733,901 research outputs found

    First principles investigation of transition-metal doped group-IV semiconductors: Rx{_x}Y1x_{1-x} (R=Cr, Mn, Fe; Y=Si, Ge)

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    A number of transition-metal (TM) doped group-IV semiconductors, Rx_{x}Y1x_{1-x} (R=Cr, Mn and Fe; Y=Si, Ge), have been studied by the first principles calculations. The obtained results show that antiferromagnetic (AFM) order is energetically more favored than ferromagnetic (FM) order in Cr-doped Ge and Si with xx=0.03125 and 0.0625. In 6.25% Fe-doped Ge, FM interaction dominates in all range of the R-R distances while for Fe-doped Ge at 3.125% and Fe-doped Si at both concentrations of 3.125% and 6.25%, only in a short R-R range can the FM states exist. In the Mn-doped case, the RKKY-like mechanism seems to be suitable for the Ge host matrix, while for the Mn-doped Si, the short-range AFM interaction competes with the long-range FM interaction. The different origin of the magnetic orders in these diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) makes the microscopic mechanism of the ferromagnetism in the DMSs more complex and attractive.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figures, 6 table

    Surface Phase Transitions Induced by Electron Mediated Adatom-Adatom Interaction

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    We propose that the indirect adatom-adatom interaction mediated by the conduction electrons of a metallic surface is responsible for the 3×33×3\sqrt{3}\times \sqrt{3}\Leftrightarrow 3\times 3 structural phase transitions observed in Sn/Ge (111) and Pb/Ge (111). When the indirect interaction overwhelms the local stress field imposed by the substrate registry, the system suffers a phonon instability, resulting in a structural phase transition in the adlayer. Our theory is capable of explaining all the salient features of the 3×33×3\sqrt{3}\times \sqrt{3}\Leftrightarrow 3\times 3 transitions observed in Sn/Ge (111) and Pb/Ge (111), and is in principle applicable to a wide class of systems whose surfaces are metallic before the transition.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    pH Dependence and Stoichiometry of Binding to the Fc Region of IgG by the Herpes Simplex Virus Fc Receptor gE-gI

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    Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes two glycoproteins, gE and gI, that form a heterodimer on the surface of virions and infected cells. The gE-gI heterodimer has been implicated in cell-to-cell spread of virus and is a receptor for the Fc fragment of IgG. Previous studies localized the gE-gI-binding site on human IgG to a region near the interface between the CH2 and CH3 domains of Fc, which also serves as the binding site for bacterial and mammalian Fc receptors. Although there are two potential gE-gI-binding sites per Fc homodimer, only one gE-gI heterodimer binds per IgG in gel filtration experiments. Here we report production of recombinant human Fc molecules that contain zero, one, or two potential gE-gI-binding sites and use them in analytical ultracentrifugation experiments to show that two gE-gI heterodimers can bind to each Fc. Further characterization of the gE-gI interaction with Fc reveals a sharp pH dependence of binding, with KD values of ~340 and ~930 nM for the first and second binding events, respectively, at the slightly basic pH of the cell surface (pH 7.4), but undetectable binding at pH 6.0. This strongly pH-dependent interaction suggests a physiological role for gE-gI dissociation from IgG within acidic intracellular compartments, consistent with a mechanism whereby herpes simplex virus promotes intracellular degradation of anti-viral antibodies

    Self-assembled Pt nanowires on Ge(001): Relaxation effects

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    Absorption of Pt on the Ge(001) surface results in stable self-organized Pt nanowires, extending over some hundred nanometers. Based on band structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation, the structural relaxation of the Ge--Pt surface is investigated. The surface reconstruction pattern obtained agrees well with findings from scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, strong Pt--Pt dimerization is characteristical for the nanowires. The surface electronic structure is significantly perturbed due to Ge--Pt interaction, which induces remarkable shifts of Ge states towards the Fermi energy. As a consequence, the topmost Ge layers are subject to a metal-insulator transition.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, final version accepted by Europhys. Lett., minor modifications of the tex

    New Phases of Germanene

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    Germanene, a graphene like single layer structure of Ge, has been shown to be stable and recently grown on Pt and Au substrates. We show that a Ge adatom adsorbed to germanene pushes down the host Ge atom underneath and forms a dumbbell structure. This exothermic process occurs spontaneously. The attractive dumbbell-dumbbell interaction favors high coverage of dumbbells. This letter heralds stable new phases of germanene, which are constructed from periodically repeating coverage of dumbbell structures and display diversity of electronic and magnetic properties.Comment: Published in JPCL http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jz500977
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