35 research outputs found

    Atlas and zoogeography of common fishes in the Bering Sea and northeastern Pacific

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    The geographic and depth frequency distribution of 124 common demersal fish species in the northeastern Pacific were plotted from data on me at the Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center (NWAFC), National Marine Fisheries Service. The data included catch records of fishes and invertebrates from 24,881 samples taken from the Chukchi Sea, throughout the Bering Sea, Aleutian Basin, Aleutian Archipelago, and the Gulf of Alaska, and from southeastern Alaska south to southern California. Samples were collected by a number of agencies and institutions over a 30-year period (1953-83), but were primarily from NWAFC demersal trawls. The distributions of all species with 100 or more occurrences in the data set were plotted by computer. Distributions plotted from these data were then compared with geographic and depth-range limits given in the literature. These data provide new range extensions (geographic, depth, or both) for 114 species. Questionable extensions are noted, the depth ranges determined for 95% of occurrences, and depths of most frequent occurrence are recorded. Ranges of the species were classified zoogeographically, according to life zone, and with regard to the depth zone of greatest occurrence. Because most species examined have broad geographic ranges, they do not provide the best information for testing the validity of proposed zoogeographic province boundaries. Because of the location of greatest sampling effort and methods used in sampling, most fIShes examined were eastern boreal Pacific, sublittoral-bathyal (outer shelf) species. (PDF file contains 158 pages.

    Temporal and spatial variation in springtime ichthyoplankton assemblages in Puget Sound: the search for an ecological baseline

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    Our knowledge of historical baselines for many marine fisheries is scant, making it difficult to determine the extent of change in commercial and non-commercial stocks alike. Providing a unique glimpse at entire communities and relatively easy to sample, ichthyoplankton surveys are a valuable tool for assessing change in populations. Our study evaluates the degree of spatial and temporal variation in larval fish assemblages across the sub-basins of Puget Sound by comparing historical and current surveys. Historical data for comparison was drawn from a study in 1967 conducted throughout the sub-basins (Waldron 1972). Larval fish were also collected in April of 2011, using a combination of horizontal and vertical tows, at 77 sample sites across a similar spatial extent. Although densities were fairly constant in both studies, we found a region-wide decrease in the density of previously dominant families, most notably in Merluccidae (hake) and Gadidae (cod) which experienced a 98% and 85% decrease, respectively, as well as the total disappearance of smaller, poorly understood families like Cyclopteridae (lumpsuckers). Within sub-basins, a substantial change at a compositional level was observed, shifting away from few, dominant families to more diverse assemblages. These findings reflect significant temporal and spatial changes in ichthyoplankton assemblages over the past 44 years that parallel changes in commercial harvest practices. When examined alongside coastal larval data over the same time frame, we found coastal stocks do not follow trends observed in Puget Sound in terms of changes in species composition or disappearances. In demonstrating the value of larval studies as a tool to assess long-term composition and density changes, we call for additional efforts to describe and monitor larval fish densities in Puget Sound to better our understanding of adult population dynamics

    Dining with John and Catharine Butler before the Close of the Eighteenth Century

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    The partial excavation of the homestead of Colonel John Butler in the town of Niagara-on-the-Lake has afforded the opportunity to explore the daily activities of one Loyalist family after the establishment of the British colony of Upper Canada in the 1780s. In particular, the large collection of zooarchaeological material (over 14,5000 specimens) can provide information about the availability of wild animal species, as well as the types of domestic animals that the Butlers kept on their farm. Butchering marks provide further insight into the types of meat cuts used in cooking meals for the family and guests. These are compared and contrasted with the ceramic and glass vessels, so that these analyses can be brought together to paint a picture of what it might have been like to dine with John and Catharine Butler before the close of the 18th century

    Vertebrate Faunal Analysis of The Anderson Creek Site (45KP233)

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    The Anderson Creek archaeological site (45KP233) was excavated by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) in 2015, as part of a fish passage replacement project in Puget Sound. Faunal analysis of remains from this excavation was completed by the author in collaboration with Dr. Megan Partlow. Analysis documented a variety of mammal and fish remains, consisting primarily of salmon, flatfishes, deer and elk. In addition to general faunal results reported to WSDOT, I discuss bone fragmentation, herring in regional sites, and the value of 1/16‚ÄĚ fine screen sampling and analysis. To address the last, I compared fish identifications from excavation unit DR3 between the 1/8‚ÄĚ and larger mesh fraction and the 1/16‚ÄĚ fine mesh fraction. The fine mesh sample yielded larger numbers of bones identified, and a small but statistically significant difference in proportions of different fish groups. Given the high cost of recovery, sorting, and analysis of 1/16‚ÄĚ samples, I recommend that it be used for only a small sample at shell midden sites like 45KP233 in the Salish Sea

    Evidence of temperature control on mesopelagic fish and zooplankton communities at high latitudes

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    Across temperate and equatorial oceans, a diverse community of fish and zooplankton occupies the mesopelagic zone, where they are detectable as sound-scattering layers. At high latitudes, extreme day-night light cycles may limit the range of some species, while at lower latitudes communities are structured by dynamic ocean processes, such as temperature. Using acoustic and oceanographic measurements, we demonstrate that latitudinal changes in mesopelagic communities align with polar boundaries defined by deep ocean temperature gradients. At the transition to cold polar water masses we observe abrupt weakening and vertical dispersion of acoustic backscatter of mesopelagic organisms, thereby altering the structure of the mesopelagic zone. In the Canadian Arctic, we used biological sampling to show that this boundary is associated with a significant change in the pelagic fish community structure. Rapid ocean warming projected at mesopelagic depths could shift these boundaries with far-reaching effects on ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycles

    Feasting on Broken Glass: Making a Meal of Seeds, Bones, and Sherds

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    Drawing on various lines of evidence that provide insight into late 18th- and early 19th-century episodes of dining at the Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm in Newbury, Massachusetts, I explore ways in which historical archaeologists can move from discussions of food and foodstuffs to explore menus, meals, and dining. I argue that by drawing together many lines of evidence‚ÄĒfood remains such as bones, seeds, and shells; documentary sources; and ceramics, glassware, and utensils‚ÄĒarchaeologists are able to ‚Äúfeast‚ÄĚ upon the evidence and to go beyond merely reporting on what people ate in the past. They do so by exploring ways of interpreting food on the plate, wine in the glass, and meals on the table. The goal is to present a framework through which we can investigate not so much nutrition or ingredients but the experience of dining in early America, in specific contexts in which meals played important roles in the negotiation of social positioning and identity

    Annual and Monthly Variation in Species Composition and Catches of Fishes from the Tabusintac River Estuary in the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence

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    A total of 7130 fish from 13 taxa were collected during summer and autumn, 2002-2005 using box traps at two sites in the Tabusintac River Estuary, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective was to determine seasonal change in species composition and catches, and to access change in annual returns of Atlantic Salmon, an important recreational fishery during autumn on the Tabusintac, Miramichi and neighboring rivers. Taxa richness and composition varied annually and from trap to trap. Richness ranged from 8-10 taxa annually and catches were usually highest in the trap closest to the ocean despite its slightly smaller size. Taxa contributing greater than one percent of the total catch during the four years of sampling included six diadromous taxa: Blueback Herring and Alewife (41.65%), Striped Bass (21.54%), Atlantic Salmon (3.98%), Tomcod (2.95%), Brook Trout (1.05%), American Eel (5.27%); one freshwater species, White Sucker (11.96%); one marine species, Winter Flounder and one resident estuarine species, Smooth Flounder which together account for 11.19% of the total catch. The remaining five species (American Smelt, Northern Pipefish, White Perch, Cunner, Sea Lamprey) contributed 0.39% of the total catch. The fish fauna 14-15 km up the Tabusintac River was not species rich, due in large part to the limited sampling time each year and due to fishing with just one sampling gear, a stationary box trap. Additional species would have been collected if smaller mesh sampling gear were used. Comparisons were made with other studies and the phenology of the dominant species on the Tabusintac and Miramichi River Estuaries during the ice free season is established. Most catches appear to be related to pre- or post-spawning movements of anadromous fishes

    Developing an observational design for epibenthos and fish assemblages in the Chukchi Sea

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    Accepted manuscript version, licensed CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Published version available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2018.11.005.In light of ongoing, and accelerating, environmental changes in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, the ability to track subsequent changes over time in various marine ecosystem components has become a major research goal. The high logistical efforts and costs associated with arctic work demand the prudent use of existing resources for the most comprehensive information gain. Here, we compare the information that can be gained for epibenthic invertebrate and for demersal fish assemblages reflecting coverage on two different spatial scales: a broader spatial coverage from the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (AMBON, 67 stations total), and the spatial coverage from a subset of these stations (14 stations) that reflect two standard transect lines of the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO). Multivariate cluster analysis was used to discern community similarity patterns in epibenthic invertebrate and fish communities. The 14 stations reflecting the two DBO lines captured about 57% of the epibenthic species richness that was observed through the larger-scale AMBON coverage, with a higher percentage on the more southern DBO3 than the northern DBO4 line. For demersal fishes, both DBO lines captured 88% of the richness from the larger AMBON spatial coverage. The epifaunal assemblage clustered along the south-north and the inshore-offshore axes of the overall study region. Of these, the southern DBO3 line well represented the regional (southern) epifaunal assemblage structure, while the northern DBO4 line only captured a small number of the distinct assemblage clusters. The demersal fish assemblage displayed little spatial structure with only one coastal and one offshore cluster. Again, this structure was well represented by the southern DBO3 line but less by the northern DBO4 line. We propose that extending the coverage of the DBO4 line in the northern Chukchi Sea farther inshore and offshore would result in better representation of the overall northern Chukchi epifaunal and fish assemblages. In addition, the multi-annual stability of epifaunal and, to a lesser extent also fish assemblages, suggests that these components may not need to be sampled on an annual basis and sampling every 2‚Äď3 years could still provide sufficient understanding of long-term changes. Sampling these assemblages every few years from a larger region such as covered by the AMBON project would create the larger-scale context that is important in spatial planning of long-term observing

    ANISAKIDOSIS (Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp.): AN ESSENTIAL PRATICAL REVIEW

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    A anisaquidose √© uma doen√ßa veiculada por alimentos causada por larvas em terceiro estadio (L3) de nem√°todes marinhos parasitas da Fam√≠lia Anisakidae, comummente conhecidos por anisaqu√≠deos. Os anisaqu√≠deos mais frequentemente envolvidos integram os g√©neros Anisakis e Pseudoterranova e s√£o parasitas cosmopolitas que infetam muitas das esp√©cies de tele√≥steos (peixes) e cefal√≥podes (lulas) comercialmente importantes nos principais pesqueiros do mundo. Apesar da distribui√ß√£o epidemiol√≥gica original desta zoonose estar associada a pa√≠ses cuja gastronomia inclui tradicionalmente especialidades √† base de produtos da pesca crus ou insuficientemente confecionados, atualmente a sua ocorr√™ncia √© generalizada devido √† globaliza√ß√£o e √† populariza√ß√£o de tend√™ncias culin√°rias ex√≥ticas. Clinicamente, esta doen√ßa envolve frequentemente sintomas gastrointestinais devido √† a√ß√£o f√≠sica invasiva das larvas ap√≥s ingest√£o, mas tamb√©m poder√° incluir rea√ß√Ķes al√©rgicas potencialmente fatais em pacientes sensibilizados. Dado o n√ļmero crescente de casos reportados recentemente, esta revis√£o tem como objetivo compilar e sumarizar os aspetos mais relevantes desta doen√ßa zoon√≥tica de uma maneira pr√°tica e f√°cil de consultar

    Environmental DNA metabarcoding for fish diversity assessment in a macrotidal estuary: A comparison with established fish survey methods

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    Fishes are a dominant component of the macrofauna in estuaries and are important for assessing the health of these threatened ecosystems. Several studies have applied environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding to assess the biodiversity of fishes in estuaries. However, none have combined measurement of physicochemical variables with a spatially extensive sampling design across the full salinity gradient. This study aimed to compare spatial fish assemblage composition detected via eDNA metabarcoding of surface water samples with conventional fishing gear surveys in a macrotidal estuary (river Dee, North Wales, UK). In addition, eDNA assemblage composition across seasons was investigated. In autumn 2018, triplicate eDNA samples were taken at 13 stations in a spatially systematic design alongside seine, fyke and beam trawl sampling. In summer 2019, eDNA samples from eight of the 13 original stations were collected again in the upper and lower estuary. DNA was extracted from samples and subjected to metabarcoding analysis using an established assay targeting teleost fishes. The key findings were that in autumn, eDNA detected 17 of the 26 (71%) species caught by fishing gears, which included the most abundant species. Overall, eDNA detected a greater species richness, per 30 samples, than seine or fyke nets (but not beam trawling). Additionally, there was a clear correlation between salinity and assemblage composition, which was consistent across seasons. Overall, the study indicates that eDNA metabarcoding could enhance existing fish sampling methods, by generating a more comprehensive picture of estuarine fish biodiversity and providing additional information for ecological inference and management actions
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