PT areas), was introduced in 2014 to allow for the decreased provision of off-street parking in areas wellserved by public transport. This mechanism was intended to not only reduce trip generation, but to also facilitate Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). To date the impact of the PT areas mechanism has not been systematically assessed. This paper reports on the results of an assessment of developer uptake of the PT areas offering, and outlines the implications for transport and land use. It concludes that substantial developable land has been saved in PT areas for more productive use, thus directly contributing to TOD. However, this has not been supported in turn by an improvement in the public transport system in most areas. It can be concluded that this mechanism can be an effective TOD tool, but that mechanisms should be put in place to measure its uptake, and its effect on reducing the number of private car trips.Papers presented at the 40th International Southern African Transport Conference on 04 -08 July 202

    Advanced Modeling and Research in Hybrid Microgrid Control and Optimization

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    This book presents the latest solutions in fuel cell (FC) and renewable energy implementation in mobile and stationary applications. The implementation of advanced energy management and optimization strategies are detailed for fuel cell and renewable microgrids, and for the multi-FC stack architecture of FC/electric vehicles to enhance the reliability of these systems and to reduce the costs related to energy production and maintenance. Cyber-security methods based on blockchain technology to increase the resilience of FC renewable hybrid microgrids are also presented. Therefore, this book is for all readers interested in these challenging directions of research

    Construire au-delà de la Méditerranée

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    Suez, Abu Simbel, Cairo, Algiers, Casablanca, Istanbul... This work of pioneering research by architectural historians and archivists gives us access to an exceptional field of European cultural heritage: the records of buildings and public works contractors active on the southern shores of the Mediterranean between 1860 and 1970. It covers all the construction trades, from steel or reinforced concrete bridges and dams, housing for laborers and expats, and public buildings, but also furniture, decoration, and studio crafts. All of these projects attest to the intensity of the human, technical, and artistic exchanges occurring in this period between Europe and the south-eastern Mediterranean rim. This book is illustrated with over 200 rare drawings and photographs drawn directly from the builders'archives, including old photos intended to promote the contractor's business, construction site photos, architects' plans, sketches, and notes documenting technical innovations, and vintage advertising brochures, etc. This book is the product of the transnational cooperation project "ARCHING: ARChives d'INGénierie européennes" (2010-2012) carried out as part of the European Commission Culture Programme 2007-2013, in conjunction with five institutions: the Ecomusée du Bois-du-Luc (Belgium), the Cité de l'architecture et du patrimoine (France), InVisu (CNRS-INHA) (France), the Dipartimento di Architettura disegno-storia-progetto of the University of Florence (Italy) and the Archmuseum (Turkey)
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